WITH THE “BISON” ON THE HOOD

In the prewar years, the Soviet automotive industry did not spoil the country’s economy by heavy vehicles. In small quantities it was producing vehicles medium-duty, established in the Yaroslavl automobile plant — “five-tonne” YAG-3 YAG-4.
In the early postwar years on the roads of our country were to be found mainly polutoratonny trucks GAZ-AA (“polutorka”) and “three-ton” ZIS-5 and Uralzis-5. Also two or and a lend-lease Ford, Studebaker and GMC, which also did not differ the big carrying capacity.
 
However, in the years of the postwar recovery of the economy the country needed a reliable and versatile heavy-duty truck is economical and powerful diesel power plant.
 
According to the plans after the reconstruction, 1940 — 1942 Yaroslavl plant had to master the production truck YAG-7, the prototype of which defined the American car GMC-803 with a diesel engine capacity of 110 HP the First prototypes of the M-7 came out of the factory gates in 1938 — they were used by the forced engine-off bus ZIS-16 with a capacity of 85 HP was Planned that the serial car will be equipped with two-stage dual, pressed from the 7 mm sheet steel frame, comfortable all-metal cabin and a spring suspension on rubber mounts. Significantly had to change the gear of the main bridge, instead of a pair of spur gears was supposed to use herringbone, but instead a pair of conical spur gear with helical teeth.
 
A prototype of a five-ton truck YAG-7, developed at the Yaroslavl automobile plant in 1939/
A prototype five-ton truck YAG-7, developed at the Yaroslavl automobile plant in 1939.
Plans should also make provision for the future replacement of the YAG-7 7-ton vehicle M-8 with diesel engine the Ufa engine plant with a capacity of 110 HP However, the war prevented further work on the development of production of the new truck, and get back to work on it, the plant was only in 1943. In December of the following year the prototype of the M-8 was assembled, and in January of the following year began testing it.
 
In the summer of 1945 truck, called yaz-200 was demonstrated in the Kremlin party and government leadership of the country. The car as a whole was approved and recommended for serial production at the Yaroslavl automobile plant.
 
The first samples of yaz-200 was equipped with a diesel engine company GMC and all-metal cab American truck Brockway. However, with the completion of the test, two-stroke, four-cylinder diesel engine, created on the basis of American motor GMC 4-71 and received the name of yaz-204, the car began to be equipped with domestic engines.
 
In 1946, the designers EASA on the basis of the side of the truck has developed a 6-ton dump truck yaz-205, designed for the transport of concrete, mortar, and loose goods. The machine was equipped with wooden-metal cabin (due to a post-war shortage of metal), 5-speed gearbox, pneumatic brakes and hydraulic lift body volume of 3.6 cubic meters Serial production of the truck began in August 1947.
 
Almost simultaneously, in November of the same year — the same trucks with the designation MAZ-205 came from the gates of experimental shop of the Minsk automobile plant.
 
The official “birthday” of the Minsk automobile plant is considered to be August 9, 1944, when in the capital of Belarus a few days after its liberation from the Nazi invaders was organized by the American Assembly of trucks coming into the country under lend-lease. The production base of the new company became auto repair shops in the so-called Red the tract, built by the invaders to restore army vehicles of the Wehrmacht.
 
In October 1946, the Assembly of lend-lease machinery — has been completed and the plant started up production of trucks and special vehicles MAZ-200.
 
Geometric scheme of the truck MAZ-200
The geometric scheme of the truck MAZ-200.
 
One of the most popular cars in the country has become the dump truck MAZ-205 — a car that had a chance to work on virtually all major construction projects of the Soviet Union.
 
The first five cars-trucks were in a convoy of city demonstration on 7 November 1947. It is with trucks, not with side cars began production at the Minsk automobile plant because the machines were then much more necessary for post-war reconstruction of the country. From 1947 to 1950 MAZ collected 3825 trucks.
 
In 1951 in Minsk began manufacturing and truck MAZ-200 with flatbed and truck tractor MAZ-200V.
 
Structurally yaz-200 and MAZ-200 was almost identical to distinguish them only by the grille (AASA her slit was horizontal and left vertical), but branded the figurines on the hood of the engine (bear in Yaroslavl machines and bison in Minsk).
 
Yaz-200 — semitones diesel truck production in 1947
Yaz-200 — semitones diesel truck release in 1947.
 
Truck MAZ-200
Truck MAZ-200.
 
The machine was equipped with two-stroke four-cylinder model diesel engine yaz-204 displacement 4,65 liters and power of 120 HP at engine speed 2000 rpm Mass of the engine was 800 kg. Valves in the cylinder head was designed for the exhaust, the air intake was carried out using 64 8-mm round inlet ports in the cylinder liner, which in the process, overlaps the edge of the piston. The fuel supply to the cylinders was carried out under high pressure pumps-injectors (one per cylinder) to drive the Cam from the camshaft.
 
As the Yaroslavl and Minsk truck had a mass of 6400 kg and can reach speeds up to 65 km/h, consuming 30 to 35 liters of diesel per 100 km.
 
The machines were equipped dry single-plate clutch and five-speed manual transmission with synchromesh on all four gears (without the first). By the way, the synchronizers at that time were membership cars and trucks when shifting drivers had to resort to the double cutoffs of coupling with the blipping.
 
The fuel tank capacity of yaz-200 and MAZ-200 to 225 HP
 
Geometric diagram MAZ-205
The geometric scheme of the car MAZ-205.
 
Car-dump truck MAZ-205 load capacity 6 t
Car-dump truck MAZ-205 load capacity 6 t
 
The brakes were pneumatic drive, suspension — leaf spring dependent; front suspension equipped with hydraulic lever shock absorbers. The ends of the front springs was connected to the frame through rubber cushions.
 
The cabin of the vehicle of yaz-200 (as well as the MAZ-200) was of mixed construction — wood-metal. Windshield equipped with a wiper, and on the dashboard (for the first time on Soviet trucks!) appeared tachometer.
 
The first independent design of the townspeople has become a truck-tractor MAZ-501 with the wheel formula 4×4 and a gable of the rear wheels, which are widely used in forestry, and then, in 1957, based on the MAZ-501 was created by army trucks MAZ-502 and MAZ-502А terrain with single rear wheels with V-shaped six-cylinder engine YAMZ-236 180 HP, equipped with a powerful winch on the front bumper for recovery and for assistance to other vehicles stuck on the roads. The car was produced until 1966.
Design semitones diesel truck is quite successful, however, the national economy required trucks of various modifications, which were developed by designers of the Minsk automobile plant. Thus, there was the model MAZ-200G, equipped with lattice sides and folding benches in the back (readers of the older generation will remember, perhaps, popular in the late 1950-ies movie “Rumyantsev Case”, in which the main role was played by Aleksey Batalov and… onboard MAZ-200). In the core extensions to install arc for a canvas awning. The machine was equipped with a reducer of the rear bridge with reduced gear ratio; the maximum speed of this car was 52 km/h fuel consumption: 38 l/100 km.
 
Mass housing construction required the creation of tractors, and in 1952 the plant created MAZ-200V, which worked in tandem with the prefab KM-24, SCP-9, SCP-12, transporting the wall panels and concrete blocks for the construction of the famous five-story Khrushchev.
 
Geometric diagram of truck tractor MAZ-200V of issue 1952
The geometric scheme of the truck tractor MAZ-200V release in 1952.
 
Tractor MAZ-200V could be paired with a trailer full weight up to 16.5 t
Tractor MAZ-200V could be paired with a trailer full weight up to 16.5 T.
 
In 1956, the MAZ designers has developed a car-dump truck MAZ-506 with side and rear unloading, which could also work with tipping trailer. The history of the emergence of such a car deserves a more detailed presentation.
 
In the middle 1950-x of years at Minsk automobile plant, appealed to the leaders of the Kuibyshev hydroelectric station, a request to create a dump truck with side unloading of the body. When unloading pontoon of classic cars-the trucks had to maneuver in order to drive to the place of discharge in reverse, which required the pontoons of great width. Well, if you are using machines with lateral unloading, it was possible to reduce the cost of construction of the pontoon and speed up the unloading.
 
The hydraulic engineer, the plant crew had based dump truck MAZ-205. The prototype received index MAZ-506, appeared in 1954. He had welded sheet steel tipper body with hydraulic mechanism for tilting it on the right and left sides fixed front and rear sides. Hydraulic lifting mechanism consisted of two telescopic hydraulic RAM. Prototypes of the new car passed serious tests and has been recommended in production, however for various reasons the re-equipment of the Minsk trucks such bodies is carried out only by the company “mosavtotrans”.
 
MAZ-200 was used for mounting them on mobile truck cranes by carrying capacity from 5 up to 12 t Chassis MAZ-200 became the basis for a powerful fire tankers involved in extinguishing fires at oil depots. The longest Soviet mechanical fire ladder ATSL-45 is also mounted on an elongated chassis MAZ-200. Cars-vehicles MAZ-501 took out the wood from the logging in Siberia and the far East, and army all-terrain vehicles MAZ-502 transported the personnel of the Soviet Army and Warsaw Pact countries.
 
Design of the front axle of the truck MAZ-200
The design of the front axle of the truck MAZ-200.
 
Design of a leading rear axle of the truck MAZ-200
Design leading rear axle of the truck MAZ-200.

 
Since 1962, the part of cars MAZ-200 started to be equipped with more advanced diesel engine — V-shaped four-stroke six-cylinder YAMZ-236 with a capacity of 165 HP, created on the former car factory, redesigned for the production of diesel engines. Fuel efficiency of this motor was 10 percent higher than the inline four-cylinder yaz-204.
 
The MAZ-200 has been successfully sold to many foreign countries. A lot of the Minsk trucks operated in the German Democratic Republic, Mongolia, Cuba. In Finland trains with tractors MAZ-200V, equipped with British engines, on equal compete with the famous “lalandei” and “Magirus”.
 
Basic dimensions of the cabin of the MAZ-200.
The principal dimensions of the cab of the truck MAZ-200.
 
The front of the car MAZ-200
The front of the car MAZ-200.
 
But time passed, and the post-war Minsk truck created in Yaroslavl, inexorably aging. But the Minsk designers at this time designed a brand-new truck MAZ-500 cab-over-engine, first prototypes of which were collected in November 1958. At the Yaroslavl motor plant specifically for this machine designed a six-cylinder V-shaped diesel YAMZ-236.
 
Since 1962, the Minsk automobile plant released the transition model MAZ-200P with diesel engine YMZ-236. Serial production of MAZ-500 began in late 1965.
MAZ-200 — side (top) and tipper (below)
 
MAZ-200 — side (top) and tipper (below)
MAZ-200 — side (top) and dump (bottom).
 
Specifications truck MAZ-200
 
Load capacity, kg
 
on asphalt: 7000
 
on the ground: 5000
 
Curb weight, kg: 6400
 
Full weight, kg: 13 625
 
Ground clearance, mm: 290
 
Maximum speed, km/h: 65
 
Control fuel consumption at 40 km/h, l/100 km: 32
 
Engine: yaz-204A
 
Power, HP: 120
 
Transmission: 5-speed
 
Tires of 12.00 — 20
 
Front suspension: on two longitudinal semi-elliptic leaf springs with hydraulic shock absorbers.
 
Rear suspension: two longitudinal semi-elliptic leaf springs with two extra springs.
 
Fuel tank capacity, l: 225
 

 
Igor EVSTRATOV

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