CHOOSING A FIREPLACEFireplaces are among the oldest heating equipment used for heating homes. Archaeological excavations indicate that the outdoor fireplace with a fume collection device used by people in 820 g. the Tradition to celebrate the New year in a country house may not be new, but is becoming more popular. Blizzard already piled up around a solid snow, and the frost painted the Windows with their mysterious floral patterns and inside, warm and cozy. And, of course, the Christmas mood special, if the house has a fireplace. Fireplace is now not uncommon: many companies offer a variety of design, even all kinds of electric simulate. But how can be compared with them even the most simple, do not have any known heating device, made with their own hands.

Made their own fireplace — it’s always double the fun: the warmth of the living flame, and the sense of satisfaction that he managed himself. Of course, previously had to peruse the relevant literature, to understand the features of the technology.


Currently, the fireplace is an indispensable accessory public holiday, often it can be seen in the houses of the gardeners, and country houses, rustic cottages.
One of the most important functions of the fireplace is creating warmth and a special intimate atmosphere. For the sake of these advantages, you can forgo its shortcomings. And they are, and they need to know if you decide to get, as tempting as the heating device.
The fact that the fireplace is a type of furnace is of simple design: has an open firebox with a large opening and direct the smoke channel without dymooborotov (which, by the way, maybe along with the hot smoke pulling out of the room, almost all the heat). Fireplace conveys warmth slucajem,so warm, while burning, and its efficiency does not exceed 10 — 15%. Thus, as the main heating device it is impractical.
Fig. 1. The options of fireplace
Fig. 1. Options of fireplaces:
a— embedded in the brick (stone) wall, b—wall fireplace in the open fireplace

Fig. 2. Structural elements built-in fireplace
Fig. 2. Structural elements built-in fireplace:
1—ash pan; 2—under; 3—firebox; 4—back wall; 5—reflecting mirror and a smoke ledge (tooth); 6—the smoke chamber; 7—valve; 8—YAP; 9—collar; 10—chimney; 11—fire area (Basic dimensions of the fireplaces are shown in the table)

Fig. 3. Options open fireplaces
Fig. 3. Outdoor fireplaces
Section of the fireplace for firebox (island)
Cut fireplace for firebox (island)
The dependence of the size of the fireplace (mm) from the area of the room (m2)
The dependence of the size of the fireplace (mm) from the area of the room (m2)
However, the fireplace has some advantages. It emits heat immediately after kindling, which is important for houses during their short visit in the autumn-winter period. A large flow of air passing through the furnace, promotes good ventilation and prevents the damp and mustiness, which is especially required for rooms facing North, almost not seeing the sun.
Fireplaces in execution can be of three types: embedded, attached and exposed (“island”).
Built-in fireplace
It takes up little space, but it can be done only in a brick house along with masonry walls, as part of the firebox and chimney are all in the thickness of the wall. The facade of the fireplace built-in classic type (“English”) displayed on the splash screen, and the cut — in figure 2. The entrance of the firebox is framed by projecting brickwork in a half-brick is the portal of the fireplace. To improve the reflection properties of the firebox in cross section has the shape of a trapezoid. The rear wall of the firebox rises vertically at 360 mm, and then islamipedia forward at an angle of 20°, forming a reflective mirror that directs light to the floor. The mirror rises above the portal on 150 — 200 mm Above the mirror has a smoke chamber (smoke box), the base of which is a smoke ledge (“tooth”). Its width is taken the same as in a chimney, or a little more. In the area of “smoke tooth” on the back or side of the arrange window to clean the accumulated soot.
Under the fireplace and the portal should be above the floor level. In front of the portal and its sides are satisfied with floors of brick laid on edge. The area of the portal shall be equal to about 1/50 of floor space. When a larger area of the portal room is highly ventilated, with a smaller fireplace will be mild to warm. The area of the hearth is taken equal to 0.7, and the cross-section of the chimney — 0,1 — 0,15 square portal. The principal dimensions of the fireplace are given in the table.
For improved combustion of firewood under the firebox has a grate. Often make solid underneath (see Fig.2), and it put slatted metal basket for firewood.
The top of the portal lay on concrete or brick lintel. To maintain the bricks use a steel (30×30 mm), a channel (130 mm) or steel strip with a thickness of 5 — 6 mm. the ends are sealed in the side wall on 100 mm.
Attached fireplaces
This can be done in any place of the house. Attach the chimney to combustible wall or partition or attached to the existing flue of the furnace above the furnace valves. Then the stove and fireplace can be used independently from each other or simultaneously.
Figure 4 shows an elevation and section wall of the fireplace. It was built on a brick base. The side walls are laid in a half-brick, their width can be 380 — 510 mm. smoke box is made of metal, its cord or clay mortar with asbestos crumb.
If the wall is wooden, it teploizolirovat: make fireproof insulation — brick wall (in a half-brick) over the entire height of the room. This part of the wood wall studs with pre-tin or roofing iron, and then closed with a layer of felt, heavily soaked in a clay solution. Brick masonry reinforced with steel wire, which is nailed to the wall with nails every 2 — 3 rows of bricks.
Fig. 4. The device of a fireplace wall type
Fig. 4. The device of a fireplace wall type:
a – the facade; b—the cut
Fig. 5. The device of the fireplace of the open type
Fig. 5. The device of the fireplace open type:
1—chimney; 2—chimney; 3—smoke chamber; 4—damper; 5—flue cornice; 6—the entrance (smoke); 7—mirror (oblique upper part of the rear wall); 8—rear wall of the hearth; 9—grating; 10—ash pan

Fig. 6. Fireplace tool
Fig. 6. Fireplace tool:
and—detached; b—wall; in—basket for firewood

Insulating the wall may follow the shape of the fireplace and chimney, leaving them to either side of 250 — 300 mm.
Since the whole structure (insulating wall plus fireplace) heavy, will have to do the Foundation. It spread from stones or battle brick with crushed cement-sand mortar. Below the floor, arrange waterproofing of two layers of roofing material, and at the level of clean floor make cement-sand screed. If the Foundation is not required, then under the floor boards still need to lay an additional beam.
Maybe the many different designs of fireplaces. In particular, the fireplaces attached type can be folded from quarry stone; valid options with concrete fire boxes.
In figures 1 and 3 shows the various fireplaces. Among them are those that have the portal in the form of an arch. Arch spread simultaneously from two sides on the wooden wheels, which supports stacked bricks or stones. It is removed, completing the masonry; at the top of set one to three large stone castle.
The most common options attached fireplaces, the basic material for the manufacture of which is brick. This fireplace can be brick, concrete Foundation, and as the smoke box — suspended hood from sheet metal. The edges of the box-base can make a stand for skewers.
Open (“island”) fireplaces
They are designed for installation away from the wall — for example, in the middle of the room to round or square in plan site, elevated above the floor at 350 — 500 mm. Above it hung a round or square smoke box and chimney with sheet metal; they can be built of brick.
“Island,” metal fireplace can be made of iron pipes or drums with a diameter of 800 — 1000 mm Stand of the fire — brick or concrete with embedded anchor bolts for fastening the barrel. The console area under the firebox — metal, it put the asbestos, perform a cement screed and surface ceramic tiles.
For the external design of the fireplace you can use different materials — natural stones of all kinds, including irregular shapes, small, medium and large size and surface structure, bricks, tiles, tiles, wood, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, building ceramics, plaster with different techniques of application.
Good decoration is forged fire tool, basket for firewood (Fig.6) as well as coinage, medallions, pottery and etc. But do not overload the fireplace with various ornaments, they must be in moderation.
Fireplace must be placed in the middle of the wall or so on the sides there remained parts of the wall not less than one meter. A fireplace cannot be put on the passage as well as in places where there may be drafts, i.e., between the window or door openings in opposite or adjacent walls. In such places it will smoke.
Finished brick fireplace, as well as oven dried first periodic fires for several hours. Before you use the fireplace, it is recommended for the formation of the initial thrust to burn it wrapped in burning newspaper.
Firewood is placed a slide, drawing on the back wall of the firebox. For heating it is best to use birch, aspen and alder firewood. Especially good aspen lumps — they give a smooth white flame, don’t “shoot” and not smoked. For flavor you can throw in the fire for two or three sprigs of cherry, Apple or juniper.
So, in fact, derived from the Latin word “fireplace”. In fact, it’s really a simple hearth: the stone niche for the fire and channels for air and smoke extraction. In the niche (or the furnace) the wood can be laid on a solid under, but the best of them burning under them, set a Tagan or embedded metal grating, through which is provided the flow necessary for the combustion of fresh air. Like normal fire, fireplace melts quickly, so it is often held instead of a furnace to periodically visited premises such as garden houses. However, despite the attractiveness of such a lesion it should be noted that its advantage is its disadvantage as well: it heats my radiant heater only visible close area of the room. These are simple circuits of fireplaces (Fig.), used, for example, the English castles. This so-called indoor fireplaces: they have a flue space and a flue in the wall.
Fig. 7. Simple and improved types of fireplace
Fig. 7. Simple and improved types of fireplaces (a”English” scheme;—fireplace with heater;—stove; fireplace dymooborotah):
1 —chimney; 2—air heater from the pipes and placed in the fire boxes (options); 3 —channel for input of cold air; 4—outlet of heated air; 5—circulation channels

Fig. 8. Scheme and main dimensions of the fireplace (see)
Fig. 8. Scheme and main dimensions of the fireplace (in cm.):
1 —under the fireplace; 2, the firebox; 3 —flue tooth; 4—the smoke box; 5—the portal of the fireplace; 6—mantel; 7—predtopochnyj area; 8 is a metal sheet.
A—width; B—the height of the portal; In—depth of the firebox; D—the width of the neck
To eliminate this drawback, attempts were made to design improvements of fireplaces, to enhance the degree of utilization of radiation and heat gases. There was a scheme with a slope of rear and side walls of the furnace inside her, due to which increased reflective efficiency of heat — the so-called old German fireplace, related to devices with net radiation. Even better warmed the room, the fireplaces in the options, provides, along with the radiation of the additional convective heating of the air due to the fact that the side and rear walls of the firebox were carried out double, which were subjected to natural air circulation in the inner casing. In the XVII century was made with a built-in fireplace to the furnace heater, which was a “box” with channels for the inlet cold air and outlet hot. A further step was the device dymooborotov, as in furnaces, which led to the emergence, in essence, chimney furnace. The only difference is that dymooborotah is ensured by a metal pipe embedded in the channel, which circulate freely in the air rising along the hot pipes from the furnace, he instantly heated up and went into the room through a special hole — dushnik. The same principle was used in brick dymooborotah. All this was closer to closed (built into the main walls) and semi (attached to wall) fireplace designs stoves. Were not accidental and a kind of symbiosis, when the fireplace began to mate with the oven.
And only the third type of fireplace — open standing in the room is free — retain the original independence of an ancient hearth. They can be located even in the middle of the room, featuring a winning aesthetic and decorative properties. For example, be performed entirely of metal — copper, steel sheets of blackened tin. Connection elements is performed by welding or rivets. Versions of the forms and pattern of joints will ensure that such fireplaces individual artistry. Particularly impressive look such fireplaces in the form of suspended above the furnace platform caps with the socket, attached to the ceiling on a wire stretching chimneys, with a pyramidal or conical dymosbornik over burning logs
Common elements
What kind of fireplace design to choose — depends not only on shape but also on the area and volume of the room. Especially given the fact that most schemes are characterized by common functional elements of the device.
The firebox (furnace niche), as a rule, its size should be proportional to the room (Fig. and table). Will depend on them and the thrust of the fireplace, which will also affect the angle of the walls of the firebox section and a chimney height. Will the fireplace to smoke — depends on height, width and depth of the niches correspond to the cross section and the height of the chimney. Typically, the parameters of the firebox should be as follows: height — from 3/5 to 4/5 the width and the depth is half or 2/3 of the height.
The rear wall flue niches with about a third of its height inside the tip at 20 to 22°, and at the top of the firebox narrows to form a neck, all contribute to increased traction. They have a ledge — gas threshold (flue-tooth), to avoid collision of the upward and downward flow of smoke, causing the smoke of the fireplace and removal of soot into the room. On the same level (20 cm from the flue holes) in the neck install the damper (flat or rotary extendable) — for traction control and shutdown of the fireplace from the chimney. Above the damper, the chimney is a tapering pyramid, the upper part of which passes into the chimney.
Chimney the fireplace should ensure efficient removal of generated in the firebox gases and smoke. To create a normal thrust section of the chimney must not be less than 140×270 mm. cross-sectional areas of the chimney — from 1/10 to 1/12 (and in more favourable cases — 1/15) sizes of the flue openings. At the intersection of the overlap tube has a widened part, a breaker (fire).
Fig. 9. Fireplace with an open firebox and hood-the smoke box
Fig. 9. Fireplace with an open firebox and hood-the smoke box:
1 —flue pipe; 2—chain stretching; 3—funnel in the role of the smoke of the tooth (and trap soot); 4—stretching the funnel; 5—a platform-firebox

Fig. 10. Chimney fireplace
Fig. 10. Chimney fireplaces:
1—the effective portion of the height; 2—the height of the headband; 3—cutting; 4—slab; 5—sand filling

Fig. 11. Fireplace-stove
Fig. 11. Wood-burning stove:
1 —gate valve furnace; 2—the valve of the fireplace; 3—Shoe; 4—the smoke box; 5—cast iron stove (380×380 mm); 6 ash; 7—burner; 8—casing of the fireplace.
I—the facade of the smoke box; II— side panel (2 PCs); III—sheet rear smoke box

An important element of the pipe, the upper part of the well head. To provide the thrust it needs to be simple (Fig.), without terminating cornices or ledges For fire safety tip put a metal cap with a solid roof and wire mesh chicken wire mesh (not more than 5.5 mm).
The height of the chimney from the grate to the mouth should be, under the new rules, at least 5 meters, and the upper visible part of her to rise above the roof or above the roof ridge by at least 0,5 m.
Wood-burning stove
Optimal for small rooms of type “garden house”. Furnace itself must be compact and economical, and attached to her fireplace to have a surface area of 0.5 m2 (750×750 mm). For masonry will require about 200 pieces of red and 35 PCs. refractory (or well burnt red) brick.
Fireplace-oven is quite simple. The main elements of brick Foundation cap and the smoke box from sheet metal. To provide optimal wood burning furnace site, you should install lattice stand (grate).
The fireplace is set on a Foundation of rubble stone and sand cushion. The depth of the Foundation — 800 — 100 mm layer of sand at the bottom is 200 — 300 mm.
Under the firebox of the fireplace spread a platform of bricks set on edge. Under it in order to protect masonry from moisture penetration install a waterproofing from two layers of roofing material
Fireplace smoke box connected with the channels of the furnace near the third of its dinobora. Place the interface seal using asbestos cord, fiberglass or clay with the addition of asbestos crumbs.
Masonry fireplace flue shield furnace is conducted in the following order.
1st and 2nd rows of masonry — from the whole brick.
In the 3rd row set ash-pit door, building on the 2 nd row of masonry. After the laying of the 4th row in the 5th row, set the grate with a gap of at least 10 mm from the walls.
The clutch of the 6-th and 7-th rows set the furnace door, strengthened with reinforcing wire.
8th row overlaps the flue hole. Here is placed a cast-iron plate, under which bricks of the 9th number cut 20 — 30 mm. After the laying of the 10th series set the cooking chamber to form the 11th — 13th rows.
On the 14th a number of the cooking chamber cover with brick flat, using the metal corners and flat iron.
15 — 17-m the ranks of the fireplace smoke box attached to the wall of the furnace through the valve of the fireplace. On the lead 18 — 25 it is seen that the pipe and chimney at the furnace and fireplace work in common. The cross section of the chimney — 140×140 mm.
On the 25-th row in the chimney set the valve oven. Rows 26 to 31 complete the pipe laying. Through the ceiling pipe is carried out with observance of fire safety rules, arranging brick cutting width of 380 mm.

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