THE LEGEND OF THE SOVIET AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY

THE LEGEND OF THE SOVIET AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY

The history of the Moscow Likhachev automobile plant dates back to 1916, when on the outskirts of Moscow began construction of a plant with the name AMO (Automobile Moscow Society), which is intended for the production license of FIAT trucks and staff cars of the firm Hotchkiss.

In the period from 1924 to 1931 the plant was collected trucks AMO-F15 on the model of the car company FIAT.
 
In 1931, after extensive renovation, the company was named ZIS (“Factory named after Stalin”), which produced trucks, the ZIS-5 and ZIS-6, as well as buses based on them. And finally, in 1956 the company was again renamed – this time in memory of Ivan Alekseevich Likhachev, permanent Director of the plant for 25 years.
 
The truck ZIL-130
 
The need for a new truck to replace old pre-war ZIS-5 and post-war cars twin ZIS-150 and ZIL-164 was felt in our country in the early 1950s. And already in 1953 at the Moscow automobile plant named after Stalin, under the leadership of chief designer of the enterprise A. Cree-Gera began development of a new truck ZIS-125 (according to the plant design documentation – ZIS-150M).
Three years later, in December 1956, was the first prototype machine with the capacity of 4 ton cab a completely different design, which was called, entered the Golden Fund of domestic automotive industry – ZIL-130.
 
The prototype successfully passed factory tests, and in February 1961 the project was approved building on the development of production, the main part of which was a comprehensive reconstruction of the enterprise. In accordance with this task, the ZIL had in the next two years without stopping the production to start the production of trucks ZIL-130.
 
Truck ZIS-5 (1933
Truck ZIS-5 (1933
 
Postwar truck ZIS-150 (1947)
Post-war truck ZIS-150 (1947)
 
For the serial production of the new truck plant had done a tremendous job – alone molds it was made of 3600 pieces, not less than 10 000 fixtures and more than 37,000 units of various specialized tools. In addition, the enterprises-accessory manufacturers had to master the production of high-octane gasoline, motor oils new varieties and high quality plastics, paints, rubber and upholstery.
 
The first series of cars ZIL-130 was equipped with an experimental carburetor U-shaped 135-strong “six” working volume of 5.2 L. In 1965, with the conveyor began to descend the vehicles with modified cabin and tail, equipped with six-cylinder inline overhead valve engines ZIS-120 with 140 HP, but the characteristics of this engine is not suited for heavy trucks.
 
Significantly the best performance was at the experimental carburatore /-shaped 6-liter 8-cylinder motor with the collapse of the cylinders at 90 degrees, patterned engine government limousine ZIL-111. In the future, this motor is also called ZIL-130, unified engine ZIL-375, which was equipped with three-axle trucks “Ural” and city buses.
 
In addition it is modern, motor, new truck for the first time in the domestic automobile industry was equipped with hydraulic steering, synchronizers in the gearbox, hinges driveline new design, windshield washer and engine preheater. In addition, the ZIL-130 was equipped with quite comfortable triple cabin with efficient heating and ventilation, panoramic windshield and the hood of the engine compartment alligator type. ZIL-130 became the first domestic car, the color of which appeared a “civilian”, a non-khaki colors – white and blue, the khaki painted almost all the trucks.
 
ZIL-130 the first release of a mass of 4300 kg and developed a speed of 90 km/h and 100 km spent 28 lit-moat of gasoline. The car could haul an 8-ton trailer.
 
Returning to the history of the truck, it is worth mentioning that in 1962 year by-pass technology was collected the first five pre-serial ZIL-130 and transferred for trial operation at the Yaroslavl tire plant. A year later, with the main line began to leave the small series ZIL-130, and in 1964, after completing an extensive renovation of the plant began mass production of trucks.
Project assignment included the production of not only the basic machines, but a whole family of vehicles on the basis of ZIL-130 – tractor ZIL-1 CALL of length-nebesnogo side of the truck ZIL-1 ZOG was increased to 4500 mm wheelbase, construction and agricultural trucks, on-Board ZIL-1 ZOA for trailers, gazobalonnogo ZIL-138 and many other models. In addition, the plant mastered the production of all-wheel drive three-axle truck ZIL-131 with a lifting capacity of 3.5 tons, unified with the basic ZIL-130. On the basis of the latter produced tractors ZIL-131В and ZIL-131Н.
 
In 1958, instead of all these engines the car was equipped with an experimental carburetor /a-line 6-liter 8-cylinder engine with a camber of cylinders of 90 degrees, aligned with the engine ZIL-375.
 
After the completion of state tests at the Yaroslavl tire plant began practicing the Assembly process, which in Yaroslavl was sent several dozen trucks gathered at Zile by-pass technology.
 
In 1963, the serial ZIL-130 was sent to the Leipzig fair, where the truck and its creators were awarded the diploma and a gold medal.

 
Truck ZIL-164 1957
The truck ZIL-164 1957
 
Truck ZIL-130 issue of 1964
The truck ZIL-130 release 1964
 
Modifications of ZIL-130
Modifications of ZIL-130:
 
1 – sided truck car ZIL-130 with a lifting capacity of 5 tons; 2 – side dlinnobaznaya ZIL-130G; 3 – truck tractor ZIL-130V-1 with the load on the coupling device 5.4 tons; 4 – car-truck ZIL-MMZ-4502 capacity of 5.25 tons

 
The five-ton cargo truck ZIL-130G release 1965
The five-ton cargo truck ZIL-130G of issue 1965
 
Basic dimensions of the car-truck ZIL-MMZ-4502
The principal dimensions of the car-truck ZIL-MMZ-4502
 
Technical characteristics of the car ZIL-130
 
Multi-step refinement of components and assemblies ZIL-130, testing several dozen prototypes of the car, working out seven dozen engines of various designs and hundreds of gearboxes – all this contributed to the fact that on the line the result was a qualitatively new model of medium-duty vehicle, which according to its technical characteristics and performance was on a par with European and American cars. In 1973 a decision of the certification Commission ZIL-130 received State quality Mark.
 
In the period of production of ZIL-130 has been repeatedly modernized. So, in 1977, the carrying capacity of the truck was increased from 5 to 6 tons, the total trailer weight was 8 tons, and in 1978, was modified radiator grille – upgraded machine to learn the notation ZIL-130-76. The car was completed hypoid main gear, split pneumatic brakes, a new dashboard and revised grille. Prior to 1994, the plant produced 3 366 503 vehicle type ZIL-130.
The reliability of the design ZIL-130, as well as the simplicity of his service is largely contributed to its exports. In this regard, the factory has developed export versions of the truck for the countries with different climatic conditions. On special orders, the purchaser could order the car with English Perkins diesel, with a third tag axle, allows to bring capacity up to 8 tons. In middle Eastern countries supplied long-bazna bus chassis, which were fitted with bodies at small, local businesses.
 
However, the machine gradually ceased to satisfy modern requirements, and in 1986 ZIL started production of the improved ZIL-4331 with a diesel engine.
 
The layout of the ZIL-130
The layout of the ZIL-130:
 
1 – front bumper; 2 – radiator; 3 – front axle with suspension; 4 – brake chambers of the front wheels; 5 – motor; 6 – switch; 7 – gearbox; 8 – Central brake; 9 – air tank of the brake system; 10 – PTO shaft; 11 – rear (drive) axle; 12 – spring rear suspension; 13 – brake rear wheels; 14 – towing device; 15 – frame; 16 – fuel tank; 17 – the fuel filter; 18 – battery; 19 – the steering wheel; 20 – power steering
 
Motor vehicle ZIL-130

The engine ZIL-130
 
Interior cab
The interior of the cab
 
The cab of the ZIL-130
Cabin ZIL-130
 
Controls and control devices of the vehicle ZIL-130
Controls and control devices of the vehicle ZIL-130:
 
1 – horn button; 2 – steering wheel; 3 – a speedometer; 4 – the index of level of fuel; 5 – a control lamp battery charge; 6 – oil-pressure indicator; 7 – pressure gauge of the brake system; 8 – control lamp of indexes of turn; 9 — the index of temperature of a cooling liquid; 10 – lamp emergency overheating coolant; 11 – knob main switch light; 12 – button choke control carburetor; 13 – button throttle control of the carburettor; 14 – head crane control windshield wiper; 15 – the lever of a heater of a cabin; 16 – switch-blower motor; 17 – the switch of a plafond of the cab; 18 – pedal washing the windscreen; 19 – pedal of coupling; 20 – foot light switch; 21 – the brake pedal; 22 – foot pedal throttle control of the carburetor; 23 – button switch air signal; 24 – hand brake lever; 25 – control knob grille; 26 – ignition switch; 27 – shift lever; 28 – turn signal switch

 
The last ZIL-130 was assembled at the main plant in Moscow on December 30, 1994, and the production of the “130th” was transferred to a branch of the ZIL, Ural automotive plant (UAMZ, later known as the acronym AMUR) in Novouralsk.
 
This automobile truck type ZIL-130 started to produce cab and hood from a triaxial all-wheel drive vehicle ZIL-131 UNDER the name of UAMZ-43140(in our day – CUPID-43140) or truck of the next generation ZIL-4331. The machine is equipped with a V-shaped 8-cylinder 6-liter carbureted engine ZIL-508.10 150 HP Is also a version of the machine with flatbed and 132-horsepower diesel engine ZIL-0550 or 108-horsepower diesel engine of the Minsk motor plant.
 
The truck was produced by the factory Likhachev thirty years, only this time it was collected 3 388 312 vehicles, which have become the main
The truck was manufactured at the factory Likhachev thirty years, only this time it was collected 3 388 312 vehicles, which have become the main “workhorse” of the domestic industry
 
Flatbed truck ZIL-4331
Flatbed truck ZIL-4331

 
In the last few years on the ZIL in small quantities once again began to produce inexpensive and reliable trucks ZIL-130 called ZIL-433360. The machine is equipped with a more comfortable cabin, diesel truck ZIL-4331. If necessary the plant can be installed on the car economical diesel D-245.9.
Igor EVSTRATOV

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