TANK “TYPE 98” ARMY OF CHINA

TANK The Chinese tank “Type 98” is considered a model of armored vehicles of the third generation. The engineering of this started back in the 1970s, Then developed experimental tanks WZ-and WZ 1224-1226 and a model of “Type 90-II”. But only in the mid-1990s, North China research Institute of mechanical engineering No. 201 in Beijing in cooperation with the First engineering company FIRMAKO in Baotou (Inner Mongolia) has created a new tank “Type 98”. It should be noted that the design used in its technical solution of the domestic T-72.

Tank WZ-1224, which the Chinese consider as the prototype, we began to create in the 1970s, using advanced at that time, the layout and technological solutions. He had welded turret rather complex defensive form, the loading mechanism, a 120-mm smoothbore gun, the fire control system and, of course, a powerful engine, developing about 1,000 HP

The production of tank guns, the Chinese tried to establish a long time, engineering prototypes, but beyond that did nothing. They were able to launch their serial production, but having Israel relevant technology. But in this case not all went smoothly, therefore, adopted the subsequent types of tanks took an unlicensed copy of the famous Soviet 125-mm gun 2A46.

Tank cannon WZ-1224 was stabilized in two planes. The barrel did not have housing but was equipped with ejector purely Chinese development. The machine gun was absent, but the turret in front of the hatch of the commander mounted.

Tank The tank engine was produced in China under German licenses and, according to some sources, was used in Germany for heavy trucks.

Although the booking of the car was powerful enough, the designers tried to make it even thicker due to the due lining extra armor plates on the frontal part.

In the end, the entire structure was recognized unsuccessful and the design of the main battle tank of China continued.

In 1991, demonstrated a new model under the designation of “Type 90-II” as the third generation of machines. It is based put many technical solutions used in modern tanks of some countries, including Russia. In the creation of this main battle tank was attended by specialists of French and British firms.

Earlier, in the mid-1980s, after the closure of the project WZ-1224, the Chinese in a middle Eastern country were able to purchase some of our T-72 tanks. It was decided to develop on the basis of its chassis and casing my car. Note that by this time they were able to establish the production of the Soviet 125-mm smoothbore 2A46M, which was installed in the tower. In General, according to some sources, the “Type 90-II” has 10% of aggregates used in Chinese tanks, “59”, 15% – in the “69-x,” 20% “85/88-x”. Tower, for example, is completely transferred from the model “85-M/88С”. The remaining 55% of the structure was considered Patriotic. It is noted that basic equipment for the establishment and modernization of the Chinese tank industry was officially imported from abroad or produced under license.

 

 

“Type 98”:

1 – 12-mm smoothbore gun;

2 – welded turret;
3 – laser unit LSDW;
4 – sensor radiation LWR;
5 – anti shaped-charge grating;

6 – drive wheel;

7 – rubber-coated roller;

8 – side screen;

9 – idler;

10 – hatch commander’s;
11 – the feeding niche of the tower;

12 – pipe, OPVT;

13 – the radiator grille of the propulsion system;

14 – atmospheric sensor;

15 – hatch release pallet liners;

16 – Luke gunner;

17 – driver’s hatch;
18 – gun mask;

19 – armor of the tower module;

20 unit smoke grenades;

21 – tracks with rubber-metallic hinge


As a result, the tank “Type 90-II” has created, however, the machine did not meet expectations; performance characteristics have not noticeably improved, with the exception of speed and terrain. Then the main efforts decided to direct a modification of the tank in the export model for Pakistan. National Chinese company NORINCO (China North industries Corporation, the Group Corporation Industrial North of China) entered into with the military command of Pakistan contract for the pilot of “Type 90-II” for extensive testing.

Later, a Pakistani company Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT), having bought the license, started the production of Chinese tanks under the name “al-Khalid (Type 90-II”/MBT-2000) for Pakistan army.

In China, work on the improvement of the tank “Type 90-II” continued in 1998, and the sample at index “Type 98” (ZTZ98) became mass-produced. It is believed that this machine for most of their data is much closer to main battle tanks of the leading countries of the world.

Kolomna tanks

Kolomna tanks “Type 98” at a military parade in honor of the 50th anniversary of the founding of the PRC. Beijing, 1 October 1999

At the military parade on the square Tiananmen in Beijing on 1 October 1999 passed a column of 18 tanks “Type 98”. Several sources noted that over the next few years they released more than 100 units (according to other sources – only 60), and they were armed with the 6th, 7th and 8th armored divisions and the 26th and 38th army groups of the Beijing military district.

The main armament of the tank “Type 98” – a powerful 125-mm smoothbore gun ZPT-98, which is the Chinese version of our 2A46 tank, stabilized in two planes (stabilizer, however, is also a copy of our 2Э28 “lilac”) ammunition includes shells of various types: armor-piercing, cumulative, high-explosive, shot – separately-tubular loader with detachable drip tray. Several sources noted that China had the opportunity to produce and feathered armor-piercing projectiles with a core of depleted uranium with the assistance of Israel. In addition, it was reported on the purchase of Russian anti-tank guided missiles 9М119 “Reflex” laser-guided, and that they will be produced in China under license. Missiles have dimensions corresponding to the shells, and can be run through the barrel of a gun. With their help it is possible to defeat enemy armored vehicles at ranges up to 5 km of Anti-tank shaped charge warhead its armor thickness up to 700 mm.

The gun has a hydromechanical automatic loader carousel, designed for 22 rounds. Ammunition – 41 (42) shot. Rate – up to 8 RDS./minutes Maximum elevation angle of -14°, the declination is -6°.

The gun barrel has a thermal insulating shroud, reduce its curvature, and also the ejector for removal when firing gases from the fighting compartment.

 

Chinese main battle tank

 

Chinese main battle tank

Chinese main battle tank “Type 98” from the front (top) and rear

Paired 7.62-mm machine gun “Type 86” is located in the recess to the right of the gun; shooting it is at a distance of 1000 m On the tower in front of the hatch commander installed anti-aircraft 12.7 mm machine gun W-85 turret anti-aircraft guns, hand operated (QJC-88). The angle of its guidance in the vertical plane is 75°. The fire can be conducted at a range of up to 1600 m on land and up to 1500 m for air targets. The ammo machine guns – 2000 and 300 rounds respectively.

On the sides of the tower are mounted two blocks pedestaling smoke 81-mm grenade launchers “Type 84”, which can also use and fragmentation anti-personnel grenades.

The fire control system (FCS) the tank is fully automated. High-speed digital ballistic computer with a set of auto gauges ensures high-precision results of data for firing. The gunner has a periscopic sight with thermal camera, built-in laser rangefinder and display. The commander of the tank has a combined periscopic sight with panoramic head and a thermal display image associated with the gunner’s sight. Sights for both crew members have independent stabilization of line of sight. The commander himself can fire at a target, disabling the gunner from management.

 

Tank

Tank “Type 98” on patrol. In the open hatch with a gun, the commander of the machine

With the use of the fire control system have greatly increased the possibility of defeat from the first shot stationary and moving targets. In addition, the presence of cameras allowed to fire with excessive smoke or excessive dust, for example, in desert conditions.

The sources noted that the FCS of the tank “Type 98”, the same mounted in cars of “Type 90-II” / “al Khalid” and is made by Western technology.

One of the main features of the new tank was the use of original laser active protection system, JD-3 at the quantum generators. The system consists of a sensor laser-warning LRW (Laser Warning Receiver) and the quantum generator LSDW (Laser Self-Defence Weapon). They are installed on the turret roof behind the commander hatch and hatch gunner.

When the sensor detects the laser beam, is induced on the tank, the warning system issues a command to turn the tower toward the source. The generator delivers the laser beam, but low power, which determines the location of the radiating object. If the target is spotted, the laser is turned on at full power and impresses with its optical means, and even the organs of vision of the operator of the enemy.

 

Test tank

Testing of the tank “Type 98” in the desert

The range of the damaging beam system, the sources are given. However, demonstrated in 1995 at the exhibition of arms in Manila like Chinese, only portable, laser system ZM-87 presumably had the opportunity to hit the human eye at a distance of 10 km (according to other sources – up to 2 – 3 km, and when using the 7-fold increase – up to 5 km).

The layout of the tank “Type 98” is a classic with front control module and motor in the rear. The forward part of its body repeats the design of the machine “Type 90-II”, and in fact, our T-72M. The case is welded, of homogeneous steel with a combined reservation in the frontal part. The thickness of the front plate – 480 – 550 mm, hull sides -30-100 mm roof – 30 – 40mm lower front sheet is mounted bulldozer equipment for self-entrenching.

The tower is also welded from sheets of different thickness, located under rational angles, Combi modular blocks; in the stern – a deep recess, covered with lattice screens, shaped baskets. The thickness of the frontal part of the tower – 640 – 790 mm depth tower – 160 – 200 mm.

It can be installed on the hull and turret additional armor plates, and hinged dynamic protection FY used in the earlier Chinese examples.

The driver of the tank is located in the Department of management at the center of the machine. Above it there is a hatch with a shifting to the right side cover. To review the road the driver is using a periscope surveillance device that is installed in front of the door, which at night changes to night vision device. In addition, the left and right of it – two surveillance device.

In the tower are the jobs of the tank commander (right hatch) and gunner (left), there is a hatch release used pallet liners. The turret roof is installed: antenna radio, barometric sensor, laser irradiation
LWR, laser unit LSDW device svetochnaya. On the hatch gunner has a built in hatch to mount the pipe OPUT, which in the stowed position mounted behind the niche of the tower.

Equipment towers

Equipment tower:

1 – anti shaped-charge grating;

2 – the radio antenna;

3 – the device of svetochnaya;

4 – sensor radiation LWR;

5 – pin antenna;

6 – laser system LSDW;

7 – hatch commander’s;

8 – the commander’s panoramic sight;

9 – unit smoke grenade launchers


Engine compartment – in the stern of the tank. 8-cylinder V-shaped diesel engine WD396 liquid-cooled with turbocharger develops power 1200 HP Engine of the tank “Type 98” is a modernization of the German MTU936 produced in China under license, and related established in the German “leopard-2”. The intakes are located under the aft alcove, radiators covered with lids hatches with blinds. Exhaust pipes installed on both sides.

The engine and transmission constitute a single power unit (it can be replaced in 30 -40 minutes even in the field). Mechanical transmission manual control includes a planetary gearbox with the friction on and the hydraulic side and the planetary gear. There is evidence that transmission is completely borrowed from our T-72M.

Suspension is also copied from the Soviet T-72M. It has six double road wheels with rubber tires on Board and four supporting roller. Sprocket cycloid gearing – rear location. Suspension – torsion bar with telescopic hydraulic shock absorbers on first two and sixth suspension units. The caterpillar is equipped with rubber-metallic hinge. On the sides of the chassis is covered with protective removable rubber or metal screens.

 

Attacking the tank

Attack tank “Type 98”

“Type 98” equipped with protection systems of nuclear and chemical weapons, detection and suppression of fires in the vehicle and the navigation system.

Further development of the tank began to “type 98В” with 1500-horsepower engine and a 140-mm gun “type 98G” – with heavy armor the top of the bow and the frontal part of the tower. The armor is modular. The mass of the tank – 52 T.

 

THE PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF MAIN BATTLE TANK “TYPE 98”

 

The crew cel……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3

Weight, kg ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….48 000

Length with gun forward, mm ……………………………………………………………………………………… 10 920

Width, mm…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………3372

The height of the roof of the tower, mm………………………………………………………………………………………..2400

Weapons………………………………………………………………125-mm smoothbore gun ZRT-98

7.62-mm machine gun “Type 86”

12.7 mm anti-aircraft gun W-85

10 plants 81-mm grenade launchers

complex guided weapons 9К119 “Reflex” missile TOUR 9М119

Ammunition, EA.:

125 mm vystrelov………………………………………………………………………………………………………42 (41)

the 7.62 rounds mm………………………………………………………………………………………………2000

rounds 12,7-mm……………………………………………………………………………………………….300

Dvigatel…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………WD396

Power l s……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1200

Clearance, mm…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..470

Maximum speed km/CH…………………………………………………………………………………………..72

The reserve km………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..500

Overcoming obstacles in m:

height stanki…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….0,85

width RWA…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..2,8

depth Broda………………………………………………………………………………………….1,4 (with OPVT – 5);

The angle of elevation, grad…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..30

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