THE SECOND COMING OF THE “HYBRIDS”

THE SECOND COMING The emergence of nuclear submarines dramatically changed the balance of forces at sea, not only between countries but also between classes of ships. Indeed, hunters submarines could easily reach speeds sufficient to prosecute his opponent in a submerged position. However, nuclear reactors combined with a new hull shapes were allowed to reach 30 knots and more, available to only the destroyers. Of course, followed by the construction of modern anti-submarine ships, but the advantage is pretty solidly moved to the sources of underwater threats. Lack of range of sonar allowed the submarines in time to escape a dangerous situation. However, as always in the history of arms, and they were equally unpleasant opponent. They became anti-submarine helicopter, which had a huge advantage in speed and the view from the height, especially when using the sonar reentry, which in this case does not prevent the noise of the screws.

The helicopters quickly took his place on the decks of large ships, especially as at first glance the place they require very little. However, it quickly became clear that in this way enough “gotchas.” Small take-off area allowed to operate with only light machines that could fly far from his “airfield” and carried too small a payload. Large flew from ships is relatively easy, but sat on a rocking platform with great difficulty. In addition, we should remember about another factor: the only helicopter could not always be in the air. Even on ships, carrying two cars, a break in the observation was made antisubmarine air search in some semblance of roulette, perhaps fatal.

Solved the problem of the ship, able to provide a continuous presence in the air of at least one rotorcraft in any little bit of summer weather. And the machine is heavy enough to carry the submerged sonar set sonar buoys, anti-submarine torpedoes or bombs “in stock” and enough fuel to stay in the air with this “gentleman’s set” of a few hours. This was suitable for a dedicated helicopter carrier, although the possibility of such a ship look even more excessive for the solution of antisubmarine tasks. And from filing cabinets to light a dusty sheets of the projects of the 1930-ies – hybrid cruiser-carriers.

 

In modern conditions, when the planes were replaced by helicopters, not requiring to take off the long deck, their chances of implementation has increased dramatically. It is clear that with “ideological” to replace not only the air group, but artillery weapons, rocket quickly superseded.


The integrated solution is highly suited to the Maritime countries of the “second hand”, which got all the former world powers of Europe. But the idea of a “hybrid” made in Italy, and that is not without problems. In 1957, the designers have prepared a draft cruiser with a hangar and small flight deck aft. As a prototype for the hull was elected the destroyer of the “Impavido” and, despite a much greater width, as they say, the origin was not possible to hide. Initially it was assumed that the new ships that have received traditional names of the units of the first line – “Andrea Doria” and “Caio Duilio”, will be able to carry three heavy American universal helicopter SH-H “sea king”, but the first experiments “on nature” showed that this universal machine is too big for everyday use: each flight has turned into an extreme stunt. The two ships were armed light helicopters “Augusta bell” AB-212, gadelshina only for anti-submarine warfare at a short distance from their “Queens”. Some consolation was the fact that their number has increased to four.

As befits a cruiser, “Doria” and “Duilio” had the rocket and artillery weapons. The first had to borrow from a new powerful ally, the United States: in 1950-ies of the last century

 

Italy and did not think about creating their missiles of this class, like the American “Terrier”. Paired installation took the most pride of place in the nose. But the artillery was domestic. The Italians immediately after the war was chosen as the primary caliber of 76 mm, optimum, and as anti-aircraft, and suitable for naval combat. (Here they got to the point: the overseas engineers who had much more means of checking their solutions, at the time, came to a similar conclusion). But with the choice of specific models happened not all. Too ambitious of a new sample, was “raw”, had to be abandoned in favor of already tested on the destroyers and frigates of the company .. .. OTO. As time has shown, the forced decision was a good: automatic 76-graph paper had quite a decent performance and a long “delayed” in the Navy. Domestic production was the fire control system, while hydro and radars, and rockets, came from overseas.

Native electronics of the cruiser only got to the beginning of the 1980-ies, and then to get rid of the us was far from being complete. But by the time this pair of “Doria” was left alone as a battle ship. “Duilio” embarked on the upgrade later, his partner had prepared a different fate. The volume of work is impressive: the cruiser has lost its helicopters and a hangar, along with a pair of rear 76-millimetric. They were replaced by classrooms for the future officers: “Duilio” was the main training ship of the Navy is sent to the rest of the old cruiser “San Marco”. And, as shown by all the same time, more and more popular. “Doria” was excluded from the lists of the fleet in 1991 and was sent to be scrapped, while the “Duilio” “held” in reserve for a few years.

Your first was, as expected, a bit lumpy experience with the cruiser-helicopter carrier, the Italians had time to fix. The third unit of the series has already been named “Enrique Dandolo”, in 1965 laid for a much improved project. Although technically the missile and artillery armament remained the same, but, for example, “Terrier” was now half increased ammunition: more extensive housing allows you to install additional drum with missiles in the nose. In addition, the launcher of the new type allowed to shoot not only anti-aircraft missiles, but also anti-submarine missile-torpedoes “Asroc”. But the most important changes were observed in the aft. The flight deck was noticeably wider and longer, and the hangar was moved under it, freeing the middle of the body. “Vittorio Veneto” (advanced cruiser quite logically named the following types of battleships during the Second world war) could really carry a heavy “sea kings” in a respectable quantity of six pieces, and the replacement of their usual “AB-212” on Board was taken, nine helicopters, two and a half times more than the predecessors.

For “Vittorio Veneto” was planned to build his partner has already been named “Italy”, but work was postponed. As usual, even quite good ships, to which it can be attributed first Italian cruiser-helicopter carrier, can be improved. It is this and achieved designers, and it is not their fault that the plans could not be implemented in metal. Increased to 10 thousand tons, has called the “Trieste” after the name got the full retirement prior to the start of construction. These games lasted a dozen years, until the early 1980’s, when the naval authorities issued a final verdict: “flies-separately, cutlets – separately”. It went already a full-fledged helicopter carrier “Giuseppe Garibaldi”. On entry into service in 1985, he was replaced by the “Vittorio Veneto” in the role of flagship of the fleet. However, the history of a hybrid is not over: he, in turn, replaced its predecessor, the “Duilio” as the main uchebnogo ship.

Almost simultaneously with Italy to build a cruiser-helicopter carrier launched and France. Commissioned in 1957, the training cruiser “La Resolution” intended to replace “old” interwar buildings “Jeanne d’arc”, for three years was redesigned into a multipurpose vehicle, which inherited the name of his predecessor in 1964, before the commissioning. In contrast to the Italian colleagues, the French cruiser from the outset intended for use as a school. In General, the tasks before the ship was raised the most extensive, from a peaceful training before deployment and landing. In accordance with the particular job changed the composition of the helicopter fleet. The maximum number of vehicles reached 12, if the Board were accepted only by light helicopters and a number of the most severe “Super Filonov”, equipped as anti-submarine variant, and as transportowych, was limited to eight. Subsequently, the same number for “Joan” could be based more modern anti-submarine machine the Linc. In reality, the service was usually only six or seven helicopters, predominantly light and medium – “Alouette-3”, “N-1”, “Gazelle”, “Puma”.


The many faces of the ship has undergone a number of re-program, as implemented, in fact, never implemented. We have already talked about the fateful “home” position in the nose, the project is designed for four-barrel 305-mm mortars displaced by the installation of SURA “Mazurka”, which in turn attempted to replace the PU similar purpose “Krotal Nawal”, but all of these options remained purely virtual. In the end this place was approved containers of anti-ship missiles “Exocet” in the amount of six pieces, to turn the cruiser-station wagon still in shock. A few more fortunate of the artillery, represented by four 100-mm automatic universal instruments located in a typical air circuit – the corners of the superstructure rectangle, two in the bow and stern. The rear pair was removed during modernisation 1988 – 1889 years. Nevertheless, “cruiser-chameleon” were used very actively, mostly as a study, making annual trips, including several round-the-world. (Exceptions were only the years of great repairs and upgrades, 1988 and 1997). Just by 2005, “Jeanne ‘Arc” made of 40 training voyages – a record. Original record holder wanted to “reward” retirement, but the service life was extended until 2010. So this in General is quite modest on the characteristics of the ship (remember its a small speed – 26.5 knots) survived all of their “ideological colleagues” both in NATO and among the “potential enemies”.

But such was not slow to appear. In the development of a new class of cruisers, helicopter carriers quickly turned much more serious players. Both great powers, the USA and the USSR almost simultaneously in 1958 came to the same conclusions stated in the beginning of the article. Large fleets are also required ships capable of the continuous search helicopter fleet of nuclear submarines. And if the United States eventually went the way of the creation of the helicopter either in a pure variant, or “crossed” with amphibious vessels, in the Soviet Union, have preferred hybrids, able to solve mainly anti-submarine tasks, and even to defend themselves and to protect others from airborne targets, which Americans have always been ready to provide the right quantity and quality.

 

THE SECOND COMING

256. The cruiser-helicopter carrier Moskva (Project 1123) (USSR, 1967)

It was built at the Nikolaev shipyard N9 444. Standard 11 a displacement of 920 tons, a full 15 280 t, maximum length 189 m, beam 34 m, draft of 7.5 m. Capacity twin-shaft gas turbine of 90 000 HP, speed of 28.5 KTS. Armament: anti-missile complex RPK-1 “Whirlwind” (8 missiles and torpedoes), two twin PU SAM “Shtorm” (96 missiles), two two-gun automatic 57-mm gun mount AK-725, two rocket mortars RBU-6000, two platetronic 533-mm torpedo tubes, PLO, 14 helicopters Ka-25. In 1967 – 1968 built 2 units: “Moscow” and “Leningrad”. In 1974 – 75 years of torpedo tubes removed. “Moscow” is excluded from the lists in 1995 and scrapped in 1996, “Leningrad” excluded from the lists in 1991, scrapped in 1995

257. The cruiser-helicopter carrier “Jeanne d’arc” (France, 1964)

Built at the shipyard of the Navy in Brest. The standard displacement 10 500 t, 12 600 t, maximum length 182 m, beam 24 m, draught 7,33 m. Capacity twin-shaft steam turbine 40 000 HP, speed of 26.5 KTS. Armament: four automatic 100-mm artillery systems, four 12.7 mm machine guns, 12 light helicopters or 8 heavy. Upgraded in 1988 – 1989 with the installation of 6 PU anti-ship Exocet missiles and the removal of two 100-mm guns. In 2010 was in the ranks.

258. Cruiser ship “Vittorio Veneto” (Italy, 1969)

Built at the shipyard of the Navy in Castella-Mare. The standard displacement of 7,500 tons, full 8850 t, length of maximum 179,6 m, width: 19,4 m, draft of 6.15 m. Capacity twin-shaft steam turbine 73 000 HP, speed of 30.5 KTS. Weapons: double PU SURO “Terrier”/”ASRock”, eight automatic 76-mm gun mounts, three-pipe, two 324-mm automatic, 6 — 9 helicopters.

Our designers had to go almost the same way that Italian. Originally intended to build a very small ship, with a displacement of less than 5 thousand tons, but at high speed, about 25 knots, capable of carrying eight helicopters. On other weapons the space and weight were a little, nonetheless it made up on the principle of “every creature is a pair”; two anti-aircraft missile complex M-11, two three-pipe torpedo tubes, two rocket mortars RBU-1000, two Sparky 57-mm guns. Only anti-submarine missile system “Whirlwind” was presented in the singular. Looked impressive underwater acoustics presented by stationary Podkarpackie station and towed the new-fangled. The destroyer-helicopter carrier had an original three-shaft power plant mixed – gas turbines for full speed and the engines for economic. Overall, the project looked as attractive as feasible. The more that tactical calculations showed that eight small helicopters Ka-25 for round-the-clock patrolling is not enough, and other anti-submarine helicopters at that time in the Soviet Union were not available in the near future seems to be not planned. The new standard is 14 vehicles – according to the engineers fit in 8000 tons, and at the same time, 57-mm guns seems to be possible to replace the 76-mm multi-barrelled rocket mortars – artillery RBU-6000, and three-pipe torpedo tubes – petitrobert. However, the speed dropped to 30 – 32 knots, but, “looking West,” it seemed sufficient. Technical specification for the project, the designation of 1123, was followed by a profound observation about what should take all measures to minimize displacement.

The requirement is proved to be completely useless; as the displacement continued to grow. The reasons are enough, ranging from the overly optimistic data of conceptual design and ending with the constant misfortune of our fleet, an effort to bring the ships under construction the most modern weapons, which, in turn, often still were only on the drawing boards. Clear desire to improve the performance of the main weapon, helicopter, led to increase of its mass by almost a quarter. In this “competition” is not far behind, and sonar equipment, and missile weapons. In the end, the displacement increased up to 9300 so the Lion’s share of growth has been concentrated in the equipment to receive potjazhelevshie helicopters, and despite the almost double amount of hangar two cars had to place the additional “coop”. For processing of the project took more than a year; during this time appeared on the horizon of new samples of weapons, including 11-ton helicopters. Was followed by an order to “count” the ship for their reception. The result was the swelling of another 1,000 t (and new helicopters and failed to develop). The first unit, named “Moscow” have already started to build when I followed the instructions to install new radar equipment (of course, heavier) and increase ASW ammo… no Wonder these “uluchshilos” suffered stability, and as a result had to develop a system for the acceptance of ballast water that fills the tank for the consumption of the fuel. In the end, the standard displacement reached almost 12 000 tonnes and a new type, received in addition to the numeric code designation “Condor” became a cruiser-helicopter carrier.

Another not too pleasant, but the enduring tradition in the pursuit of the elusive “planning” tab and the acceptance of the “Moscow” had to carry out in the last days of the year – within five years, and to build ships introduced, just not with the scandal. But the second unit, “Leningrad”, was built much calmer and put into operation less than a year and a half after the head. The episode was supposed to continue: the third “Condor” under the code 1123.3 grew by another 2,000 tons by increasing the body, and this time the growth had to go to strengthen defense, as well as the increased range and habitability. Processing project finished very quickly, but the fate of the “Kiev” decided the appearance of the next portion of the new weapon. Demonstrated leadership in 1967 the Soviet “Harrier” vertical takeoff aircraft Yak-36 – and it made such a strong impression that he was immediately included in the armament. As the latest anti-ship missiles “malachite”, new electronics and so on. In the end, the construction of the third unit is delayed and the light “Kiev” appeared in the form of a new project 1143 aircraft-carrying cruiser, which from its predecessors was not so much.


Somewhat awkward when viewed from above because of the wide stern with a vast flight deck and a huge hangar below deck “Moscow” and “Leningrad” actually turned out to be very maneuverable at all speeds, except for a small. However, the maximum speed, and so are quite modest – 28,5 knots with the boost of gas turbines – they developed extremely rare, limited in practice 23 – 25 knots. The typical “workhorses” of the fleet, 1123-carried “inside” a lot of technical innovations and ideas. First of all, they addressed measures to reduce the probability of detection: cooling exhaust gases in a specially widened tube reduced the chance of capture of thermal homing head 20 times compared to steam cruisers of the project 68-bis and 10 times – compared to gas turbine large anti-submarine ships project 61. Main form of missile guidance primary “perceived enemy”, the radar, let slanted add-ons and pipes, constructed in accordance with the future principles of “ship-invisible” “stealth”. Do not forget about the underwater dangers: for the first time on such a large ship, almost all more or less noisy mechanisms were installed on a special “soft” grounds, suppressing the vibration. However, to realize was not all the ideas. As usual, the main problems appeared when trying to implement automation. From the original assumed remote control of the main mechanical installation had to be abandoned. As a result of this and other “steps” project the staffing of the crew of 370 people in practice almost doubled to 700 sailors! Moreover, a significant six-fold increased the number of officers as for objective reasons (existence of a fundamentally new technology in a much larger volume than any previous types), and as a result of gradual some slippage in the compulsory military service in Navy.

The thing happened with the seaworthiness of these, in General, not the small ships. However, it is expected: a wide body with a relatively small draft contained a hint of the ancient “Popovka”. Fortunately, the original purpose of both the Northern fleet did not take place in connection with the relocation of nuclear submarines of the United States, having been adopted in more long-range missiles “Polaris” A-3, and then Poseidon.

 

Now they had to catch in the more remote, but in a more warm and calm waters. However, the relatively modest 6-point Atlantic storm “Moscow” suffered serious damage with the decommissioning of the weapons. Even on the bridge, located at the level of the eighth floor of a standard modern home, being walked water! Not everything was in order and rolling, reaching 30 degrees. It was supposed to unload our cruisers, in particular, in the 1970-ies were removed and massive petitionee torpedo, in principle, completely unnecessary in the presence of helicopters and powerful complex PLO “Whirlwind”. However weight savings has largely gone to the additional equipment cabin for the remaining crew. For the same purpose went to the savings incurred after the rejection of a SAM short-range “OSA-M”. Two units gave way to the cabins for the political officer and the commander of one of military units – hardly an adequate replacement.

For all its virtues and shortcomings of the Soviet cruiser-helicopter carrier, was a milestone in the development of our fleet. (Worth noting that they have earned the respect and attention from the “potential enemy”), In the first years of his life “Moskva” and “Leningrad” was used very actively and have done different tasks, from combat patrol in the Atlantic waters to the clearance of the approaches to the Suez canal at the request of the Egyptian government. The end their work is not associated with exhaustion of resources, and with the “perestroika” and the subsequent disintegration of the Soviet Union. “Moscow” became for overhaul in 1982, made his only seven years later, and such that the newly commissioned cruiser only a year and half. And even then, only to ensure that in conditions of transitional chaos, he made a few far out to sea. Start of term overhaul of the “Leningrad” came in the midst of a dashing time, and in 1991 its just knocked out. Stood for several years at the wall empty ship is sent for scrap to India, where he ended his days, and “Moscow”.

In General, “the second coming” hybrid cruisers (recall that the first “heat” took place in the 1930-ies and was ended only some samples such as the Swedish “Gotland”) proved to be very successful. The ships of this class in different versions continue to be designed and sometimes built.

V. KOFMAN

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