Slightly more than half a century ago, at the dawn of Soviet power, Lenin dreamed of the time when we can give agriculture 100 thousand tractors. The Soviet people under the leadership of the Communist party brought to life the dream of the great leader, fulfilled his Covenant. Today 100 thousand — millions of a powerful modern tractors working in the vast expanses of the country. Every year, collective and state farms received a new and more productive machines.
Without a tractor it is impossible now to imagine field work in any area where there is arable land. Got the technique there where for centuries dominated by manual labor, on the mountain slopes. It is a immune and high-performance machines, nm who are not afraid of steep slopes or thin air, which is subject to severe soil reclaimed by man from the mountains. Such machines have long dreamed of the farmers. And so they came into the fields and together with their lowland brethren began to watch the final year of the plan.
The resolution of the CPSU Central Committee, USSR Council of Ministers, AUCCTU, and Komsomol Central Committee “Of the all-Union socialist competition of workers of agriculture for increasing the production and procurement of products of agriculture and livestock in 1975 and successful completion of the ninth five-year plan” contained the remarkable words addressed to agricultural workers. Here they are: “to Strengthen work on preparation and retraining of personnel of mass professions, especially mechanics, further develop mentoring as one of the important forms of education and enhancing the professional skills of the youth.” To you, future home of the fields, future designers of technology of the Country of Advice, and many materials cereal heading “Technician five”. We hope that published in this issue an article about mining tractors as well as other materials, devoted to agriculture, which publishes our journal, will help you to quickly master the complex modern machines, in shock work to achieve high performance in the all-Union socialist competition.
Look at the map: a third of the territory of our country is occupied by mountainous areas. The green of the Central plains bordered from the South by brown bundles of diverging and converging ridges, chains and spurs of the Main Caucasus mountain range with white spots of glaciers and snowmen. More below on the map — the lesser Caucasus, the South Georgian highland. Ukrainian steppes are closed from below by the Crimean mountains, and to the left, in the West — beautiful wooded Carpathians. And in the North of European territory of the Union—the Khibiny mountains in the East — Ural. On the Great Western-the Siberian lowland, and she, too, is like a bowl with high edges of the mountains. Behind her is a mountainous country — Eastern Siberia. In the South, however, the desert; but after they begin these mountains, which has no equal in the world: Tien Shan, Pamir. The far East is also an extensive system of ridges. It turns out that not so little it’s for our extensive territory — the third.
Fig. 2. The scheme of the automatic leveling device:
1 — pendulum 2 — skeleton of scankod, 3 — downstream of the humidifier, 4 — pump, 5 — piston, 6 — connecting lever.
Fig. 3. Diagram of a tractor with the device opposing the sliding on the slope (a — side view, back view):
1, 2 — ROMs-hooks, 3 — hooks brackets, 4 — side left gear, 5 — driven wheels of scankod, 6 — cab 7 — final drive right.
Some of our Federal Republic is predominantly mountainous in the Azerbaijan SSR mountain ranges occupy 60% of the territory, in the Armenian — 84, in the Georgian — 92, in the Tajik — 93 and Kirgiz — 95%. The ridges are steep and rocky, and is crossed by the Republic in many directions, forming slopes, valleys, gorges, plateaus.
It’s mostly a place uninhabited and neoslavery. The one who happened to be in Kyrgyzstan and southern Kazakhstan, apparently, remembers that the road from Dzhambul, Frunze to, for example, as one continuous street, an endless row of houses, shops, petrol stations etc. This is the valley of the river Chu. But as soon swerve to the side as you get into the realm of the reddish rocky scree, steep slopes, rugged folds, the spirit is a breathtaking height and almost complete solitude. A herd of white sheep on the green hills.
Today, however, the mountains becoming increasingly important in the economic development of the country. This is the place where the minerals most closely approach the earth’s surface. The mountains is the mines, enrichment plants; therefore, enterprises of mining, metallurgical, chemical and other industries. Mountainous areas — the most important reserve of the industrial development of the country. Not accidentally, the Baikal-Amur mainline, which crosses the mountainous areas of Eastern Siberia, will bear not only the traffic load, but are, figuratively speaking, a kind of thread of solidification: around it will grow new plants and mines, mines and cities.
In the Carpathian mountains there are forests, whose timber is a valuable economic, value. In many mountain areas sound sources of thermal and mineral waters. “Mountain air” — a concept that has become almost a household word indicating atmosphere is not clogged with exhaust fumes and industrial wastes. Mountains — the perfect place for spas and resorts.
In agriculture, the role of mountain areas is significant. Here grow well culture that other places don’t survive: tea, grapes, citrus. Arable land in the mountains is 9 million hectares of land, 63 million hectares of pastures and hayfields. And modern agriculture, including mining and agriculture, no technical basis is unthinkable. However, this raises certain difficulties.
Power of tractors is declining with the rise in the mountainous areas because of the sparseness of air. At the height of 2 thousand meters capacity of gasoline engines is reduced, for example, by 22% and diesel by 19. But this is not the main obstacle for the tractors work in the mountains. The main thing is the steepness of the slopes. There is a certain classification. Plain — a place where the slope does not exceed 1-2°. Such values can be neglected and put down in the ordinary machines and tools. On steep slopes the magnitude of the slope is 2-9°. Agricultural machines and tools for General purpose can be used here, if you meet certain conditions or to supply the relevant accessories. At the slopes the steepness of 9-20°. Here can work only special tractors, agricultural machines and tools. Finally, steep slopes, where the slope is above 20°. In these circumstances, it is possible to work only in exceptional cases or after terracing — cutting on the slopes of horizontal terraces. More often, the steep slopes are used as pasture.
With increasing steepness of the slope stability is sharply reduced. The tractor is of conventional type can fall over even on the slope at 12 or 15°: redistributed the weight attributable to individual elements of the chassis. The steeper the slope, the greater the load the rear rocker crawler tractor, and a wheeled rear wheel. The soil from this deformed; the resistance to motion increases. If the terrain suddenly changes — the slope becomes even steeper — or quickly, the increased speed, the front wheels of the tractor, especially when it is equipped with mounted guns, off the ground, and it can tip over. It is no coincidence that the special session of the Lenin Academy of agricultural Sciences named after Lenin (VASKHNIL) a few years ago, recommended that: “All basic types of soil treatment, sowing and care of crops on the levelled and one-sided mountain slopes to produce only across the slopes…”
But when working across slopes the tractor lurches to the side, the tractor in this position to be uncomfortable and difficult: the car tries to roll, especially a wheeled tractor.
Agricultural machines General purpose the necessary features for mountain agriculture not possess. Conventional tractors and self-propelled chassis can work on slopes of up to 8-10°. But any turn lowers the cravings and difficult to manage. And the greater the angle of the slope, the higher the fuel consumption, the harder it is to operate the machine.
And it was on slopes, slope of more than 8° is from 20 to 80% of the agricultural land of Central Asia, Georgia, Armenia, Krasnodar territory.
To conventional machine could be used in the mountains, I have come up with various devices. To engine not “choked”, it provide mechanisms boost. Reduce the flow of fuel pump of diesel to air ratio in the mixture was the optimal value. To reduce the center of gravity of the hollow wheel pour water. To increase the stability of the machines, increase the width of the wheels, adding removable expanders: metal rims, which are wider than the wheels, and the diameter smaller. The adhesion area with the ground increases and the slip decreases. In the technical literature there is evidence that a tractor with expanders worked on the slope of 26°.
But everything is either single experiments or half-measures. A way out in creating a fully specialized machines. This task was assigned to the organized few years ago in Tbilisi, the all-Union scientific-research Institute of machine for mountain agriculture and the cultivation of subtropical crops. The Institute was created partially on the basis of the design Bureau, have accumulated extensive experience in the research of the mining machines. Another organization — the “ancestor” of the Institute was the laboratory of mechanization of cultivation of tea the Georgian scientific research Institute of mechanization and electrification of agriculture.
The new Institute adopted as the relay task of exceptional importance: to create a mining tractor, successfully and reliably working on the steep slopes to 20-25°. And this tractor — steep slopes of T-50K (Fig. 1) was created on the basis of tractor “Belarus MTZ-50”.
Very briefly — what is a MTZ-50? It is a widespread General purpose tractor with an engine power of 50 HP, 9-speed transmission, power steering, hydraulic tow hook, enclosed cab, hydrostatic system, with which the weight of the mounted equipment enhances the coupling quality of the tractor. In short, a progressive modern car. It was then, and it was necessary to equip the devices to work in the mountains.
First of all, the tractor should not roll on a slope: his body shall always be in an upright position. For this purpose we developed an automatic leveling device, whose scheme is shown in figure 2. The pendulum 1 is pivotally connected with the frame 2 skankod. If the transverse roll pendulum, leaning himself, shifts the plunger of valve 3. The pump 4 is switched on and delivers the working fluid. The piston 5 moves and rotates the connecting lever 6. The skeleton of skankod occupies a vertical position. The sensitivity of this pendulum of the automatic stabilizer of 1-2°.
It is clear that in such a machine and the front axle and drive the rear wheels, and steering equipment should not be rigid, solid, and have some elements of flexibility. And now look again at figure 1. To save the vertical position of the front wheels when working across a slope, the front axle is made telescopic, swinging at an angle of 40°, supplied with a parallelogram device. Thus, each of the front wheels can act independently from the other position. The skeleton, associated with a gun-stabilizer, vertical.
Consider now the rear wheels. The torque is transmitted via the side gears. But they are not stationary, and swinging. When the automatic alignment system of the core work, final drives rotate in opposite directions. What this achieves? The rear wheels can be on the slopes more or less steep, and the gears occupy a position that does not violate the transmission of torque.
Another important design innovation is the creation of special mechanisms, not giving the tractor sliding from the slope (Fig. 3). Experiments have shown that stabilization of the core of the machine is not everything. Can move soil, glide suspension system, slide hinged to the tractor units. So, we need special devices so that the tractor does not slip. Pochvosmesey, chains, etc. are not acceptable: they do not keep the car.
Fig. 4 Front hinged MTZ-82К.
Fig. 5. Mountain-plains self-propelled chassis SSH-0611.
Instead, they applied freely rotating wheels with telescopic spring struts. They are mounted on the front and rear housings of left and right final drives — on brackets that are installed under a certain angle to the longitudinal axis of the tractor. The discs at the right moment pressed into the soil and do not allow the tractor to slide. And the greater the steepness of the slope and the angle of rotation of side gears, the deeper the soil is composed of discs.
The mechanism of action of this system is relatively simple. When automatic alignment of the core works and final drives rotate in opposite directions, front-wheel drive-hitch — upper slope — and rear-drive-hook — lower slope — deep into the soil. But the angle of the slope decreased correspondingly reduced and the angle of the final drives. The discs and the hooks out of the soil.
These are the main design features that distinguish mountain tractor from the basic model. T-50K class 1.4 t is used for mechanization of mountain agriculture and is aggregated with plough, cultivator and other tillage implements, hay complex machines, spreaders of mineral and organic fertilizers, the pole setting machine for trellises in the vineyards. The maximum angle of the slope, where tractor skeleton retains vertical position — 29 to 30°.
It is known that in place of the tractor MTZ-50 is more powerful — MTZ-80, with engine power of 80 HP replacement of the existing machinery will enable new in 1.3—1.5 times increase productivity. It is quite natural that you should see and the mountain modification of this new machine. It has been developed: MTZ-82К (Fig. 4). The tractor has four wheel drive. As well as T-50K, MTZ-82К has an auto-stabilizer that retains the vertical position of the tractor on the slope up to 20°.
While figure 5 shows a mountain-plain self-propelled chassis SSH-0611. This wheel steep slopes, a high clearance farming machine class 0,6 t. In combination with mounted guns it covers all types of processes related to processing and collecting tea leaves. But the car is not just for tea. It can help to mechanize the work for the care of tall crops, such as corn.
The engine in the chassis — automotive, brand MZMA-407, adjusted to the capacity of 20 HP It transmits torque to two rear wheels. The front two are managed.
Chassis SSH-0611, as well as mountain tractors, equipped with special automatic stabilizer that without the intervention of the tractor causes the skeleton of the machine in a vertical position.
These three cars, of course, not limited to the list of structures designed for work on mountain slopes. They all have one common distinguishing feature — the automatic-stabilizer for aligning the frame vertically when working on the slope.
Technique walks in the mountains; agricultural” machines are “climbers”.