Besides equipment, the aircraft had automatic direction finder ark-4, MRP-56П, “Sirena-2” and the artificial horizon AGI-1.
The fuel is housed in five tanks: No. 1 – 1075 l, No. 2 and No. 3 1635 l, No. 4 and No. 5 – 1945 L.
In this form built a series of 10 aircraft.
As follows from the conclusion on the test results of the serial Yak-27R on the basic performance data and characteristics of stability and controllability did not differ from the prototype aircraft and the first of the series can be allowed for use in the drill parts after they resolve the identified deficiencies.
In accordance with the July (1958) by order of the government of the Yak-27R launched into series production at the Saratov aviation plant. The document, in particular, ordered to produce in 1958 11 planes in 1959 and 1960 – not less than 100 and 150 respectively.
During factory test production cars, not without victims. In particular, during the flyby suffered the accident aircraft No. 0602 and No. 0504 – due to the unresponsiveness of the engine speed.
On 6 September 1961 at the airfield Engels crashed Yak-27R No. 0314. A malfunction in the right engine RD-9F, associated with the increase of the temperature of the gas and the rpm drop, cost the lives of test pilot M. M. Covino and his co-pilot G. I. Gorbatov.
In 1960, the pilots of the A. A. Shcherbakov (LII) and G. T. Beregovoy (NII VVS) tested the Yak-27R in a tailspin and developed recommendations to combatant pilots to extricate the car from this difficult situation. In particular, they have found that, after stalling in a spin, the engines must be turned off to avoid overheating and spontaneous shutdown. Launch engines were instructed to make after the exit of the corkscrew in the heights and speeds recommended by the manual run.
In 1958 he built a flying laboratory Yak-27R, intended for training of the reconnaissance equipment of the Yak-28P. The plane was equipped with a radar bombing sight RBP-3, autopilot AP-28 and remote astrocompass DUCK-I.
In July 1959 GKAT decided on the equipment at the factory number 292 in the 1st quarter of two serial Yak-27R television reconnaissance and adjustment equipment “Petrel”, developed by NII-380 GCRA. The instrument was designed for observations at ground-based command post image of terrain and objects which flew reconnaissance and photography, as well as visual adjustment of artillery fire.
Burevestnik installed it on three machines: No. 0407, 0507 0108 and, at the same time providing for the installation of the autopilot AP-28N-1. For this purpose, in connection with the placement of two television cameras have changed the design and the outer fuselage between the 24th and the 37th frame, and for the installation of radio transmission equipment “Petrel” – between the frames No. 8A and No. 14.
In addition, perekomponovkoy equipment in the cockpit of the Navigator, the plane took off all photo equipment, navigation indicator NI-50ИМ, the radio receiver US-9ДМ. Instead of radio ARC-5 set ARC-54 and the “Vault”.
Capacity of fuel tank No. 1 was reduced to 330 liters, and the capacity of the 4th and 5th tanks increased by 155 L. as a result, the stock of fuel was reduced to 165 liters.
Aircraft No. 0407 gained 740 kg, compared to the production Yak-27R No. 0102, and its normal takeoff weight (considering the fact that nedolovili 250 liters of fuel) reached 12 020 kg, which was 370 kg more compared to the production machine.
Factory testing of the aircraft conducted at the plant in Saratov in September 1960, after which the car in the spring of 1961 was transferred to NII VVS for special tests. During this period, consisted of eight flights, which operation overload does not exceed four times due to limitations imposed by the chief designer of NII-380 – developer of the Thunderbird. In the end, admitted that the aircraft can only be used as a flying laboratory with constraints on the velocity and the number M.
From 15 may to 10 August it was planned to conduct state tests on the base 511, Orap 48th VA at the airport Buyalyk near Odessa, but because of defects they were able to complete only 18 October 1961.
The tests confirmed overall compliance with equipment technical requirements of the air force. But before the introduction of the “Petrel” on the front of the Yak-27R is not reached.
In August 1961 the Yak-27R No. 1009 set of radio engineering system of short-range navigation RSBN-2. During the flyby of the machine during acceptance testing revealed many flaws in the RSBN-2 and in its placement. Had to return the ARCH to 0, setting it instead of AFA-2 and MCI-56П. The tests took place from 19 January to 5 February 1963, but as a reference plane and was not accepted. Affected by unstable operation of RSBN-2, and the absence of a radio altimeter reduced the safety of the flight.
In the 1960-ies was tested Yak-27R with wheel-ski landing gear for operation from unpaved runways and night reconnaissance Yak-27РН.
In April 1960, the air force Institute passed the baseline test a spotter for the artillery fire of the Yak-27R No. 0204, equipped with a modified sight, vizier MF-2P. According to their results, made a decision about installing PV-2P serial scouts. May 31, this aircraft fighter jet flown by a pilot Krylov (47th ograp), with flights to Odessa crashed, landing with braked in the air by the wheels. On the run wheels are “undressed” and from the friction of the concrete slabs of the runway lit up the hub is made of magnesium alloy “Electron”. From the fire that occurred in the Bay cleaning the main landing gear, broke the film, at the time, manufactured from pulp, and fuel tanks. The plane burned, the crew, fortunately, managed to leave.
To increase the range in 1962, the aircraft No. 0710 modified the suspension device under the wing of two additional fuel tanks. In the same year conducted a special testing of a modified Yak-27R, which showed that the secure reset of the tanks is only possible in straight flight on the instrument speeds from 450 to 750 km/h.
External fuel tanks with a volume of 1050 liters began to set on the scouts, from 14-series Yak-27R.
In 1963 he passed the baseline test aircraft No. 0317, released in 1962. The car was presented for evaluation of the joint fotoustanovki for the planned shooting. Compared to the previously tested No. 0710, on it wheels CT-69 was replaced by KT-69/4, with tires in size 880×230 mm. Instead of the command radio RSIU-4 put RSIU-5 (R-802), providing a range of radio communication with the ground on distance of 360 km with a height of 10 000 meters.
Tests showed that, compared with the technical specifications of the air force in 1962 for the supply of the Yak-27R, the machine is heavier, but her weight was within tolerances. However, decreased maximum speed – 15 km/h, practical ceiling – up to 450 m. Worse was the case of the range. Without external tanks, it decreased by 380 km, which was associated with the deterioration of the aerodynamics of the car, due to the installation of the fairings that covered the suspension components additional tanks and increase in specific fuel consumption engines. The range of the flight with drop tanks, sbrasyvanija after generation of them, fuel, was reduced to 610 miles.
In 1969, the Yak-27R No. 0704 experienced team radio UHF “Eucalyptus-CM6” and recommended it instead of the RSIU-4V.
Serial production of Yak-27R was carried out from 1958 to 1962. During this time there were built 16 episodes in the amount of 165 aircraft. Machine last, the 16th series of the Yak-27R had the following differences from previous releases.
Topographic aerial camera AFA-37 12-series was replaced by AFA-41/10, having an altitude of 20,000 metres. Turbo-refrigeration unit THA ZOO due to a lack of productivity on the cold line and unreliability in operation due to frequent failure of the turbine bearings replaced at THU 1271Б, beginning with aircraft No. 0607.
– On machines with No. 0201 at No. 0402 established a coherent radio 1РСБ-70M, and flight number 0402 11-th series, inclusive radio station R-807 is replaced by R-835. The receiver is US-9ДМ 12-series replaced the receiver UNIT 8. Command rsiu-4B aircraft starting with No. 0914 replaced by RSIU-5V.
– Vnutriuretrale intercom SPU-2 with 8-series is replaced by the SPU-7.
IN THE SERVICE OF THE FATHERLAND
Serial Yak-27R plant in Saratov began to produce from March 1959, and
May 11 the first three cars piloted by test pilots of aviation industry together with the navigators of the 47th independent guards reconnaissance aviation regiment (ograp), ferried to the airport Shatalovo in Smolensk region. After three days there flew another four cars.
Learning new technology personal regiment took less than a month, and on 5 June began flights. The main event in the 47th ograp in 1960 were military tests of ten Yak-27R, held from April 10 to October 1. While pilots performed flight 321 323 total duration hours 12 min.
Tests showed that the established General designer of realistic speed limitations (not more than 880 km/h) and safe ejection (750 km/h) to significantly narrow the performance capabilities of the aircraft, especially at low altitudes.
The machines had eliminated a large number of faults and defects identified on the state tests.
Sight-viewfinder-DF-2P, first installed on the aircraft No. 0204, a modified variant of artillery spotter, due to fundamental deficiencies in the design did not provide the tasks of aerial photography, visual reconnaissance and determination of the navigation elements of the flight. In the end, the use of PV-2P on the plane recognized as inappropriate and wished to set the reticle with unlimited field of view, rigidly connected with the plane. But another sight, the industry had not created and had to settle for what was available.
Is poor and the service life of the engine – only 100 hours.
According to the results of military tests, the customer made a comment, inviting industry to equip the Yak-27R radar gun RBP-3 and night equipment illumination purposes. The design Bureau of A. S. Yakovlev tried to solve the problem, but to equip the aircraft with such equipment is not reached through no fault of OKB reasons.
Simultaneously with troop trials from 13 to 20 June, the crews of the regiment participated in the exercises of Ground troops, “don”, completing 161 of departure.
Next summer in the historical form regiment has recorded another milestone. 9 July 21 Yak-27R flew in close formation at an altitude of 125 m with a speed of 850 km/h over the airfield of Tushino airfield. Although the presentation of the equipment took place without excesses, in the process of preparation for it had worried both the industry and the terrestrial services of the BBC. The fact that the two Yak-27R was periodically denied device management permutation of the stabilizer and, as it turned out, it happened because of the burning of the electrical contacts in the switch. One scout refused a booster control due to the destruction of the hose supplying hydraulic fluid.
Parade in Tushino was the first and the last “massive” use of the Yak-27R, which required training of flight personnel flight system, is not peculiar to the scouts. After the air show NATO assigned aircraft code name “Mangrove”, which means “Mangrove”.
The second state of emergency in the 47th ograp occurred in June 1962. During night flying, the aircraft of Lieutenant Peganova (Navigator senior Lieutenant Baldenkov) on the run formed in the chassis. Followed him Lieutenant Vorobiev saw lying on the runway the Yak-27R too late and both cars sustained considerable damage. In the end, the first plane sent in as a training aid at a technical school, and the second to the dump.
The only tragedy of the regiment associated with the flights on the Yak-27R, occurred during a training exercise on may 27, 1965. At the approach to the airfield Jekabpils on the plane of the squadron commander major Suhoverhov (Navigator kalenchuk) at an altitude of 5000 m stopped, apparently because of leakage of fuel, both engines. Trying to win over the moorland, the pilot planned to a height of 1000 m and gave command to the Navigator to leave the plane. Then the commander detonated the mechanism of ejection, but the pilot was not separated from the chair. The accident investigation showed that the cause was design-manufacturing defect-misalignment of the joint connector parachute oxygen device. After this incident, the seat on all the Yak-27R modified.
Since we are talking about the 47th ograp, I would note that this regiment gradually mastered the Yak-27R, served until the mid 1970-ies, when they were replaced by the MiG-25RB.
The crews of the 47th ograp engaged not only in combat training, practising various exercises and improvement of flight training, but also the solution of national problems. In particular, dry summer of 1972, when several major regions of the European part of the USSR covered forest fires, the command carried out the operation “Forest”, through exploration of their hearths in the forest.
After the 47th ograp Yak-27R has become the 98th Orap, 48th ograp, 164 Orap the guard, 193rd ograp and 511-th Orap.
In November 1960, summed up the first results of operation of the Yak-27R in combat units, which demonstrated sufficient reliability of the aircraft. The RAID on the waiver by that time brought up to 14.5 hours, but this did not mean that the flight should have stop immediately after the detection of the fault. Most importantly – there was no heavy flight accident. Anyway, flight and technical personnel combat units gave a good assessment of the car.
A fragment of the cockpit
Pilots noted that the machine is stable in flight, easy to control and its takeoff and landing difficulty is not caused, and noted the convenience in maintenance.
The quality of pictures of the area taken from a height of 500 m and in the whole range of speeds up to its operational ceiling, as a rule, satisfactory. At the same time, the command of combat units expressed wishes about the installation on production aircraft, had night equipment, cameras for shooting lower altitudes, radar sight, and also to increase the range. All these questions were always in control of the specialists of OKB-115, new equipment was installed, but before mass production was able to bring only a variant with increased range.
In 1960, the 511-th, the regiment lost the first Yak-27R. Upon landing, he denied the right engine and the pilot went to the second round with landing gear. In the end, the plane lost speed, fell on the wing and fell out of the airfield, but the crew survived.
1 August 1965 the first Yak-27R lost 48 ograp. The aircraft, piloted by senior Lieutenant B. A. Gnilitskiy, do not turn off the afterburner of one of the engines. Parry emerged turning point failed and the crew left the car. Managed to save only the Navigator, Lieutenant Bilancino.
Three years later, the Yak-27R were recruited to the intelligence of the invasion of Czechoslovakia.
Later lost another four cars. The last accident that claimed the life of the commander of the regiment of Colonel H. H. Gilovich and Navigator of the regiment, occurred in 1972, but this time the car was “not guilty.” The cause of the tragedy was the fault of the pilot.
Of a possible collision of the aircraft and aerostatic apparatus said many documented were confirmed only one case. It happened in the 164-m ograp in which the Yak-27R was in operation from 1961 to 1968. When flying in the vicinity of the Polish city Radenska Yak-27R at an altitude of 10 000 m faced with a foreign high-altitude probe. From hitting the cab of the Navigator of the aircraft was destroyed, taking his life. The pilot was lucky. Although he lost consciousness, but was thrown out by the air flow along with the ejection seat. Fortunately, all its mechanisms, including automatic opening of the parachute. The pilot came around after landing on the shore of the lake.
Aircraft of the first 13 episodes received in combat units, had a warranty period of 300 flight hours or two years, and from 14-th series – 400 hours. In 1969 in NII ERAT completed the research work “Study of operational reliability of aircraft Yak-27R”, the results of which have been developed “guidance on the establishment of aircraft service life equal to 1600 h of flight.”
The first domestic supersonic reconnaissance aircraft, the Yak-27R was after the Il-28R is the latest step to shift to more sophisticated machines Yak-28R and MiG-25RB. Although the aircraft did not fully comply with the requirements of the military early 1960s, but he did the most important thing – it is a good school and we have the necessary experience of hundreds of specialists of the air force, which was subsequently easier to move on to more advanced and sophisticated spy planes.
A BRIEF TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION
The Yak-27R – metal monoplane with an average wing.
The fuselage – semi-monocoque circular cross-section, passing in the tail section to the elliptical. In the forward part of the fuselage mounted mast with a Pitot-PVD-7. Compartment of the fuselage, limited by the inclined frame 4A forms a pressurized cabin of the Navigator, the entrance to which is through the top hatch.
In the compartment between frames No. 4A and No. 6, placed the camera for the perspective aerial photography. On the right and left sides of the compartment are located potoloki, which are equipped with electric drives when taking pictures. In the lower part of this compartment is the front landing gear, closed after harvesting the flap and flaps.
Frames No. 6 and No. 10 to limit the pressurized cabin of the pilot, closed top lantern, consisting of a visor and the sliding part. The windshield visor is made of transparent armor with electric heating. For the cockpit, between frames №№ 10 – 14; 14 – 17; 17 – 19; 19 – 24 and 24 – 28, located compartments soft kerosene tanks placed in rigid containers that are part of the fuselage structure.
At the bottom of the fuselage between frames No. 19 and No. 24, placed the main landing gear. Under the kerosene container tank number 5, between the frames Nos. 25 and 28, installed topographic camera AFA-41/10, whose lens closed doors, the opening mechanism while taking pictures.
In the compartment between frames No. 28 and No. 34 placed two cameras for a planned aerial photography. At the bottom of this compartment there are two fataluku that opens electrically when photographing. In the rear part of the fuselage is a compartment electro – and radio equipment. The fuselage ends controlled doors, which is located between the drogue chute PT-27.
Hermetic cockpit and Navigator – ventilation type, the air supply to them is from the 9th stage of the engine compressor through the turbo-cooling installation THU 1271Б (aircraft No. 0607 established THA 300И), providing the desired temperature of the air in the cabin.
In the cockpits of the pilot and the Navigator has an ejection seat. Each ejection seat is done by pressing one or two handles located on the handles of the seat. Management fired the seat has a lock that eliminates the possibility of simultaneous ejection of the pilot and Navigator and hitting them in the air. Exemption from seats in the air after ejection is accomplished with the help of automatic AD-3. The parachute opens at any time using the CAP-3. In the event of its failure, the pilot and Navigator can open the parachute manually.
The wing – swept two-spar, supported by a strong cross beam, mounted in the fuselage. The sweep angle of 1/4 chord line is equal to 45°; transverse V-wing or minus 5°; lengthening of a wing – 4,25.
The relative thickness profile in the direction of flight is changed from 4.2% – to the root to 5% at the end of the wing. To eliminate disruption of the boundary layer on the upper and lower surfaces of the consoles is equipped with one aerodynamic fin. In the console of each half of the wing for aerodynamic rib socks profiles of the wing forward by 250 mm and bent down to 100 mm On the rear edge of each console are unbendable knives that serve to resolve “Veliki” of the aircraft.
On the wing mounted landing flaps and ailerons. The Aileron with the weight and aerodynamic compensation of the offset at 1.3 m from the end to the axis of the aircraft. The left Aileron is equipped with driven trimmer, and the right – ethinyl knife. Ends the wing fairings underwing undercarriage and wingtips. In the bow of each fairing with a large removal forward mounted anti-flatter cargo, consisting of hermetic pipe, which is a cylinder of compressed air, a steel cargo and tip with receivers
kom air pressure LDPE-7 on the right of the console and plug on the left.
The tail is swept with high controlled stabilizer. The sweep of the keel line of the 1/4 chord is 54°, the stabilizer is 55°. The range of variation of the angle of the stabilizer, +4° relative to the construction of the horizontal fuselage.
The keel of the aircraft – dvuhkonturniy, is attached to the fuselage front spar and the two nodes at the rear spar. The upper fin tip is made of radio-transparent fiberglass, equipped with the antenna connected to the radio station R-835.
Handlebars height and direction are the wind and the weight compensation. The rudder consists of two halves – top and bottom. On the lower half of the set driven trimmer, and the upper athinai knife glass fibre laminate and ending with the antenna of the radio station R-836.
Chassis – Cycling type, consists of a main, front and two wing supports. All the supports are removed back on the flight: front and main – fuselage, wing – in niche with the fairings on the wing. The front support has managed 600×155 wheel size mm wheel Turning is carried out from the foot pedals control the aircraft through the booster, which are both damper “shimmy”. The control wheel is locked with the flaps-flaps. On takeoff and landing rejected when the flaps-the flaps, the wheel turning angle of the front leg is equal to +12°. Taxiing with flaps retracted-flaps angle of rotation of the front wheel is +45°. In the retracted position landing gear system steering front wheel off. The main landing gear has two wheel brake KT-69/4 size 880×230 mm, equipped with enthusasim device. Wing landing gear complete with wheels size 310×135 mm.
The Yak-27R No. 0710 on a control test
Landing the Yak-27R at the clay airfield
Control plane – single, hard. In the system of Elevator control and ailerons on the diagram is included irreversible boosters BU-OCCUPIES 8, removing the effort from the handle control of the aircraft. The forces generated on the handle when driving is ensured by the spring loading mechanisms of handle and mechanisms of trimmer effect.
Operated trimmer ailerons allows you to adjust the force on the handle of the ailerons when flying off the booster or in case of failure of the hydraulic system. Control of the trim of the ailerons and rudder, as well as the mechanisms of trimmer effect of rudder and ailerons -Electromechanical.
The steering direction is straight. In his transaction-enabled machine of course AK-2A, which in case of failure of one engine or the difference in engine speed automatically parries unfolding moment. The stabilizer control – hydraulic.
The power plant includes two engines RD-9F 2-series located in nacelles under the wing. Afterburner chamber of the engine relies on rollers on guide rails of the nacelle. The motor control is performed by means of control levers (THROTTLE) and the buttons for the maximum and afterburner modes, located on the Ores. Engine start is performed using the starter-generator GSR-ST-12000ВТ from the airfield power source of electricity.
Reliable engine starting in the air is provided at altitudes below 8500 m at flight speed of 400 – 650 km/h at the device when the autorotation rpm of the engine of 22.5% and 31.5%. Reliable starting of the engine RD-9F 1-series was provided at elevations below 7500 m at a speed of device 400 – 500 km/h at rpm autorotation motor 16 to 27%.
The fuel is housed in five soft tanks with a capacity of 4665 L. Tanks No. 2 and No. 3 form a combined reservoir, which is a consumable tank from which fuel is supplied directly to the engine with two charge pumps. In a kerosene tank No. 3 located petrol tank for the starting fuel.
All the tanks are equipped with a supercharging system from the 9th stage of the engine compressor. With a sharp decrease with sadrislamovna engines, the tank pressurization is due to the velocity head through the outer inlets, located at the top of the fuselage near the frame No. 28.
The ejection seat of the pilot and the Navigator carried out constructively, with the exception of the mechanism for tightening the shoulder straps and foot pegs. Parachutes, as in previous aircraft design Bureau, located in the cups of the chairs.
Sprinkler system designed for fire suppression in engine nacelles.
designed to retract gear, flaps-flaps, control wheel turning the front chassis legs, stabilizer control and cylinders valves jet nozzles of the engine.
Hydraulic control of the aircraft maintains the booster ailerons and rudder. When it malfunctions, power boosters of the ailerons and rudder can be carried out from the hydraulic actuators.
The pneumatic system consists of primary, secondary and emergency permutation stabilizer. Each of them have individual cylinder of compressed air. The main system is powered by a cylinder installed in the right fairing underwing of the chassis legs, and maintains control of the brakes of the wheels of the chassis, release and reset the brake parachute, reloading the gun, sealing the cabin of the pilot and Navigator and force a reset of the canopy pilot hatch and the cockpit of the Navigator, and pulling the harness of the pilot and Navigator.
The alarm system is powered from the left wing tank and is designed for landing gear, flaps-flaps, install the differential mechanism steering the front wheel in the landing position in case of failure of the hydraulic system for brakes of wheels of the main chassis legs and the brake parachute system in case of failure of the primary air systems or reduction of pressure below 35 kg/cm2, and for permutation stabilizer from any position in the landing (+1° 20”) in case of failure of the hydraulic system.
Equipment includes coherent radio R-835 “Argon” (12-series R-807 or 1РСБ-70) with the receiver UNIT 8 (up to 12-series of US-9дм), command rsiu-5V (up to plane No. 0914 RSIU-4V) and nutria-Moletai intercom SPU-7 (8-series SPU-2), automatic radio ark-5, altimeter RV-2 with the prefix a dangerous height PB-2ПС and marker receiver MRP-56П. It also includes the defendant radar identification SRO-2 with the prefix “dawn” and station of protection of the tail “Siren-2”.
Radio transmitter R-835 differed from 1РСБ-70 high frequency stability, the height is up to 18 000 m to 12 000 m in the predecessor and the increased number of channels from 11 to 18.
Photographic equipment of the plane allows photographing individual objects and routes on both subsonic and supersonic flight speeds with all four cameras during the day in good visibility. The camera AFA-42/50 attached to the mobile unit, gives the opportunity to prospective photographs at altitudes from 2,000 to 10,000 meters. Topographic camera AFA-41/37 set motionless intended for small-scale routing of both continuous and time-lapse photography. At altitudes of 300 -400 m you can use the AFA-41/10 for exploration uncloaked objects, and at altitudes from 1000 to 16,000 m for the binding to map images produced by the planned cameras AFA-42/75 or AFA-42/100 mounted on the suspension units AKUFO-ZZM, allowing planned to photograph at altitudes from 1000 to 16,000 m at subsonic speeds and from 12 000 to 14 500 m – at supersonic flight speeds. Photographing when maneuvering can be produced at altitudes from 2000 to 14 000 m, and at three vertical overload the sharpness of images deteriorates.
For precise photographing in flight, as well as for visual reconnaissance and determine ground speed from the heights more than 1000 m in the cockpit of the Navigator installed sight-viewfinder-DF-2P.
High-altitude aircraft equipment includes two sets of oxygen equipment KKO-1M with altitude-compensating suits VKK-2M to a height of 18 000 meters Without compensating suit allowed flights up to a height of 10 000 meters.
Basic data of reconnaissance aircraft, the Yak-27R
Electrical equipment of the aircraft consists of two starter-generators DC GSR-ST-12000ВТ installed on the engines, and battery 12SAM-23.
The air-thermal anti-icing system is designed to heat the front edges of the wings, tail, sides of engine air intakes and system pressurization tanks. The bleed air is from the 9th of compressor stages of the engines. The engine is running the hot air to the front edges of the nacelles is continuously fed, and the front edges of the wing tail and inlets of the air system tank pressurization, after the inclusion of the de-icing system.
Armament consists of a cannon, HP-23, mounted on the right side of the fuselage at the bottom, between the frames No. 5 and No. 12, with ammunition 50 rounds. Aiming is electric. The fire control system interlocked with the right photoloom perspective of AFA. When you open the hatch shooting is not possible. Shooting a gun in the cockpit, a red dot sight CRPS. Recharge – electro-pneumatic.