“INCONSISTENCY AND UNFINISHED”

We have previously described a pretty complicated path of development of the French submarine fleet before the First world war (see “M-K” No. 4 of 2014), consisting in the infinite “adjustment to the ideal of” small series of submarines that are created by different designers, had sometimes opposite views on what should be an underwater vehicle, using a variety of engines. But they have all been very far from ideal, and often just a little efficient. Although gradually emerging common to all ship builders in different countries the idea is pretty universal large boats, the French version of the fatal August of 1914 looked still very indistinct.

 
In the end, the beginning of the “great war” France had a fairly large number (36 units in service, plus 16 in reserve) submarine fleet, but its quality and fighting capacity has caused significant doubts from the admirals. And no wonder: despite the undeniable bravery of the commanders and crews of the submarines loss was considerable and the success is wholly irrelevant.
 
After the outbreak of hostilities, when the country was pushed to his capital and was forced to focus all efforts on the war on land, things got even worse. As indicated by the fact that of the 20 units that were under construction from August 1914 to November 1918, was able to Commission only half. Not even to mention the hundreds of German units, the French are far behind according to this indicator, not only from Britain but from almost not to fight the United States. The Republic was able to overtake even the traditional neighbor-rival – Italy (though in the war they were allies, but in the future as in the past, the rivalry has not been canceled.)
 
The primary reason was, of course, is that France simply could not provide for the development of the fleet enough forces and means. The front absorbed in unlimited amounts of money, steel, equipment and people – all that in the end was not enough for shipbuilding. But design problems remained acute. First of all, it is worth noting that before the war the competition of steam and diesel boats faded not once. The reason was not only that, as in England, the sailors hoped to speed their “steamers”, but the shortcomings of the “enemy” of the engines (a leader in the creation of diesel engines were and remained Germany). The task of commissioning the production of reliable diesel engines, created by German designs after the war naturally became much more complicated: no one could get materials and advice. Initially the results were not very comforting. In fact, only after the end of hostilities and gain access to the technical innovations of the defeated enemy was able to overcome the “diesel” issues, and that – not all and not immediately. Initially, the French just put a trophy motors seized in Germany, in their boats, which are then acquired, if not quite modern quality, then at least have reliable move.
 
An interesting example is a pair of regular polyexponentially submarines, built under the project of engineer M. simoneau and launched before the fatal for Europe of August 1914. One of them, named in honor of the outstanding designer-“submariner” “Gustave, Side”, had a double-shaft steam setting, then as “Nereids” got diesel “Schneider”. Originally it was planned that the two will develop more than 17.5 node with the power mechanisms of 4000 HP “Sade”” and 4800 HP-her rival. In fact, in both cases, the engineers failed. If three-cylinder steam engine can develop 3500 HP, diesels “gleaning” exactly half power! However, during the war, even in this embodiment, in operation they performed better than was suitable for a quick dip boiler installation. Therefore, in 1920, the last “Side” dismantled and replaced by a reliable German company diesel “MAI”, taken from the captured “U-bot” “U-165”. Although they had the same power as their French colleagues for “Nereids”, 2400 HP, updated crew boats have much less of a problem, and she served for a few years longer, about a penny from the next war.
 
GUSTAVE ZEDE, 1925
 
GUSTAVE ZEDE, 1925
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Gustave Zede” (Q 92), France, 1919
 
Built at the shipyard of the Navy in Cherbourg. Type of construction – polutorospalnye. Displacement overwater/underwater – 850/1100 T. Dimensions: – length of 74.00 m, the diameter (width) is of 6.00 m, draft -3,72 m diving Depth up to 40 m Powerplant: two original steam engine plus two electric motors; a capacity of 3500 l/1640 HP Speed overwater/underwater – 17,5 /11 ties. Armament: eight 450-mm torpedo tubes – two in the nose, four in the middle of the body, two external (10 torpedoes), one 75 mm and one 47-mm gun. The crew of 47 people. Only in 1919 – 1920 built two units: “Gustave Zede” and “Nereids”. “Seda” rebuilt in 1921 – 1922, with the installation instead of steam engines and boilers of two diesels 2,400 HP (surface speed 15 KTS.). “Nereids” built like a diesel boat. Excluded from both lists and scrapped in 1935 – 1937.

 
FULTON, 1923. Submarine
 
FULTON, 1923. Submarine “Fulton” (Q-110), France, 1920
 
Built at the shipyard of the Navy in Cherbourg. Type of construction – polutorospalnye. Displacement overwater/underwater 870/1250 t Dimensions: length – 74,1 m, width – 6.4 m, draught – 3.6 m, Depth up to 40 m Powerplant: two diesel engines with a power of 2700 HP plus two electric motors with a capacity of 1640 HP Speed overwater/underwater – 16,5/11 uz. Armament: eight 450-mm torpedo tubes (10 torpedoes), two 75-mm guns. The crew of 47 people. In 1919 – 1920 built two units: “Jossel” and “Fulton”. Both excluded from the lists of the fleet in 1935
 
SANE, 1926
 
SANE, 1926
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Dupuy de Scrap” (Q-105), France, 1917
 
Built at the shipyard of the Navy in Toulon. Type of construction – polutorospalnye. Displacement overwater/underwater – 835/1290 T. Dimensions: – length of 75.00 m, beam 6.4 m draught – 3.6 m Depth – 40 m. Power plant (original): two steam engines, plus two electric motors power – 3500 HP/1640 HP Speed overwater/underwater – 17,5 (on tests – up to 19 ties.) /11 ties. Armament: eight 450-mm torpedo tubes: two in the nose, four in the middle of the body, two external (10 torpedoes), one 47-mm gun (later replaced by 75-mm). The crew of 45 people. Only 1917 built two units: “Dupuy de Scrap” and “Sane”. Both modernized after the war with the launcher instead of steam engines and boilers of two diesels 2,400 HP (surface speed 15 KTS.) and the addition of the second 75-mm guns. Excluded from both lists and scrapped in 1935 – 1936
 
LAPLACE, 1926
 
LAPLACE, 1926
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Laplace” (Q 111), France, 1920
 
Built at the shipyard of the Navy in Rochefort. Type of construction – polutorospalnye. Displacement overwater/underwater – 920/1320 t Dimensions: length – 75,21 m, width – 6,3 m, draught – 3.6 m, Depth up to 40 m Powerplant: two diesel engines with a power of 2500 HP plus two electric motors with a capacity of 1640 HP Speed surface/underwater is 16,5/11 ties. Armament: eight 450-mm torpedo tubes (10 torpedoes), two 75-mm guns. The crew of 47 people. In 1919 – 1925, built four units: “Lagrange”, “Laplace”, “Regno” and “Ramazotti”. All excluded from the lists of the fleet in 1937, but “Lagrange”, expelled two years earlier
 
A similar fate befell a couple of the “Dupuy de Scrap” and “Sane”. Although their author is considered, Utter, and in many ways the project really is based on the work implemented in the very successful “Archimede”, something that was borrowed and drawings “, Side” (as useful, in particular, higher reserve buoyancy, and not very much). Here we are talking about the same steam mechanical installation, almost completely repeats itself on the boat simoneau. But the experience was not in vain: this time, power from 3500 limited powers, and “Scrap” was able to develop testing their machines under 19 knots. However, running with such speed it would be very very expensive range didn’t exceed 500 miles, and even an economical course in 14 knots barely reached 1300 miles. Came into operation this pair only in 1917, and the command is not found anything better how to assign them to patrol the fleet of Morocco, in fact, away from the theatres of possible hostilities. And at the end of the war on them, as well as “Sada”, established German diesel engines of the same total power 2400 HP boat Although technically lost three knot surface speed, range doubled, and the mechanics breathed a lot more freely. Both pairs also got more modern equipment, first of all, periscopes, what followed again to thank first of all the former opponents. The result is that both pairs quite happily served until the second half of the 1930-ies.
 
As with “Daphne travel”, one of the representatives of the other pair project simoneau. She and “Diana”, was the designer tries to reduce the “Nereids” by about 15%, retaining all the key features, that is, to repeat the experience of Utter with the “Bellona”. Improved forms really allowed to develop a decent speed, both above and under water. It would seem that this couple had a favorable term “service”, especially as the war was nearing its end. However, survived her only, “Daphne travel”. In February 1918, on Board the Diana, quietly standing against the wall in a small port of La Pallis, a major explosion occurred. The boat instantly went to the bottom with all hands.
 
The following “steam” vapor, “Jossel” and “Fulton” had to have already instead of piston engines with more modern variant of the turbine. The initial project, largely repeating the previous couple, to be exact, personally – steam “Gustave, Side”, it was assumed that the French version of the “naval” units in the power turbine of 5000 HP will be able to develop up to 21 node on the surface and pass a 10-node speed of about 2400 miles. But it is a decent domestic electric motors, plus a good outline (draft again belonged to simoneau) was allowed to have a decent underwater speed to 11 KTS. Intensified and weapons: now the project was supposed to have 10 torpedo tubes. It seems to be a formidable force, but 450-mm caliber, and their location was not the best feeling. Two camera located in the building and could shoot along the axis of the boat, another pair of external tubes “looked” in the nose, and the last four of the device was a lightweight external structure “of simoneau”. However, in 1913, the war was seen only in the distance, and the possibility to build experimental ships (of which, in essence, consisted of almost the entire French fleet) is not particularly discussed.
 
But the fighting began and the situation changed dramatically. As already noted, during the war years, how-ever “pioneer” boats were built in France, very slowly. In this case, the work just stopped in August 1914, and was resumed only nearly two years later, in may 1916. It should be noted that here, the delay was useful. By the time the experience of suffering is more powerful and tech-savvy ally on the other side of Pas-de-Calais gave a clear signal: with the turbines on submarines until contact before. Both units mini-series in the spring of 1913 completely redesigned. They decided to install diesel engines, and turbine passed for mounting on the memo (patrol ships) type “Egret”. At the same time changed the composition of the weapons. Not to say that he became less intricate, but now he did meet sailors “about how it should be.” Inside the case there are only two nasal apparatus; another four (for a couple shoot at the bow and stern) are external, and the last couple – generally in the form of rotating in rather wide range of angles (90 degrees on each side) installed, as on surface ships. At the same time doubled artillery weapons, bringing it to two 75-mm guns.
 
It is clear that such significant changes (in addition to the alterations significantly changed the interior layout) led to the subsequent delays, now – in their implementation. In the end, “Fulton”, launched only in April 1919 (six years after the bookmarks!), became operational only in mid-1920, and launched in 1917, “Gassel” -were ready almost simultaneously with the launch of its “sisterships”. Moreover, if the the first first made diesel engines and tested them, and then just finally mounted the motors and batteries, the second picture looked exactly the opposite. “Jossel” went to trial with only the electric range as in the underwater and above the water. It is easy to see that such a protracted in conjunction with by far the most successful of the original design led to the appearance of another pair of units that can be called experimental. Moreover, with significant differences within the mini-series. Thus, “Jossel” with their later, and diesel exhaust could take up to 5000 miles 13-speed hub, while the “Fulton” – no more than 3500, for 30% less.
 
Accordingly, the best use for these boats was endless testing. Moreover, in the project there were some “interesting”, as it moved from a distant first-born of the underwater shipbuilding. Lead loads with a weight of 7.6 t was located in the middle part of the keel; they can be to get rid of for emergency ascent, wielding a lever on the platform above the battery pit. But for the crew of the “experiments” were quite familiar: only half of the sailors could sleep on the beds; the rest had to be content with hammocks. At relatively long range, achieved after switching to the diesels, the habitability has become a critical moment for real operations. In his big hike from Brest to Toulon the commander of the “Fulton” often had to float and rest his men, resulting in this “journey” took five weeks. In this campaign the French decided to test the capabilities of radio communications (both boats had a different kind of radio station!), also having hard-hitting result. The distance of 200 miles was irresistible, even when using high extendable mast: contact the Bank failed once.
 
In principle, the project “Cassel” and “Fulton” – diesel -liked French command. In the shipbuilding programme of 1915 provided for six units; their bookmark was assumed on may 1, but heavy overall military situation forced to abandon such ideas. Probably for the best: even if funds are available, it is unlikely a second series of “gosala” failed to complete at least the last year of the “great war”.
 
But the earlier orders still had their chances of implementation, though often with certain adventures. So, no less interesting than the “Fulton” “the story of the ferry” has occurred with a large (for the French Navy) submarines, designed by Uttara. The constructor does not philosophize slyly, chosen as a prototype which came to the court at the time, “Archimed”. At the same time taking the best of the designs and colleagues: in many ways, the development of Uttara repeated “Sada”, but with an increase of 10% reserve of buoyancy. However, along with positive borrowing, the project has slipped and doubtful, first of all, the notorious steam turbine.
 
In accordance with the drawings Uttara was based on two units, “Dupuy de Scrap” and “Sane”. They were able to “slip” in the construction of the time of freezing construction of the submarines, because in 1915 the boats were already in high alert. However, their commissioning lingered considerably; after the test it took about nine months before “the locomotive” has transferred to the fleet. And the beginning of the service was more in the Affairs of the business: a significant part of 1917 the “De Lome” changed the battery, and “Sane” – artillery (on the draft provided for only one of the old 47-mm gun Hotchkiss, which took the first 65 mm, and then, “75-graph paper”). Then submarines “exchanged positions”: “True” went on to replace the battery, and the “Dupuy de Scrap” has established 75-mm gun. Then the cycle began to repeat itself: in the autumn of 1916 at the latest once again changed the batteries… From the “eternal round trips” the boat saved the end of the war. Now both put on a complete redesign, involving the replacement of steam engines on the diesels for the same options as the “Gustave Zede” and “Nereids”. “De Scrap” replaced the motors for both surface and submerged speed. He got the motors with “German” “U-113” and “U-91”, with the first diesel and the second is electric. “Sane” was limited to installing only diesels with a “U-121”. At the same time both received a second 75-mm cannon and machine gun, and torpedo (of course, only external) have changed their location. Complete replacement of subject and detection equipment and communications. The work took almost two years, after which the two submarines received the proud title of “submarines of the 1st class.” But to be proud they had a very short time: “de Scrap” in 1930 was taken in reserve, putting in walls and a more or less decent equipment is carried off to build modern units. And after three years followed by the last “resignation” of sending for scrap. “Sane” was a somewhat more cheerful career; in the same 1930 she was even going to send to the far East, but the list needed for the works was so impressive that another restructuring refused. As if offended, the boat got into a series of numerous accidents, and at the end of 1931 followed the “sister ship” in the “special reserve”, that is, in fact, it was recognized as useless. In 1936 the boat was also dismantled for the metal.
 
Like “steam games” took place with four of the type “Lagrange”, built on the program of the year 1913-1914, was a basically development “Dupuy de Scrap”. Initially they were to use more modern turbine engine, and did not finally ceded to the history of shipbuilding steam engine. Several less successful lines already included under the turbines at the surface for a knot less, but check the calculations and failed. In the immediate aftermath of the war, the building remained in this state until the year was the battle not only on the battlefields but also in the offices of the Admiralty and Chief of staff of the Navy. French admirals theorists, like their counterparts on the other side of the channel, a desired high-speed submarines. Hence, the turbine. More practical of their colleagues has declined about diesel engines. The English Admiral Favero in 1915 he formulated this approach: “All new boats should have diesel engines. Let them be able to have only the speed that will be able to develop, but they will be diesel. The requirements of war are too great to succumb to hesitation and doubt.”
 
Did so with the “Lagrange”. Turbos went on the advice of the “UAZ”, and they have been replaced by diesel engines. In General it is a sensible decision. Only now started construction in the first months of 1914, the boats went to sailors only after a decade! (“Lagrange” and “Ramazotti” formally considered finished in 1917 -1918 years, but, like most “late”, engaged exclusively in the tests. In the end they caught up with the transfer to the Navy in 1923 – 1924 “Laplace” and “Regno”.) It is clear that the characteristics of late for many years submarines looked pale, including 50-m depth, the same type of “Daphne travel” strange torpedo armament, are very moderate speed and the postwar requirements of the time, immersion in 2.5 minutes. And so on; sad list could be continued forever. Such “subtleties” as the latrines: located aft, as noted in the reports, “it is impossible to use neither in the sea nor in the Parking lot at the pier”. (It later was converted into a warehouse.) It seems to be nothing as bad galley without ventilation ports, but much of life is served on Board. The advantages, and that locally the French, can be attributed except the cruising range of 5000 miles and a relatively decent equipment, and decent seaworthiness. Well, “gorgeous” (so reported) conditions for a small number of officers with “bad” for enlisted personnel. For completeness, we can mention the strong vibrations of diesel engines at high revolutions, exhausting people and disabling sensitive equipment.
 
O BYRNE, 1920
 
O BYRNE, 1920
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “O Byrne” (SC-5), France, 1920
 
Was built by firm “Schneider” in Chalon-sur-Seine. Type of construction – polutorospalnye. Displacement overwater/underwater – 340/515 t Dimensions: length – 52.4 m, width – 4.7 m, which is 2.7 m sediment Depth up to 40 m Powerplant: two diesel engines with a capacity of 1020 HP plus two electric motors with power of 400 HP Speed overwater/underwater – 14/8 bonds. Armament: four 450 mm torpedo tubes, one 47-mm gun. The crew of 25 people. In 1919 – 1920 built three units: “Henri Fournier”, “Louis Dupli-Thouars” and “O ‘ Byrne”. Originally commissioned by Romania, and doctorate requisitioned for the French Navy. “Dupli-Thouars” is excluded from the list in 1928, the other two in 1935

 
MAURICE CALLOT, 1928
 
MAURICE CALLOT, 1928
 
Underwater frontier
 
Underwater frontier “Maurice Callot”, France, 1921
 
Built at the shipyard company “F. S. de La Gironde” in Bordeaux. Design type – double-hulled. Displacement overwater/underwater – 930/1300 t Dimensions: length – 75,5 m, width 6.7 m, draught – 3.5 m. the immersion Depth up to 35 m. Powerplant: two diesel engines with a capacity of 2900 HP, plus two electric motors with a capacity of 1640 HP Speed surface/underwater 16,5/10,5 bonds. Armament: six 450 mm torpedo tubes – four in the nose, two in the stern (the eight torpedoes), one 75-mm gun, Crew 27 min. -48 people. From the lists of the fleet boat is excluded in 1936

 
PIERRE CHAILLEY, 1928
 
PIERRE CHAILLEY, 1928
 
Underwater frontier
 
Underwater frontier “Pierre Chailly”, France, 1921
 
Built at the shipyard company “Norman” in Le Havre. Design type – double-hulled. Displacement overwater/underwater 885/1200 T. Dimensions: – length 70,1 m, width 7.5 m, draft – 4.0 m immersion Depth up to 40 m Powerplant: two diesel engines with a capacity of 1800 HP plus two electric motors with a power of 1400 HP Speed overwater/underwater – 13,5/8,5 ties. Armament: four 450 mm torpedo tubes – two in nose, two swivel (6 torpedoes), one 100-mm gun, 40 min. Crew – 44 persons. From the lists of the fleet was excluded in 1936

 
CURIE, 1924. Submarine
 
CURIE, 1924. Submarine “Curie” (after returning to the French Navy), France, 1919
 
Built at the shipyard of the Navy in Toulon, sunk by Austrians in 1914, raised and rebuilt on hovery in the Field. Type of construction – single -. Displacement overwater/underwater – 410/565 T. Dimensions: length 52.15 m, width – 3.6 m, draught – 3.2 m. the immersion Depth up to 30 m. Powerplant: two diesel engines with a power of 960 HP plus two electric motors with a capacity of 1320 HP Speed surface/underwater real – 11,5/8,5 ties. Armament: seven 450-mm torpedo tubes (one nose, two side, four lattice system Drzewiecki, two of which were almost useless and did not carry torpedoes), one 75-mm gun. The crew of 30 people. After the war, returned to France, in 1928, bred in the reserve, in 1929, was excluded from the lists of the fleet in the 1930 scrapped
 
It is not surprising that already in 1927 (3-4 years after the entry into operation) verdict on the combat utility of submarines of this type looked negative. But to scrap such a hard-won units are not resolved, noting that “their life has not yet emerged”. Had to summarize: “they can serve as an excellent school for commanders and training of crews.” Gracefully, but the point is well emerges through the script language. “Lagrange” was tormented for another seven years until 1935, the year after which they began to exclude from service; and he is the founder of the series, as “Ramazotti” received a humiliating “label”: “not applicable in time of war.”However, they can be considered quite successful, for example, on the background of three requisitioned 340-ton babies type “SC”, a typical double-bodied representatives of the ideas Labefa. These boats are laid in time of peace for Turkey and Romania, but, for obvious reasons, to finish did not. Until 1917, when someone from the “powers that be” thought that they should also be put to use, by analogy with the German small submarine. But the German speed of construction to achieve, of course, failed as a decent performance. In the end none of them kept up to the end of the war, followed by the disposal of the shipbuilders “wind down”. What we did: in the end, no longer needed boats, artillery which consisted of ancient 47-mm guns, was commissioned in 1922 – 1923. The “O Byrne” received from the French historians of the typical marking: “boats obsolete at the time of entry into service”. Well, fair enough.
 
In fact, they are only in the worst case repeat the fate of another three is slightly larger and better export submarines of the type “SD”, one of which was intended for Japan and the other for Greece. “SD-2” requisitioned in the summer of 1915, despite the fact that it belonged to ally. “Greek” promocio a couple of years, as for political reasons (the Kingdom of the Greeks, the Entente was also hoping to get the unit), mainly due to the same forced “shipbuilding holiday”. With surface displacement of only about 450 tons, this trio of designs Schneider-Lobata had a very decent characteristics: double hull speed under diesel engines up to 17 knots under motors for about 11 years, six torpedo tubes, of which, however, in the French tradition, only two were in the solid body in the nose, and two pairs on the superstructure, with the possibility of firing in the nose or on the stern (the Greek boats last pair were not at all). The test showed good seaworthiness and speed of immersion. But the service began the usual trouble. Diesels at high rpm often fail, and more than 14 knots of boat to develop could not. And immersion care services in full depth could take almost half an hour. The range of a modest 10-node speed was barely over 700 miles. The list of deficiencies crowned little periscopes suitable and less suitable radio station. It is clear that the loss of so “useful” acquisitions upon detection of a thoroughly adept by the end of the war the German ships PLO could be imminent. All three after painful debugging the changes of batteries in 1918 was sent to the Mediterranean sea, to the Isle of the Wise, for action against Turkey, where they continued to basically “deal with it”. This struggle continued after the war. In 1924 proposed the program of total modernization, but its implementation was at odds with the financial situations and the state of Affairs in the French Navy at all. Although formally requisitioned the boat lasted another seven to 10 years, realistically they are almost all time stood at the wall.
 
To sum up, the French submarine building in the First world, though, he looks very pale, especially against the backdrop of a gone far ahead of the Anglo-American allies. Loss (14 boats) surpassed the number commissioned in the war units. So the trophies was a huge help. At that time, as other countries have used the resulting divided “fraternally” (almost equally) the German and Austrian submarines more for the study and extraction of useful experience, France was the only “big allies,” preserved and included in the composition of the current fleet, all 10 units passed to it. In addition, in its ports at the time of the armistice was a few dozen “U-bots” to be in General agreement to the destruction. From them before that took a lot of valuable equipment, diesel engines, electric motors, periscopes, instruments for control and navigation, even torpedoes and devices for them. This, in particular, has allowed a year to maintain the trophy “ctreeview” in good shape. In the vast majority of “Germans” has served even longer painfully entered into the fleet’s own “protracted” and “alterations”. Not only the giant submarine “Albron” (former “Captain-Lieutenant Shviger”) and standard average “Pierre Marras”, “Jean Roulier”, “Victor Reva”, “Jean Autrique”, “Leon miño”, “Renee Audrey”, but small “UB”: “Trinita Shulman”, “Caritan”, “Jean Korra”.
 
During operation the French, in addition to the interesting technical solutions, with some surprise discovered seems to be quite obvious. The autonomy of German submarines in the food was clearly more due to the fact that they were not foreseen, both in the local wine cellars, and instead of fresh bread and flour for his baking, the Germans took the cake. Not particularly impressed with the new owners and the habitat and rest of the crew that was considered “bad”. Laid claim even to the layout of the diesels that “it was difficult to remove for repair and replacement,” transactions equally difficult for their own motors. Fault is found even “the location of the torpedo tube exclusively along the axis of the boat”, although just a few years and the French had to learn this the only right option. Or take powerful artillery weapons, “the supply of shells which are difficult.” And indeed, some pieces of lethal 105-mm guns were replaced by more easy-to-use 75-mm. And not only on the decks of some of the German boats appeared ugly “surface cooking” for cooking “human food” on the corner. In General, the sailors of the Republic, much had yet to be realized, convinced of the real advantages of the German approach and to innovate. However, some of the qualities looked absolutely unconditional, excellent means of communication, both internal and radio, simplicity and ease of operation, excellent electrical part.
 
Particularly useful were captured underwater craft. The thing is. that the French themselves in this area not too succeeded. They chose the optimal way of placing mines, considering all possible options, from “mine conveyor” – type Russian “Crab” to the German inclined shafts and simple nodelock storage on the deck, applied to”alterations”. Specialized as submarines-craft bother to order only in 1917. It is clear that in war they did not, perhaps, to his own luck, as the system of laying mines from the first to correctly guess and failed. Anyway, on one of the pair of rather large (a surface displacement of about 900 tons) of layers, according to the national tradition had a completely different design and weapons. The frontier “Maurice Callot” was designed by Lobea, which at the same time put his hand to the scheme of setting. 27 min, which was kept in a light superstructure behind the wheelhouse in three lines of nine pieces, lightweight “head” to the nose. They were discharged via chain conveyors. Even from the very brief description it is clear that the system is unreliable and dangerous for the submarine. So it turned out.
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Sane” leaves the Harbor of Toulon, mid-1920s.
 
 
“Assel” in the late 1920s – early 1930s, Marking for felling large white letters to recognition is no longer
 
 
“Ramazotti on” practical torpedo firing in 1924 With the periscope boat – “a small problem” (as noted in the report): actually it is bent almost at a right angle. In October of the same year, the periscope had to be replaced on removed from “Sane”.
 
 
“Curie” in 1924, during the entrance of the harbour of Toulon. In the stern is seen the upper vertical rudder is a characteristic feature of this submarine
 
But the “Callot” got surprisingly decent for the French boats conventional weapons. Of the six torpedo tubes, four were in rugged in the nose and could shoot without any tweaks, which is characteristic for vehicles “superstructure” swivel or fixed at an angle to the axis of the boat.
 
The second frontier, “Pierre Chailly” with torpedo tubes, the situation was considerably worse: on the nose could shoot only two, yet the same was a turning point. But he had more powerful artillery in the face of a 100-mm gun is 75 mm at the “Callot”. And, most importantly, here’s mine engineers have hit the mark. First, they were already as many as 40 pieces, second, the engineers of the company “Norman-Pheno” who built the boat, not philosophize slyly and placed them in individual mines outside the hull, a pair in each, one above the other. When setting to preserve the balancing of the boat mines were issued a kind – pairs: the first of the remaining closer to the nose on one side plus the latest from the nose of the remaining on another Board. Oddly enough at first glance, this system proved to be quite successful and reliable. She was the inspiration when drafting new post-war submarine craft.
 
But, generally, both “unpaired” units of particular interest for France and the history of shipbuilding is not present. Perhaps, it is possible to note a strange mess with the names. “Callot”, was named in memory of the commander of the “Pluviôse”, who died along with his ship, which sank in 1910 in the accident. His name was Pierre-félix-Maurice, so logically enough the boat was originally called “Pierre Callot”. But then, for unknown reasons, now anyone renamed “Maurice Callot”, in last name immortalized in metal submariner. And “Pierre Chailly” on almost the same grounds initially was called “Paul Chailly”. And as such, the boat appears in some very solid guides and books. “Almost” – because Field-Etienne-Pierre Chailly from the beginning used the last name. And the story of the “nominee” deserves separate words.
 
Let’s start here. The fact that in addition to the 10 units, officially received in the division of the German Navy, the French included in their real battle trophies. One of them was the German “UB-26” caught in flat networks anti-submarine boom and attacked the old destroyer “Clot”. Only in this way the success of the French PLO could not be sustained: instead captured by the crew of the boat tried to tow it to port, but she sank on 20-metroi depth. However, “UB-26” raised. She was named Lieutenant Roland Mario, and entered into operation more than a year before the end of hostilities.
 
And in 1918 the fleet was added to the “immigrant”: the returned home from Austria upgraded there, “Curie”, which immediately became the best submarine of the war, sailed under the tricolor flag. It was during the seizure of her Austrian 22-year-old mine officer Lieutenant Pierre (or if you like, Paul), Chailly was severely wounded and was captured. But after the war, he, like the submarine, has returned home. Moreover, in the ranks of Free France, he participated in the following world! And there the gallant officer, whose age was close to sixty, it is highly symbolically given command of the submarine… “Curie”. Of course, the new type “V” of the British buildings. And after all, this appointment did not become formal: the boat really fought and deserved the two Acknowledgments in the order. A 59-year-old Chailly, now a Lieutenant, got his “war cross with palm”.
 
Interesting career. Each country can find its heroes-sailors, even if its Navy in General, and underwater in particular, showed themselves in the First world without any Shine. And material part, as we have seen, was in considerable decline. The former in the beginning of the century one of the clear leaders, France is significantly lagging behind the leading “colleagues”. Now she had this gap to be bridged.
 
V. KOFMAN

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