OFF-ROAD THE FIRSTBORN

OFF-ROAD FIRSTBORNLuxury SUV VOLVO XC90. In a model program of world famous Swedish company had everything with the exception of this jeep SUV. Meanwhile, the marketing policy it is strongly demanded to fill gaping holes in a number of the most reliable and safest cars, which are car brand VOLVO. And this appeared: in 2002, the firm has represented buyers their first real SUV VOLVO XC90. He immediately became a kind of a dream of the perfect vehicle with a spacious seven-seater body, powerful turbo engine, permanent all-wheel drive and with all possible systems and security…

 
Unlike the company-veterans of the global automotive industry, which began its activity at the turn of the last century, Volvo built its first car in 1927. By the way, the word volvo in Latin means “I roll”. Interestingly, the first VOLVO brand and had the famous Swedish ball bearings, manufactured by SKF of Gothenburg. It was in ZSU firm and worked for two talented specialist who was destined to become the founders of a new car company. The first of them — Assar Gabrielson — was a great economist and a very smart leader, who headed the sales Department of SKF, and Gustav Larson is a great designer who had experience in the British automotive industry.
 
The plans for the Swedish car company engineer and economist since 1924 discussed actively, but unsuccessfully. The result of Gustav Larson retired from SKF and moved from Gothenburg to Stockholm. However, fate once again to push like-minded people face to face — in a crowded Stockholm, and quite by accident. The meeting ended with a very specific agreement on the construction of the first ten Swedish cars. However, consultation with management, SKF has shown that part of this firm does not intend to. Then Assar Gabrielsson decided to invest in the fabrication of these machines your own money.
 
The first VOLVO OV4 (firm SKF has shown only consent to the use of owned brand) came out of the factory gates on 14 April 1927. It was durable and reliable, made in the conservative spirit of the car is a convertible (open body) with a 1.9-liter 28-horsepower engine, develop quite a decent speed of 60 km/h the Only drawback of the car, which hampered its operation in the North country, was an open body with a soft awning. For export to southern Europe it was still acceptable, but for sale in Sweden needed a car with a closed body warm. I had some machines to produce “Northern design” under the name PV4.
 
VOLVO OV4 — the first car created by the founders of the company Volvo A. Gabrielson and G. Larson (1927)
 
VOLVO OV4 — the first car created by the founders of the company Volvo A. Gabrielson and G. Larson (1927)
 
VOLVO PV36 CARIOCA, a representative of the avant-garde
 
VOLVO PV36 CARIOCA, a representative of the avant-garde “aerodynamic” styles in automotive design (1935)
 
VOLVO PV52, built in a more conservative style than PV36, used, ironically, more popular with buyers (1937)
 
VOLVO PV52, built in a more conservative style than PV36, used, ironically, more popular with buyers (1937)
 
VOLVO PV444, a two-door compact car, production of which has caused excessive customer demand not only in Sweden but also abroad. There was a legend that this car was copied from the Patriotic
 
VOLVO PV444, a two-door compact car, production of which has caused excessive customer demand not only in Sweden but also abroad. There was a legend that this car was copied from the Patriotic “Victory”, but the study showed that the designers of the Volvo is likely to have developed quite independently PV444 (1944-1947)
 
VOLVO P120 AMAZON — comfortable n safe four-door sedans, produced from 1956 to 1970
 
VOLVO P120 AMAZON — comfortable n safe four-door sedans, produced from 1956 to 1970

 
VOLVO 144 is one of the safest cars of its time, which absorbed almost all the world achievement in the field of active and passive safety (1966)
 
VOLVO 144 is one of the safest cars of its time, which absorbed almost all the world achievement in the field of active and passive safety (1966)
 
VOLVO 240 issue, 1974, irci representative volvovsky
 
VOLVO 240 issue, 1974, irci representative volvovsky “suitcase” style in the design. Was in production until 1993
 
The success of the first VOLVO, SKF has led the firm to be among the founders of a new automotive enterprise. The following new companies started PV-and PV 651-652, designed under the obvious influence of the American samples. Characteristically, the cars were equipped with 6-cylinder engines, and PV-652 was installed the hydraulic brake.
 
In 1935, the company decided to release a car that can compete in its class with the best European and American machines. This car was VOLVO PV36 CARIOCA, resolved in part at that time in the fashion of “aerodynamic” design. It was a machine with all-metal body and independent suspension of the front wheels. Unfortunately, the conservative Swedes a cool attitude to the avant-garde models, and the production of VOLVO PV36 CARIOCA had to turn — in all there were only 500 “aerodynamic” car.
 
A year later, VOLVO offered customers two models of a more moderate design PV51 and PV52. Like the previous one, the new car is also equipped with 6-cylinder 86-horsepower motors, and the PV-52 was designed to obsolete rigid front axle with dependent suspension. A reasonable portion of the conservatism in the design of machines clearly went for the benefit of the firm — these cars were produced significantly more than the vanguard of VOLVO PV36 CARIOCA.
 
Even in the prewar years, the firm Volvo has begun to design the VOLVO PV40 — original compact streamlined car with bearing all-metal body. For a number of reasons in the production of this model did not. However, the car became the basis running in series, the VOLVO PV444. Machine with a 4-cylinder 1.4-liter engine producing 44 HP had a monocoque streamlined shape and independent suspension of the front wheels. The car was presented to the public in 1944 on the Volvo exhibition in Stockholm, however, the series he was able to start only after the Second world war — in 1947.
 
Machine aroused the interest of buyers — both within the country and abroad. The fact that the PV444 had an excellent ratio “price/quality”. At a relatively low cost, comparable to the price of the car company release, the early 30-ies, compact, durable and highly reliable PV444 had excellent aerodynamics and high driving performance. The novelty had buyers literally rabid demand — and not only domestically, but also abroad. In particular, the U.S. has sold about 22 thousand cars, which allowed the Volvo to get into the top ten of the largest European importers. PV444 has been repeatedly modernized and produced until 1958. the total production was 196 thousand copies.
 
In the mid 50-ies of a European car, VOLVO PV444, a two-door compact car, production of which has caused excessive customer demand not only in Sweden but also abroad. There was a legend that this car was copied from the Patriotic “Victory”, but the study showed that the designers of the Volvo is likely to have developed quite independently PV444 (1944-1947) firms who entered the market in the postwar period, cheap runabout, began producing a more solid and hence more expensive cars. No exception in this series and Volvo: with increasing purchasing power the firm rushed to take the vacant niche in the lineup.
 
Quite a respectable first post-war car was a VOLVO AMAZON Р120 1956. In a large and comfortable car, designers and designers could combine the best of what we have achieved by the time the global auto industry. The car was very harmonious, and for many years, until the termination of its serial production, was quite modern. It should also be noted that VOLVO Р120 was one of the safest cars of its time: it is the world’s first equipped with seat belts as standard equipment
 
The same concern for passengers was placed at the forefront and in the design of the VOLVO 144 release in 1966. The car was used in virtually all known at the time of development of active and passive safety. In particular, the steering column was collapsible, which excluded injuries to the thorax of a driver in cases of head-on collisions. The car body had guaranteed the deformed zones, front and rear: disc brakes on front and rear wheels with dual drive system has allowed them to retain 80-percent braking efficiency even in case of failure of one circuit.
 
VOLVO 343, a public cheap runabout, on which the transmission was installed V-belt CVT. The novelty, however, is not caught on the car and was replaced by a manual transmission
 
VOLVO 343, a public cheap runabout, on which the transmission was installed V-belt CVT. The novelty, however, is not caught on the car and was replaced manual transmission
 
Exclusive VOLVO 262C of 1977 model year, the most expensive car of the company in that period. The car was created by famous design Studio Betrone
 
Exclusive VOLVO 262C of 1977 model year, the most expensive car of the company in that period. The car was created by famous design Studio Betrone
 
VOLVO 760GLE, luxurious four-door sedan edition 1982
 
VOLVO 760GLE, luxurious four-door sedan production 1982
 
Sport coupe VOLVO 480ES 1985 issues—the first front-drive car company, whose engine is not located longitudinally, as in the earlier machines and the cross
 
Sport coupe VOLVO 480ES 1985 issues—the first front-drive car company, whose engine is not located longitudinally, as in earlier cars, and transversely
 
VOLVO 850, powerful and high-speed front-wheel drive sedan of business class (1991)
 
VOLVO 850, powerful and high-speed front-wheel drive sedan of business class (1991)
 
VOLVO V70XC — first attempt at creating a
 
VOLVO V70XC — first attempt at creating a “parquet SUV” on the basis of standard all-wheel drive station wagon (1997)
 
The VOLVO XC90 is the first specially designed asphalt Deluxe SUV, with the creation of which was attempted the realisation of a dream of the perfect car (2002).
 
VOLVO XC90—the first specially designed asphalt Deluxe SUV, with the creation of which was attempted the realisation of a dream of the perfect car (2002).
 
In 1975 the company released a VOLVO 240 with a 4-cylinder 2.1-liter engine. The popularity of the model has been all over the world such that together with subsequent upgrades it stayed in production for as many as nineteen. The machine has withstood a series of upgrades — it was equipped with a 6-cylinder 2.4-liter diesel and a turbocharged engine, 4-cylinder 2.3-liter gasoline and 2.8-liter V-neck. The greatest demand VOLVO 240 gets on the American market. The reliability and security of this machine was so high that they have become a benchmark for the Commission on security of traffic of the USA.
 
The experience of creating compact cars came in handy for Volvo in the early 70-ies, when it was found that in the model range of the company is no small car. To quickly fill this gap, Volvo annexed the office of cars of the Dutch company DAF, which produced a small car with a V-belt CVT instead of a traditional gearbox. This is the “automatic” was equipped with a new VOLVO 343 — the smallest car company’s class of 1976. However, the CVT was poorly spent, and exploitation it has caused a lot of complaints from buyers. In the end, had to abandon a promising unit, and the newly created firm of a small car to convert a conventional manual gearbox.
 
The mass production cheap compact car not prevented by 1977 to prepare for the production of the most expensive car firms of the period — the two-door VOLVO 262C has a 6-cylinder 140-horsepower engine. The car was assembled in the famous bodybuilder Studio Bertone. The exclusive design of the car was designed for the American consumer — standard on the VOLVO 262C was part leather interior, prestige sound system, power accessories and even air conditioning. It is worth Recalling that 70 years of conditioning were completed except Executive cars.
 
“Suitcase” style of the Volvo, going from a 240-th model 1974, with its chopped faceted forms, with massive chests-trunks and cases-noses, stood out significantly from the European style, gravitated to the aerodynamic, streamlined forms. However, luxury sedans VOLVO 760GLE of issue 1982 made in the tradition of Volvo, it is easy to find buyers, mostly overseas. Prestige car equipped with turbo engine with a power of 182 HP, capable of accelerating the car to 200 km/h.
 
The eighties were for most of the car manufacturers of the period, practically full transition to front-wheel drive. Not spared this trend and the Volvo. Its first front-wheel drive car was three-door hatchback VOLVO 480ES 1985 issues. The new machine was not only a departure from rear-wheel drive, but the traditional “suitcase” design. The vehicles were fashionable for the time tapered silhouette, a retractable headlamp and a transversely mounted engine.
 
Geometric diagram of VOLVO XC90
 
Geometric diagram of VOLVO XC90
 
The interior of the workplace drivers of VOLVO XC90
 
The interior of the workplace drivers of VOLVO XC90
 
Scheme powertrain VOLVO XC90
 
Scheme of transmission VOLVO XC90:
 
1 — multi-plate Haldex coupling; 2 — a control unit coupling; 3 — the electronic engine control unit; 4 — ABS control module; 5 — controller; 6 — instrument
 
Spring independent front suspension type McPherson with stabilizer
 
Independent spring front suspension McPherson type with stabilizer
 
Independent coil-spring multilink rear suspension with stabilizer
 
Spring independent multi-link rear suspension with stabilizer
 

The beginning of the nineties, the firm has marked the release of the front-wheel-drive sedan of business-class, the VOLVO 850 is a powerful, fast and is characterized by excellent handling. The machine had compact and powerful 5-cylinder engine and had increased security. Thus, this model was first used SIPS reliably protecting passengers in side impacts.
 
In the late nineties the firm Volvo has finally attended to the absence in its model range a full-fledged off-road car. The leadership realized that a buyer wishing to purchase a reliable and safe SUV, will look for it in Volvo — a company with the reputation of the manufacturer of the most reliable and safe cars. It was easy to create the SUV.
 
The first machine in this series was VOLVO V70XC release 1997, made on the basis of a standard station wagon. The car with the increased ground clearance was equipped with four-wheel drive transmission and suspension. However, to call it a SUV could only conditional — more likely attributed to a very numerous detachment of the parquet jeeps, or, as they are called, the cars slightly increased passability.
 
The debut of the VOLVO V70XC was quite successful, and five years later, the Volvo came out with a new car that had much more reason to be called a SUV.
 
OFF-ROAD FIRSTBORN
 
They became comfortable seven-seater VOLVO XC90 2002 issue. The basis of the car remained the standard P2 platform, which is used in almost all modern cars company. The car has permanent four-wheel drive, although in normal circumstances, when the wheels do not slip, the car is rather front-wheel drive: 95 percent of the torque goes to the front wheels and only five on the back. But it is necessary to start the slip of the front wheels as it comes in a multi-plate Haldex coupling redistributing torque between the axles more favorable at the moment ratio. In the end on a very bad road, the torque distribution between the front and rear wheels can achieve a ratio of 35:65.
 
Front and rear suspension machines structurally differ little from those used on the VOLVO S80 sedan, although their elements are modified taking into account the size and weight of the new seven-seater car. Besides, multi-link rear suspension has been supplemented by a system of automatic maintenance of a horizontal position of the body, enhancing vehicle stability and to maintain constant ground clearance under various options of the salon.
 
The drivetrain of the car, wearing branded title AWD designed according to the scheme typical for passenger cars. Located transversely in front, the power unit is mated to the automatic transmission and one transfer case. Latest classic is connected the propeller shaft with the rear axle. In the block with the main transfer works Haldex multiplate clutch with electronic control, which, when the slip of the front wheel automatically turns the rear wheel drive. Downshift-shift stage on VOLVO XC90 no. Is not provided and the mechanism for differential locks — the lack of it in some way kompensiruet electronic system, slow down a slipping wheel.
 
The most powerful, the VOLVO XC90 is equipped with inline 6-cylinder 272-horsepower turbo engine working volume of 2.9 L. the company also offers machines with inline 2.5-liter 5-cylinder engine producing 210 HP and inline 2.4-liter 5-cylinder turbodiesel rated at 163 HP. the Interior is consistent with the luxury SUV. His design is sober and ergonomics.
 
In the top of the console houses the audio control panel with a slot, which consistently loading up to six CDs. Below — three control keys climate control by which the flow of air is respectively directed to the windshield, face or legs. Two rotatable arm to the right and to the left of the keys is to adjust the temperature, left for driver and right for passenger. By the way, the rear compartment provides additional conditioning. And yet — if the car will be forced to move for a smoky truck, automation, responsible for the microclimate in the salon, she will switch to recirculated air mode.
 
Driver’s seat has multiple electrically with which it is possible to customize it to almost any growth and any figure. All passenger seats can be folded, freeing up space for Luggage. In fairness it should be noted that on the last seats, third row placed with the convenience of only children — adults will be cramped in there
 
Multi-function steering wheel polished timber rim is consistent with the style of the interior, however, to operate the machine without the gloves very uncomfortable.
 
Specifications all-wheel drive VOLVO XC90
 
Technical data all-wheel drive VOLVO XC90
 
By order of VOLVO XC90 is equipped with an infrared night vision system — European car this unit is used for the first time. In the dark the system projected onto the windshield objects that are far ahead of the car, abroad, light, powerful bi-xenon headlights.
 
In conclusion, it should be noted that sea trials of the luxury SUV VOLVO XC90 with the participation of journalists of automotive publications have shown that a full jeep to call this car still hard. The lack of downshifting and system differential lock in conjunction with automatic transmission has often led to the fact that on a slippery dirt or snow-covered roads the VOLVO XC90 is easy to become a prisoner of the severe road conditions. The unanimous opinion of the participants of the test: flotation machine is located on level asphalt such SUVs as the BMW X5 or HONDA CR-V.
 
VOLVO XC90 first appeared in Russia in the end of 2003 compared to car competitors, the price of the Swedish SUV in Russia is quite reasonable: $55 000 for modification of the VOLVO XC90 2.5 T in the base set and $63 000 for more cheat VOLVO XC90 T6.
 
I. EVSTRATOV

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