— HOW TO BECOME A PILOT?
— WHO ARE ACCEPTED INTO THE FLYING CLUB?
— WHAT EXAMS YOU HAVE TO PASS COMING INTO AVIATION SCHOOL?
— WHERE TO BUY BLUEPRINTS TO BUILD A GLIDER?
Such questions are very often asked by our readers. A third editorial email devoted to problems of aviation, Aeronautics and aerospace. One conclusion: the dream of flying still holds captive the hearts of many boys and girls. Like the Komsomol thirties, they passionately want to be pilots to be like Chkalov and Gromov, Anokhin and Gallay, Stephen and Kokkinaki, Kozhedub and Pokryshkin, Gagarin and Leonov.
Now this dream has become easier to implement the Central Committee DOSAAF of the USSR adopted a decision on the development of the country’s youth glider schools — UPS. Now such schools initial training can be organized not only in aeroclubs, but also in the palaces of the pioneers in the trade Union clubs.
Of course, provided that the leaders of UPS will be the instructor of DOSAAF, and classes will be conducted in gliders and launch equipment standard pattern. The decision of the Central Committee DOSAAF on Junior gliding schools and Amateur stimulates the construction of gliders initial training. Creative work on them should facilitate the acquisition of design skills. However, at present there is no consensus about what should be these gliders. Not completely resolved the problem of starting units. That is why the editorial Board of the journal “modelist-Konstruktor” held the all-Union meeting of experts of gliding — pilots-instructors, methodologists, designers of gliders.
In this meeting, our correspondent took a number of interviews. Here they are.
The first question is about possible ways of development of youth gliding schools, asked of the master of sport, founder and head of the Moscow UPS Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Makarov.
Pioneers of gliding, — said V. N. Makarov was up in the air, starting from the slopes of the mountains. Their primitive apparatus was very light, and such start at that time was considered the best, as it allowed to overcome quite a significant distance. But to take off from a level surface was required any fixture type catapults (it was first used by the Wright brothers). Our compatriot designer A. Mozhaysky was lifted in the air their experimental aircraft towed behind the truck, which was supral<ena three horses. Later by the French Farman used for towing a car.
Fig. 1. Launch glider cushion.
Fig. 2. The takeoff of the glider with the help of the Czechoslovak avtoledi “Hercules”.
Fig. 3. Motoliberty design A. Tabakova.
Today for launching gliders with a smooth surface apply a variety of ways, the simplest of them is to run the rubber shock-absorber (Fig. 1). It represents the cord with a diameter of about 20 mm formed from rubber strands are square or circular cross-section. It is usually folded in half, and hook the hook on the nose of the glider. In the future, to start training gliders were invented by various winches, driven by internal combustion engines or electric motors. The most popular Czechoslovak avtoledi “Hercules” (Fig. 2) widely used in our flying clubs; a well-known mechanism of the same purpose of the construction of one of the veterans of the Soviet gliding. Tabakova (he very cleverly used the motorcycle for actuating the drum with a wound on his rope tow, Fig. 3). However, all these devices had serious drawbacks, chief of which, perhaps, was the lack of a mechanism to regulate altitude and insuring against accidents. Therefore, I together with the master of gliding
B. Simonov was a completely new starting winch (Fig. 4), allowing fast and trouble-free to train young glider pilots. It has a height limiter and speed of flight and operates a truck GAZ-51. We operated it for almost ten years and I can confidently recommend for all youth glider schools. (For a detailed description and drawings of the winch will be published in one of the following numbers of the journal “modelist-Konstruktor”. — Ed.)
Of most interest, as expected, caused a discussion about what a glider is most suitable for Junior gliding schools. Famous designers I. Tolstykh, and S. lyushin familiarized the meeting participants with their projects, various training gliders. These gliders have higher performance as compared to the still used by gliders KAI-11 and BRO-11. A characteristic feature of the project — the minimum number of braces, creating harmful aerodynamic drag. Unfortunately, both of the glider difficult to manufacture and expensive to produce. In addition, many speakers at the meeting workers UPS — pilots, instructors and Methodists — have said that for initial training glider with a high aerodynamic quality is just not needed. They all expressed the opinion that today the best glider flight operational data is BRO-11-M design B. Oskinis. By all accounts, he compares favorably with his predecessor — in series built glider KAI-11.
Naturally, the issue with the prospects for the production of glider BRO-11, we went directly to its constructor — the veteran of the Soviet gliding to Bronx to Yuozovicha Oskinis.
— Gliding and the construction of gliders I’m doing since 1932, when it was built the first glider. I taught myself to fly. It was 45 years ago! In bourgeois Lithuania not easy to organize a flying club, gliding was only a small group of enthusiasts — e mostly students. We had no money, so our design has always been extremely simple and cheap.
Training single machine BRO-11, was established in 1954 as a mass glider initial training proved very reliable. It was built serially in the years 1955-1957 and was widespread in gliding circles initial training DOSAAF. However, since 1958, when completely switched to training glider pilots for double gliders BRO-11 (as well as KAI-11) stopped building commercially. A small number of gliders that were still able to fly, was transferred to the newly organized Junior gliding school of the Moscow city Committee DOSAAF. In addition, the gliders BRO-11 flew in a few circles gliding school in the periphery. Gradually the aircraft were worn out.
Fig. 4. Avtoledi Makarov.
Fig. 5. Training glider designed by S. Luchina.
Fig. 6. Training glider design B. Oskinis. BRO-11-M “Zile” (“Tit”).
There is an urgent need for a new glider of initial training. Taking into account the considerable operating experience of BRO-11, all of his strengths and weaknesses, our team has designed a new model single-seat glider of initial training — BRO-11-M “Zile” (“Tit”) (Fig. 6). In the summer of 1969, he first took to the air. After the first instance, it is immediately transferred to the Moscow UPS, was built a small series of these gliders, also for Muscovites-glider pilots. Received a large order from a glider club near Moscow Lyubertsy. The glider successfully operated both at the start with isolator and winch Makarov.
We tried — emphasizes Bronis Wasowicz, you can keep your dignity BRO-11, eliminating in the process emerged more than five years of its operation disadvantages. BRO-11-M, as well as its predecessors, solid wood construction, with fabric covering. The fuselage truss, raskalennyj to the wing and tail feathers, the wing is single-spar, strut-braced, of two halves; it has ailerons on all polarisman in the form of a profiled liner. Stabilizer, as before, a cantilever, but the keel is provided with struts that secure it to the stabilizer spar. This increased rigidity of the tail. Wingspan “Tit” increased to 7.8 m compared to of 7.28 m from BRO-11 by adding in each wing one rib. Wing given retroactive sweep is 3° and the ailerons was less than the wingspan is easier to use. At the wing tips reinforced bottom rubber dampers. The same shocks installed on the front and rear ends of the skis of the fuselage. The Central portion of the wing is made of fiberglass and is well closes the gap between polycrylene in connection with the farm of the fuselage. From the wings, the attachment points of the struts, are steel braces to the forward fuselage (the attachment point of the tow hook) and its tail (the site of the shock absorber).
Farm fuselage “Tit” significantly changed: reinforced ski beam, increased its length and in the middle of the ski (center of gravity) wheel (pneumatic strut from tail of the Yak-18). The toe of the ski mounted tow hook is a very simple design that allows you to launch the glider with the absorber and with different winches. Front of the farm of the fuselage “Tit”—metal (BRO-11, it was wooden). To it is attached the seat of the pilot with soft cushion leatherette. In front of the pilot seat, as well as BRO-11, a shield-fairing, and above it is a transparent wind deflector plexiglass. (Detailed drawings of glider BRO-11-M “Tit” will be published in a later issue of the journal “modelist-Konstruktor” — Ed.)