THE LAST OF THE “KV”, THE FIRST “IS”

THE LAST OF THE In December 1941, the design Bureau of Chelyabinsk Kirov factory (up to October 1941 – Chelyabinsk tractor plant) representatives of the Armored Directorate of the red Army considered the draft design of the new tank “Klim Voroshilov” – KV-13 — “high-speed tank enhanced reservation”. According to the designers, it’s time to create a “single tank”, who would be able to combine all the positive characteristics of serial KV and T-34. The fact that KV was very difficult to manufacture, “not enough technologically advanced and not suitable to mass production in wartime”. They had surpassed the T-34 but more powerful armor.

The new machine, which received the designation “object 233”, was to “combine the abilities of a broad and rapid maneuver with the force of a frontal impact. The project is expected to produce 30-ton KV-13 (instead of the nearly 50-ton KV), moving with a maximum speed of 65 km/h, which had the armor of 75 mm, can withstand the shells 88 mm German Flak 36/37 guns. This “single tank”, the mass corresponding to the average, and the defense – heavy, was supposed to be, according to designers, it is easier and cheaper, significantly reduce the complexity of its production, to increase remotepoint.
 
In March 1942 the whole of the project documentation handed over tacomamama Experienced factory number 100 (up to March 1942-pilot plant CHTZ). Oversaw the project chief designer of the people’s Commissariat for tank industry J. Kotin. In September of the same year a prototype of the tank was demonstrated to the leadership of the Commissariat.
Until the end of the year he was tested. In particular, at the site near Sverdlovsk, the sample was subjected to artillery fire. The fire was fought from the domestic 76 mm tank gun and 88-mm German anti-aircraft guns. Frontal armor withstood our bombs, but the German anti-aircraft gun could penetrate the body in 60% of the shots.
 
In January 1943 he was made the new pattern of KV-13, with a thicker front sheet. Moreover, the front part of the body was cast, for the first time in our tank, providing significant gains in mass as well and in the process. Cast was and tower. Preserved a memo to the people’s Commissar for tank industry Malyshev V., in which it was noted that “through the use of liquid armor seals layout, reducing the size of the hull and turret was able to significantly reduce the weight of a heavy tank to the level of average.”
 
Tank is-1 in the Museum of the great Patriotic war in Kiev
 
Tank is-1 in the Museum of the great Patriotic war in Kiev
 
KV-13 had a classic layout with fighting compartment in the middle of the tank. Here on the lower chase cast turret boxes installed tower with a gun, coaxial machine gun, mechanisms aiming, sights and observation devices; the diameter of the ring equal to 1420 mm. the tower Itself is cast as one piece with the mask and gun was equally strong around the perimeter: the thickness of its walls, the frontal part, sides and stern was 85 mm. In the center of it were the hatches with hinged covers, the front holes for the mounting of sights and fan of the fighting compartment, on the sides and at the stern there were four mirror periscope observation device. The rotation of the turret upon movement of the tank produced by an electric motor, and the engine – manual transmission.
 
The tank’s armament consisted of a 76.2-mm gun ZIS-5 mod. 1941 It was developed in design Bureau of the G. grabina-based anti-aircraft gun mod. 1931 and was initially intended for installation on serial tanks KV-1 instead of guns, f-32 and f-34.
 
ZIS-5 had the V-gate and a mechanical semi-automatic loader, and hiltulanlahti in the back of the cradle. Recoil device consisted of a hydraulic brake rollback and hydropneumatic nachalnika. The gun was installed on the original axles with ball bearings. The length of its trunk was equal to 41.6 per caliber, muzzle velocity of about 680 m/s and the Rate of gun was 4-8 RDS./min.
Horizontal movement of the gun when the movement of the tank was made by means of the actuator, and with the engine off at stops manually. Aiming vertically is carried out in the range – 5° – +25° .
 
In gun ammunition consisted of up to 65 unitary shots with armor-piercing UBR-354, and high-explosive shells UOF-354. The weight of shot projectile fragmentation UOF-354 was of 8.82 kg, the mass of the projectile – 6.2 kg weight of explosive -0,71 kg. Shot armor-piercing shell BR-354А had weight 9,12 kg projectile weight 6.3 kg; it could penetrate at range 500 m armor plate thickness up to 70 mm, and 1000 m -up to 63 mm.
 
Medium tank KV-13, armed with 76.2-mm gun ZIS-5
 
Medium tank KV-13, armed with 76.2-mm gun ZIS-5
 
KV-13
 
KV-13:
 
1 – 76.2-mm tank gun; 2 gun mask; 3 – cast turret; 4 – sprocket; 5 – support roller; 6 – output gear; 7 – headlamp; 8 – recess coaxial machine gun; 9 – observation window of the driver; 10 – Luke loader; 11 – shutter engine compartment; 12 – surface of the transmission; 13 – commander’s cupola; 14-cast front part of the hull
 
Housed ammunition cannon cassette boxes on the bottom of the fighting compartment.
 
Next to the cannon in the mask was mounted 7.62-mm machine gun DT, which had the ammunition, 950 rounds in 15 discs; they were placed in the lateral niches of the fighting compartment.
 
For aiming the main gun and coaxial machine gun on the tank target was used telescopic sight DT-7 and tank periscope sight PT-4-7; loader could use the commander’s panoramic device of PTK. Shooting was done hand-or foot-release mechanisms.
 
The peculiarity of the case of the KV-13 was the extensive use of cast parts. And not only the previously mentioned tower and the main frontal part of the hull and turret box, block the stern of the hull, and more were made by method of casting in a mold. In addition, the tank was missing any parts and components from nonferrous metals, with the exception, of course, available to the engine and electrical equipment.
 
Changed significantly and the technology of making the case. It significantly reduced the number of parts, bolting, boring holes under them began to be made in the parts before Assembly, easier welding seams. Due to the compaction of the layout as well as exceptions to the fourth crew member – radio operator-gunner – the height of the tank reduced to 212 mm, and a length of 700 mm. It possible to strengthen the protection within the terms of reference. The upper front hull was now 120 mm bottom 100 mm depth – 75 mm.
 
TABLE of armor PENETRATION of the GUN ZIS-5 armor-PIERCING SHELLS (thickness, mm)
 
TABLE of armor PENETRATION of the GUN ZIS-5 armor-PIERCING SHELLS (thickness, mm)
 
The initial penetration (NP) means that 20% of the shell fragments were punched for armor plates; Guaranteed penetration (GP) means that 80% of the shell fragments was for the broken armor plates.
 
AMMUNITION FOR TANK GUNS ZIS-5
 
AMMUNITION FOR TANK GUNS ZIS-5
 
 
To the front of the compartment, where the driver was located control devices, actuators, air cylinders, two fuel tanks. At the bottom there was a hatch for emergency exit. The driver was watching the road through the viewing gap with “triplex” in an observation hatch, and two side mirror periscope device.
 
In the feed tank was located engine compartment with the engine V-2K output of 600 HP at 2000 rpm./mines installed along the longitudinal axis of the tank. It was a 12-cylinder high-speed natural pressure diesel engine with direct fuel injection. Dry weight – 750 kg, dimensions – 1558x856x1072 mm, the minimum specific fuel consumption is 170 g/HP-HR was developed and put into serial production in 1937 – 1939 at the Kharkov locomotive works; during the war produced in Chelyabinsk, and then at a specially constructed plant in Barnaul.
 
In-2K was originally intended for use in aircraft – for installation on heavy bombers. In tank took the place of the heavy tanks KV-1 and KV-2, and then the KV-13.
The power plant of the tank was supplied with two air cleaners, cooling fan, lamellar liquid radiator, two oil-filled radiators; engine start produced an inertia starter of EC-9 with manual and electromotive drives.
 
The fuel system consisted of two tanks with a volume of 180 liters and 245 liters, which were on the sides of the hull in the Department of management. Lubrication system -circulating, under pressure – had two tank 160 l, placed at the engine.
 
Transmission of the tank – mechanical. It was a multi-plate main clutch, which had steel and iron friction wheels, gearbox with movable couplings, friction clutches dry friction of steel on steel. Single-stage planetary final drives were mounted directly on the brackets of the drive wheels. Transmission – devyatikonechnoy: eight forward gears and one backward.
 
The brakes were set floating belt, with plates of iron.
 
KV-13 weight 32,4 t had a powerful frontal hull armor up to 120 mm tower-to 85 mm, but had the mobility on the battlefield is not worse than the average tank T-34
 
KV-13 weight 32,4 t had a powerful frontal hull armor up to 120 mm tower-to 85 mm, but had the mobility on the battlefield is not worse than the average tank T-34
 
The forehead of the KV-13. On the turret right of the gun is visible, the recess coupled 76.2-mm machine gun DT, under the tower - the viewing driver's hatch with inset triplex
 
The forehead of the KV-13. On the turret right of the gun is visible, the recess coupled 76.2-mm machine gun DT, under the tower – the viewing driver’s hatch with inset “triplex”
 
Feed the KV-13. The upper aft armor plate was removable but had two hatches with pokryshki to access the transmission. Aft of the tower - closed with plugs the loopholes for firing personal weapons of the crew
 
Feed tank the KV-13. The upper aft armor plate was removable but had two hatches with pokryshki to access the transmission. Aft of the tower – closed with plugs the loopholes for firing personal weapons of the crew
 
The electrical equipment received voltage 24 V engine running from generator GT-6543-a, And in the Parking lots, from four batteries, SCTE-80.
 
The engine compartment of the tank was separated from military armored wall. Above it is attached to the roof, consisting of medium bronelista and two hinged side providing access to the engine, oil tanks and air cleaners, as well as armor box blinds. It had three exhaust ports to output exhaust gases of the engine. The upper aft armor plate was removable but had two hatches with pokryshki to access the transmission.
 
So looked and were arranged in a tank project of KV-13 (“object 233”) “enhanced” booking for February, 1943 J. Kotin in a memo to the leadership of the people’s Commissariat noted: “Practically solved a question on the creation of securely booked against all types of anti-tank artillery tank, which will have mobility on the battlefield is not worse than the average tank T-34”.
 
Scheme of reservation of the KV-13
 
Reservation scheme of the KV-13
 
Tank KV-13 in the court of the Chelyabinsk plant No. 100. March, 1943
 
Tank KV-13 in the court of the Chelyabinsk plant No. 100. March, 1943
 
 
“A sample of 234”, armed with a 122 mm howitzer U-11, and “sample 233” 76.2-mm gun ZIS-5 in the Chelyabinsk Kirov factory. Future tanks IP-2 and IP-1
 
However, the events at the front forced in another way to dispose of the fate of the tank “Klim Voroshilov” – KV-13. In August 1942, the station mga near Leningrad for the first time in the fighting was attended by the German heavy tanks “Tiger”. Their 88-mm gun capacity surpassed our 76-mm, then stood on the T-34.
 
Military historians note that soon after in the defense industry, the question was raised about the early modernization of tanks KV-13. On 24 February 1943 the State Defense Committee adopted Resolution No. 2943сс about “prototypes of heavy tanks”, which were ordered in a short time to bring to the test two experimental tank “Joseph Stalin”. To satisfy the requirements and took the fabricated samples KV-13. One of them put a 76.2-mm gun ZIS-5 and was designated as EC-1, leaving the same – “object 233”. The other is-2 “object 234” – armed with 122-mm howitzer U-11 in the turret of the heavy tank KV-9.
 
In March – April of the same year conducted their tests, after which the Commission, consisting of military specialists and representatives of defence industry, concluded that “tanks are with less mass stronger bookings and higher speed” than the heavy KV-1, with equal arms with him, as in IP-1, or more powerful as the is-2.
 
The way before the heirs of the KV-13 was opened.
 
PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A MEDIUM TANK KV-13
 
Combat weight, kg…………………32 400
Crew………………………………..3
Length with gun forward, mm…..6650
Width, mm…………………………..2800
Height, mm……………………………2500
Ground clearance, mm……………………………450
Booking, mm:
-forehead………………………………80-120
side…………………………….75 – 85
– feed…………………………….60 – 85
the bottom……………………………20 – 30
roof…………………………………..20
The tower, mm:
– forehead……………………………………….85
side……………………………………85
feed……………………………………85
roof…………………………………..20
… Armament 76.2 mm gun ZIS-5,
7.62-mm machine gun DT-29
Ammunition……….. shots 57-65,
7.62-mm cartridges – 945
Sights…….telescopic DT-7,
periscope PT-4-7
Engine……………12-cylinder
diesel
IN-2K
liquid-cooled, 600 horsepower
The volume of fuel tanks, l………425
Reserve, km………………………..320
Speed on highway, km/h……………65
Overcoming obstacles in m:
the height of the wall………………………1,0
the width of the pit………………………..2,20
fording depth…………………….1,30
Radio…….high
10P
Tools
internal communication………….TPU-3-bis

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