ONE-STORY, BUT WITH ATTIC

ONE-STORY, BUT WITH ATTICThe beginning of the nineties were particularly unpredictable are growing by leaps and bounds. Of ordered structures in my summer cottage, the builders made the walls to the chopped bath dimensions 5×3 m without a roof, and disappeared. Remained nothing how to take for completion, but not baths, and a small house with a stove in which it would be bearable to live until better times.

In the completion, nothing special. It was decided to use the existing frame to cover it with a roof and enclosed inside a inexpensive insulation materials in accordance with material possibilities.

On the frame is mounted on twelve concrete blocks with dimensions 500×500 mm, reinforced rafters, stuffed them in a crate, tar paper covered roof. Here and ready some housing.

 

Its main drawback — small residential area — only 15 m2. Place on a square of even the most necessary for the accommodation of three people — a table, chairs, sofa, beds, refrigerator, stove — very problematic.

As usual, the solution came by itself: what if the ceiling above the room block is not completely but only partially— 3.3 m long, installed on the upper beams (Fig. 1). Thus was formed the second tier, and the room has an additional area of approximately 10 m2. The total living area is thus increased by more than half and made up now of 25 m2. And this is quite acceptable for a normal home. Upstairs was organized sleeping compartment for two people and a dedicated place for personal belongings. To the second floor easy to get to sleep and rest for compact ladder; upstairs it’s always warmer and sleep better.

 

Fig. 1. The layout of the crowbar

Fig. 1. The layout of the crowbar:

1 — concrete blocks of the Foundation; 2 — insulation of a floor; 3 — plastic bottles; 4 — oven; 5 — insulation of the second layer; 6 — insulation of the exit chimney; 7— frame 5×3 m; 8 — ladder; 9 — insulation of wooden walls; 10— aperture ceiling; 11 — overlap

Where the ceiling is not peregrelsya, head over to the left space to the roof that he created in the room a special effect of space, which, of course, not at the continuous ceiling.

Down here placed wood burning stove, the pipe of which almost reached the roof. Due to the greater heat loss from the pipe is greatly improved heated the entire premises.

To live in this house in the winter, it is necessary to properly insulate and the roof and walls.

To exit with minimal cost, I decided to use a special insulation. As you know, the best insulation is air. Why for this purpose not to use plastic bottles (of water, beer, etc.) by completing them insulated layer? But to exclude passage of air between the bottles? To do this, not a single roll or slab insulation is not good — no matter how you try, the winds will blow. Here we need thermal insulation loose-fill filler, like eco-wool, sawdust, shavings, perlite.

I believe that the best and universal in all respects by the insulation is cellulose fibre insulation. It’s loose, light, crisp eco-friendly material with high thermal properties. It is made of ordinary paper waste in Canada for over 60 years and only recently began to be made on the canadian technology in Russia.

Shredded waste paper impregnated with antiseptics and flame retardants based on boron compounds, which also protect the insulated surface against decay, fungi and insects. Mice and rats in the ecowool is also not live. Specific weight of insulation ranges from 35 kg/m3 for ceiling up to 65 kg/m3 when filling the floor and walls. A layer of ecowool in 50 mm provides the same insulation as the wall thickness of 1.5 bricks. For insulation with summer houses, leather lining, does not require the asphalt and roofing felt. And the main advantage— low cost ecowool in relation to any other domestic and foreign insulators.

 

Having such a unique and in everyday life are relatively little known insulation, everything else is done very simply and quickly. The ecowool fill in the insulated area and at the same time laid in as filler plastic bottles (can be pieces of foam packs, from juice and milk cartons, etc.), all as tightly as possible from top to again fall asleep the ecowool. Then again, put a placeholder to use ecowool, and so until then while all will not be filled to insulate space under the floor, under the roof and the walls.

Always in plastic bottles it is necessary to provide a hole or to lift the lid. It is necessary that in case of fluctuations of the ambient temperature of the bottle is not “clapping”.

This method of insulation allows homeowners to spend only a small part of the purchase of insulation, while approximately 70 percent of the volume is gratuitous material. And because plastic bottles are themselves a light, and load bearing structures can the calculations do not take into account, and the total thickness of the layer of insulation 10 cm is enough.

After covered the insulation, I covered the floors with thick planks. To insulate pokrysheva part or pediment, must parts to prepare the area under the filling. This is done in different ways. You can fill a horizontal row of boards and fill with insulation, then another row, etc. I nailed to the rafters a number of plywood sheets and then fell asleep inside the insulation again…

In order to save when insulating the walls, I used a mixture of sawdust and shavings from ecowool at a ratio of about 10:1.

Later, for warming already large house, this compound I have successfully used for filling the floor, ceiling and walls. And as shown by long experience, in such buildings, the interior heats up quickly and the heat is well retained even in hard frosts. Windows, of course, should be put with double glazing.

Special attention should be paid to the improvement of the area of passage of the chimney through the overlying wooden house construction, as illiterate, its execution may lead to fire of the structure.

 

Fig. 2. The passage of the chimney through the wall

Fig. 2. The passage of the chimney through the wall:

1 — the exterior trim of the house; 2 — glassine; 3,7 — end caps (steel sheet 80,8-1); 4 — plastic bottles; 5 — insulation of walls; 6 — the interior of the house; 8— insulator (asbestos cement pipe); 9 — chimney; 10 — filling (broken bricks, expanded clay, etc.); 11 — boxes (steel sheet s0,8 – 1); 12 — window opening 400×400 mm

That’s why I would like to share my solution to this problem, whose correctness is verified by several years of use the stove for heating the house (Fig. 2). In the wall, where it was assumed the output of the metal knee chimney with a diameter of 120 mm was first made of planks of square aperture size 400×400 mm. the Inner surface is upholstered with scraps of sheet iron (best if the leaves are loose on the boards of the window). On the chimney wearing a suitable diameter and length of a piece of asbestos-cement pipe. Further, the ends of the nailed steel lining with pre-cut holes in them under the chimney. And one plate is attached tightly, and the second only partially, so that the top can be folded away for filling the internal volume of the expanded clay, broken bricks and pieces from silicate blocks.

Here’s a multi-layered protection of wooden structures of buildings from hot chimney can guarantee the avoidance of fire.

In this house we lived for several years until he built the big house.

For those who are going to build a house or started to equip its suburban area, our experience is very useful.

V. AKIMOV, engineer, retired, and d n on e, Moscow region

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