URAL “THREE-TON”

URAL Autumn the evacuation of 1941, which resulted in the defense enterprises of the capital was transferred to the East of the country, has transformed a provincial town, which was the Ulyanovsk, Chelyabinsk and Miass, in the largest industrial centers, producing goods for needs of red Army. Thus in the Urals city of Miass appeared one of the most powerful Soviet enterprises for the production of military vehicles.

BACKGROUND. The construction of the Miass automotive plant began in December 1941 with the installation of the equipment evacuated from the Moscow automobile plant named after Stalin. The company had to promptly start production of automotive engines and transmissions for tanks. And already on 16 April 1942, there were collected the first transmission, and on April 30 the same year – the first engine of the type ZIS-5.
 
14 February 1943 the State defense Committee adopted a decision to transfer the Assembly production of army trucks ZIS-5V from Ulyanovsk to Miass. 8 July 1944 from the plant rolled off the first car – the famous “three-ton” with the title “Uralzis-5V”. They represented to the limit of the simplified ZIS-5 with a 76-horsepower engine, four-speed gearbox, wooden cabin, angular welded wings, a side platform with a single flip (back) side and with only the left headlamp. Another difference of this model from the pre-war ZIS-5 was the lack of front brakes.
“Uralzis-5V” was easy to use and worked perfectly in the conditions of military roads. At rated load 3 t he was carrying up to 5 t was used as towing vehicle for artillery guns weighing up to 2.5 tons, a tanker, mobile workshop, etc.
 
Uralzis-355М
 
Uralzis-355М
 
 
“Uralzis-355М” release 1959
 
Ural “three-ton” supplied the Red Army until the summer of 1945. In 1947 the plant was developed and approved in the Technical management of people’s Commissariat of medium machine building modernisation plans “, Uralzis-5”, and then sent to the “citizen” of the truck ratcheted pivot nodes of the front axle, the gearbox and axles of the rear axle, and all wheels are equipped with brakes with hydraulic drive. By car there are electric turn indicators, new steering gear, compressor for inflating tires and a new body design with metal struts of the sides of the channel section. The modernized version is called “Uralzis-5M” (February 1956 – “Ural-ZIS-355”; externally the car differed from its predecessor only by the presence of new wings streamlined).
 
On 1 July 1958 the company launched the release of the radically upgraded truck with the index “Uralzis-355М”. Unlike its predecessors, it had a more powerful and more economical engine, the stamped all-metal cab, increased load capacity and a new steering designed specifically taking into account heavy traffic conditions, because the new car was intended mainly to use on national economic construction and the development of virgin and fallow lands. Gradually “Uralzis-355М” spread across the country. All in all, until October 16, 1965 were produced over 190 thousand.
Historians of technology are not without reason to believe that on October 16, 1965 ended significant for domestic autostructure step in the production of trucks – the era of the legendary “trentodoc” ZIS-5. But, unfortunately, about the latest modifications — the car “Uralzis-355М”, quite independent and very good, unfairly forgotten. It was, apparently, that the annual output of these machines was relatively small, and continued their production for long. Besides, most of these trucks were received in the peripheral towns and villages.
 
THE HISTORY OF CREATION. Almost immediately after the start of production “, Uralzis-5” in July 1944 began rolling upgrade this machine. The result of this long and laborious work, fully deployed in 1951, became the truck, which was given the index “Uralzis-353”. The designers tried to get rid of angularity ZIS-5, setting a new all-metal cabin streamlined shape – she made a car similar at the same time for the ZIS-150, and on the GAZ-51. However, the production of moulds for the serial production was to plant an impossible task. To move the deadlock, the former chief designer of Gas A. A. Lipgart (in that period sent to Miass from Gorky, he worked on “Uralsibe” ordinary designer) suggested “Uralzis-353” somewhat modified the cockpit of the GAZ-51A, used for the manufacture of stamps of the Gorky automobile plant. True, the fenders and the hood lining had to design and execute independently.
 
Firstborn of the plant
 
The firstborn of the plant”, Uralzis” – the car “Uralzis-5V”
 
Geometry car
 
The geometric scheme of the car, “Uralzis-5M” (February 1956, Uralzis-355)
 
Firstborn of the plant
 
The firstborn of the plant”, Uralzis” – the car “Uralzis-5”
 
The final design of the car was designed in 1953 by a talented designer “Brassica” B. V. Rachkov – at a minimum “creative space” he was able to make a utilitarian truck even attractive to look at.
 
The designers managed to maintain the throughput, reliability and ease-of-three-ton ZIS-5, equip it with much needed in the Russian climate, a heated cabin, a more powerful 95-horsepower engine and modern machinery. Instead of tires 34×7 inches were used tyre dimension of 8.25-20. Maximum speed “, Uralzis-353” was 75 km/h, fuel consumption highway 24 l/100 km rear Track wheels of the truck – 1675 mm, the same as the ZIS-5, and the front track increased to 1611 mm.
 
Meanwhile, the preparation of serial production of the model “353” delayed – plant do not have enough funds. At the same time archaic “Uralzis-5” with wooden cabin, go in the period with a pipeline, causing a fair criticism and at the bottom, and the leaders of the industry, with the result that the plant was raided by the Commission, national audit office, signaling a breakdown of the task at the beginning of serial production “353,” which is scheduled for the third quarter of 1957. And at that time for failing to plan often punished to the fullest extent of the law. So, in the end, pre-production to serial production truck was renamed to “Uralzis-355М”, significantly intensified (the emergence of a new designation due to the fact that at this time from the conveyor descended triaxial all-wheel-drive truck with the index “355”).
 
PRODUCTION. At first, “Uralzis-355М” it was assumed to collect only for one 1959-in order to justify the cost of preparation of production. However, the truck stayed on the Assembly line for seven years, not least due to the high rating of the machine by the operators.
 
Serial production of the vehicle does not become a hindrance for regular inclusion in its design of further improvements. So, from November, 1959, frogs driveshafts instead of slide bushings were installed needle bearings. From April 1960 the suspension of the front wheels completed already not a lever, and telescopic shock absorbers. The next year he improved seal rear crankshaft bearing, and the crankcase ventilation system was closed; the updated engine gave an index of “Ural-353”.
 
In the same year the abbreviation “VMS” has been deleted from the title of the machine: on the plate with chassis and engine appeared the designation “Ural-355М”, and on the sides of the hood instead of “Uralzis” tab “UralAZ”. But in the driving environment, this truck is often called “male” or “Ural”.
Modernization of the machine had almost no effect on its appearance – with the exception of the decals, the car is almost not changed. All serial “355М” had a horizontal grille and was fitted with disc wheels, six Windows-“hearts”.
 
OPERATION. The car quickly gained respect from drivers. He was appreciated for reliability, durability, dependability, and excellent throughput, especially in rural terrain. Engine “Ural-353”, durable, with better starting properties than the ZIL-120 standing
the ZIS-5, in the most severe conditions worked flawlessly and was “tegometall” that has greatly enhanced the maneuverability of the cars. By the way, is the quality of the motor allow the truck not to be afraid of even a significant overload.
 
Four-speed transmission with well-chosen gear ratios was the perfect alternative to a five-speed “shilovskoe”. Very reliable and was carb-To-75. The incredible vitality of the basic units of the truck was allowed to carry on “355М” for 5 – 6 tonnes instead of the passport 3.5 tons And the simplicity of the design of the car and its excellent maintainability provide trouble free and long operation of the truck.
 
Despite the pre-war basis, “Ural-355М” largely surpass the post-war GAZ-51A and ZIL-164. He was faster, stronger, easier to maintain and repair; off-road spent considerably less fuel and oil than the ZIL, or even a GAZ-51 AND became one of the first domestic trucks with a curb weight ratio is less than one. Just in Miass during the seven years of production it produced 192 580 cars “Uralzis-355М” and “Ural-355М”. If at the time of manufacture of the truck depended on the demand for it, the model “355М” could to survive on the conveyor, at least a dozen years…
 
Geometry car
 
The geometric scheme of the car, “Uralzis-355М”
 
Truck
 
Truck”, Uralzis-355М”
 
 
“Uralzis-355М”. The driver
 
“Ural-355М” was good and the quality of the tractor he was hauling not only the “regular” two-axle trailer, but coped with the trains of two or three such trailers. Many drivers testified that where “sat” on the bridge even four-wheel drive GAS-6З, “Uralzis-355М” not only passed, but managed to drag the “63rd” in tow. Under the passport a maximum speed of 75 km/h this car easily accelerates to “hundreds”, and a speedometer graduated up to 100 km/h, simply rolls over. And this is without any consequences for “Uralets”. Is it any wonder that at a meeting in October 1960, at the USSR championship autocross, where the first was attended by Ural trucks, winner of the class was “Uralzis-355М”.
 
Naturally, the machines were and weaknesses, although they were manifested only in the instances of working in the complete absence of “human” roads and a fair and systematic overload.
 
MODIFICATION. The plant was built “Uralzis-355М” in two versions – flatbed truck with tent or without it, as well as bare chassis. Often the last mounted tankers for transportation of fuel or milk.
 
The most common after the tanks were trucks with trailers-raspuskanie who produced the motor company. No less popular among operatives were considered as truck tractors with semi-trailers side – it was the most rational way of increasing carrying capacity “355М”, which was officially able to tow a trailer with GVW of 5 t, but in reality, the weight of the trailer reached 9 t! Existed or modifications performed only in a few instances. In particular, in 1960 in Alma-ATA for repair and Assembly plant on the chassis “Ural-355М” was produced bus railroad layout, which had 28 seats and a total capacity of 40 people.
 
In our days throughout the former Soviet Union there are only about a dozen to a greater or lesser extent preserved trucks “Uralzis-355М”. Many have already forgotten about the existence of such a machine, but for those who worked on it who didn’t freeze in the heated cab of this truck even in severe frosts, who pulled them on dirt roads, the cargo twice exceeding the norm, who turned the wheel of his “three-ton” for 20 – 30 years, for these people, “Ural-355М” will forever remain in the memory of the most reliable partner and a real good friend…
 
Technical characteristics of the truck”, Uralzis-355М”
 
Wheel formula………………………………………………………………4×2
Full weight, kg………………………………………………………………7050
Curb weight, kg……………………………………………………..3400
Weight of transported cargo, kg…………………………………………..3500
Maximum speed, km/h………………………………………………75
Engine……………………………………………………..”Uralzis-353А”
Nominal engine power, kW (HP)…………………70 (95)
The working volume of the cylinder, l……………………………………………..5,55
Fuel consumption l/100 km………………………………………………….24
Tires……………………………………………….8,25-20 low pressure
Overall dimensions, mm………………………………..6290x2280x2095
Outside turning radius, m………………………………………………8,3

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