NORTH LAGUNA

NORTHERN There are few enthusiasts, capable in difficult conditions to undertake the construction of a homemade car. To undertake and perform the scope of work for the design, construction and debugging, which forces only the factory design Bureau. Especially such a vehicle which offers the readers the author from Tyumen A. A. KLUNK (see photo on the cover of “Modeller-designer” No. 10 of 1996). His Laguna looks attractive even with the abundance of the streets cars of the most modern brands. The local wits say about the creation of his countryman: “Car? “Nine”? “Carlotta”? No, guys, hand-job!”

But Laguna stands out not only in appearance. Closer in size to the Volga, she mass remains in the class of “Moskvich”. The secret is that, in addition to “moskvichova” and “Zhiguli” of the units, the machine is widely used composite materials, mainly in the removable body panels.
 
It is difficult to judge how this design is better than traditional and how long it will serve its master. However exploited, “Laguna” and a half years, and, apparently, the average life cycle of car factory made it will. At least until now, according to A. A. Klunk, significant there was no damage or hidden defects not detected.
 
I hope that the design achievements of our author will bring some sensible thoughts, others will suggest a way of solving any technical problems, and the third may give courage and determination to realize his dream.
 
In a good way!
 
The traffic police my car was registered on 16 August 1995. And already the 17th in the morning my whole family went to travel on the route Moscow — Ufa — Naberezhnye Chelny — Tolyatti — Tyumen. Two weeks clocked on the speedo the first 4 thousand miles.
 
Scary to embark on such a long rally on a new, completely neobkatannaya car? No, because he was one hundred percent confident that the Laguna will not disappoint. After all, every design element, every possible nuance of its behavior on the road, I carefully figured out in advance and did nothing anyhow, at random. Mileage shown: “Laguna” is a very reliable, economical and user friendly car. During the trip not happened a single failure. Fuel consumption on the highway amounted to only 8.7 liters per 100 km. Amenities can be appreciated only ride on the “Lagoon”. Tyumen journalist S. September, participating in road tests, described her experience: “On my way, I tried to listen to… aerodynamic noise and the behavior of the car on the road. We drove, though not fast, but up to 80 km/h in the car was quiet. If it’s not full-proof aerodynamic purity (at this speed in the classic “Lada” is quiet), then, at least, talked about the fact that the apparent errors in the design and calculations no. As for the ride and “road holding” factors — the expansion of the gauge and increase the base (the dimensions of “Laguna” is comparable to “the river”, but it is 200 kg lighter! — Ed.) justified: the machine goes smoothly, confidently enough, not jumping from side to side… the suspension I would subjectively rank above “volgovskoe”…”
From myself I will add that for ease of driving there were even such seemingly minor, but nevertheless very useful things that increase active safety, as support for the driver’s left foot area and increased brake pedal. The first assessed primarily on a long trip, when the leg starts to tire from the strain. The second meet is that on the Executive machines. By such pedal will not miss in any situation. And the leg feels it differently.
 
Passive safety of the “Lagoon”, I think, is also higher than the production car. The interior belted tubular frame and therefore very hard. The energy absorption ability of bumpers own design is superior to “Zhigulevskoe”, they absorb shock more effectively.
 
Speaking of convenience, not to mention such important components of automobile comfort as the chair. Initially it was planned to “Zhiguli” of the seat (from the VAZ-2109). However, later I bought a beautiful chair from “Toyota mark II” — soft, comfortable, with electric heating (!). And with lots of adjustments: headrest moves not only up and down but also forward and backward; the movement of the lever, you can quickly inflate the cushion under the lower back or, on the contrary, to remove it.
 
Project your car I finished in October of 1986. Then a few years picked up the necessary components and parts. Four years spent on construction. To describe the difficulties that await those who will follow the path of self-production car, I think not.
 
Car
 
 
The Car Is Laguna.
 
Safety cage Assembly with frame (at the top of the cage and stand are not shown)
 
The safety cage Assembly with frame (at the top of the cage and rack not shown):
 
1, 6, 7, 8 — details of frame (pipe 3/4″), 2 — front spar, 3, 5 — stand (tube 50×25), 4 — amplifiers of thresholds (steel, s2), 9 — cross member (tube 50×25), 10 — bracket tie bar (pipe 60×40). 11 — the lining of the arch, 12 — rear spar (tube 60×40), 13 — mounting lugs extending from the cross rod, 14 — longitudinal beam (pipe 60×40), 15 — front cross-member, 16 — porch 17 — the holes for the mounting bolts I-beam front axle, 18 — bracket bottom longitudinal traction, 19 — arch rear wheels (steel, s1), 20 — axle shock absorber, 21 — beam dampers (tube 60×40), 22 — hull bottom (steel, s1), 23 — axle mounting upper longitudinal thrust, 24 — rear cross (tube 50×25), 25 — propeller shaft tunnel (steel, s 1), 26 — threshold (steel, s1).
 
Options embedded elements

 
Options embedded elements:
 
1 — panel-“sand-vich” body, 2 — piece, 3 — U-shaped element, 4 — nut, 5 — epoxy adhesive.
 
The right rear spar

 
 
Right rear spar:
 
1 —parts of the spar (tube 60×40), 2 — mounting bracket bottom rod, 3 — axle mounting upper longitudinal traction, 4 — Klondike 5 — upper bearing Cup spring rear suspension, 6 — traverse 7 — mounting bracket cross rod, 8 — lugs mounting cross rod.
 
Scheme mount hood

 
Diagram of mount hood:
 
1 — arm body (2 PCs), 2 — hood bracket (2 PCs.), 3 panel hood in the open position 4 — M8 Foundation bolt (6 PCs). 5 — washer, 6 — a lining, 7 — a lining of a body (steel, s1).
 
Edging glass

 
Edging glass:
 
1 — sealant 2 — bond clamp, 3 — glass, 4 window frame, 5 — panel body.
 
Improvement of cylinder head

 
Revision of cylinder head:
 
1 — clean the surfaces of the exhaust channels 2 — clean the surface of the intake ports, 3 — delete, the tabs and the ends of the guide sleeves.
 
Revision of the guide valve sleeve

Revision of the guide valve sleeve:
 
1 — valve stem cap, 2 — cylinder, 3 — shortened the guide sleeve. 4 — web valve and mandrel for pressing bushings.
 
Upgraded water pump

 
Upgraded water pump:
 
1 — pump cover, 2 — casing seal 3 — impeller (“Zhiguli”), 4 — shaft, 5 — graphite ring, 6 — the pump casing. 7 — oil seal.

 
People ask me sometimes: how I could “nine” besiege these “bells and whistles”? But my car VAZ-21099 nothing in common except doors and racks. What is this “nine”, if it has a base and the track is more classical layout with rear — wheel drive? Just the body shape is dictated by the requirements of aerodynamics. Of course, the opportunity to purge the machine, or at least the model in the wind tunnel I had, but in the design of the body I widely used books & reference on aviation subjects and the recommendations of the famous year preparing the car for the rally — for the sake of improving its reliability and performance.
 
“Laguna” — a four-door, five-seat sedan. Bearing part of the body consists of a power frame and safety cage surrounding the interior, which considerably improves passive safety.
 
Power frame is assembled from steel profiles with rectangular cross section with dimensions 60×40, 50×25 and 20×20 mm with the use of the front side members and extended at 170 mm front cross member of the frame of the “Moskvich-412”. “Donor” for the latter was the same knot that was used to cut a piece length 170 mm. All the pinch welds reinforced arc welding.
 
Safety frame made of pipes with a diameter of 3/4 inch. All welding work was performed by arc welding, constant current application electrodes of the Japanese brand 1.In-520 with a diameter of 4, 3,2 and 1,5 mm.
 
And now about what the “Laguna” differs from other machines. Except for the doors, all removable body panels — hood, trunk lid, fenders, bumpers, and other elements of the composite made from foam and fiberglass. Used rigid foam stamps ПХВ1 -115 — thermo-,noise – and vibration-insulating construction material (leaves standard: 600x600x50 mm). It is well processed by various tools — from hand planer to planer(depending on the size of the blanks). To the required theoretical contours given by the templates of fiberboard, the surfaces were brought with a grinding machine with coarse sandpaper.
The foam panels were shpaklevanii, polished and papered both sides with three layers as thin as silk, fiberglass (after it was burnt paraffin, for which it was heated on a hot plate to the appearance of smoke). Adhesive epoxy.. Then surface again specialise, ground, gruntovalnoy and finally painted. Used paint company “Sadolin” colors “trout-metallic”, coupled with a proprietary solvent. To use any other solvents, as recommended by some “experts” do not recommend: nothing good will come of it — the color with stains.
 
To body panels are attached with pasted them in all sorts of embedded items: bolts of different diameters, G – or U-shaped metal staples.
 
Movable hood and the trunk lid is equipped with a custom inner loops.
 
Front and back glass are installed on a layer of silicone sealant and pressed metal straps around the perimeter at intervals of 300 mm. As a disadvantage note the absence of them decorative frames — could not find a suitable material.
 
Windshield — from “Rafiq”, triplex, slightly cropped at the sides. The angle of inclination less than that of the VAZ-2108, and is 30°. To improve the aerodynamic qualities of the body of wiper blades hidden in the hood of the niche and is attached directly to the glass through two drilled holes in it.
 
QUICK
TECHNICAL
FEATURE
“The LAGOON”
 
Length, mm………….. 4446
Width, mm…………………….1800
Height, mm…………………………….1400
Wheel base, mm ….. 2580
Track, mm:
the front wheels ………….. 1472
the rear wheels ……. 1450
Weight, kg…………………………..1200
Maximum
speed km/h ……. 160
Summer fuel consumption (after running-in of engine) l/100 km:
at a speed of 90 km/h ………… 6,5
at a speed of 120 km/h for 8.7 i
in the city
(relaxed driving style)……. 8,9
Tank capacity, l ……. 43

 
 
Engine “Lagoon” — from the “Moskvich-412” with great potential. To use them, I modified the motor all I could.
 
First, to improve the filling of the combustion chambers and creating the minimum resistance of the exhaust gases expanded inlet and outlet channels of the cylinder head, and their corresponding nozzles. Did the cutter, and then a semicircular chisel and in the end emery tape, secured in the Chuck of the drill. Priter also the joints of pipe connections on head unit and adjusted at the place of laying as unreliable connection would lead to a significant loss of engine power and all my previous tricks would have been in vain.
 
Second, the changes in the design of the valve guide bushings. With the help of a special mandrel vibrissal them from heated to 170° C head, cut off the machine and re-pressed into a hot head. When the head has cooled, supplied bushings “Zhiguli” valve stem caps.
 
And about the valve mechanism. For more reliable operation at 6000 or more rpm subvalvular springs put washers 1.5 mm thick.
 
Thirdly, with the aim of improving throttle response of the engine reduced the weight of the flywheel. Instead of the standard 8 kg, he now weighs 4,2 kg. And the metal cut away from the center to reduce the magnitude of moment of inertia. With such a flywheel, of course, re-ambulancewoman, the engine runs evenly, and the car pulls away more smoothly.
 
Fourth, changed something in the design of the pump of the cooling. Removed from cover steel bushing with the standard “moskvichesky” seal, bored through the seat and pressed (with preload 0.02 mm) seal from the “Lada”. In addition, to increase the performance of the pump has replaced the standard impeller, too, on “Zhiguli”, which handled the shaft so that when napressovannye new impeller was the interference of 0.02 mm. the Rear end of the latter is also bored through up to the size ensuring a gap of 2 mm between the blades and the pump casing.
 
The result of modernization affected immediately: during our stay the electric fan is switched on only a couple of times and then when we went to the mountain for a long line of fuming “KAMAZ”.
 
That’s all about the engine. I will add that it has two exhaust pipes with mufflers and resonators. Pipe independent from each other and begin immediately after the exhaust manifold.
 

Now about the transmission. According to statistics, in the car, usually go one or two people. Therefore, for a more uniform distribution of mass (and weight distribution of my car is almost perfect — 48:52!) the engine and, respectively, the differential was shifted slightly to the right. Hence the difference in the length of the rod / axle rear left 145 mm longer than the right. Axle I sharpened independently (to flange dimensions match factory), all fillets were carefully grinded and polished. In the flanges have four holes for bolts M12x1,5 mounting drives.

 
Transmission — five-speed, IZH-2126 “Orbit”. For pairing it with the engine of “Moskvich-412” — or rather, with the clutch cover, I made the transition flange. Later, when the market appeared “horbatovska” casing clutch, bought one and replaced them with “moskvichki”. Therefore, drawing adapter flange do not bring unnecessary.
 
Front suspension — from the “Moskvich-2140”. Since the front cross member of the frame “Lagoon” wider “moskovichevskoe” in the suspension design also had to make changes. To do this, cut the I-beam and wail (conductor) box width 170 mm, taken from another beam. Extended average thrust for the same size. The stabilizer bar used from GAZ-24. To increase suspension stroke between the upper control arm and upper ball joint set textolite washer, with a thickness of 20 mm. All this has a positive effect on the smoothness of the car. And yet — produced the new hub.
 
Rear axle “Lagoon” — also from the “Moskvich-2140”. To increase the track of the rear wheels and simultaneously shift the differential to the right, I machined a special spacer. To the flange of the axle housing it is attached with regular bolts, and the junction of their brewed (after at spacers and flange were removed chamfer).
 
Lightened flywheel
 
Lightened flywheel “the Muscovite-412”.
 
Front wheel hub (steel 40)
 
The front wheel hub (steel 40).
 
Rear axle with spacer (rear view)
 
Rear axle spacer (rear view):
 
1 — Carter, 2, 3 — eyelet mounts top and bottom longitudinal rods, 4 — Cup spring rear suspension, 5—spacer (steel 30).
 
Bushing-extension of the driveshaft (steel 40)

 
Bushing-extension of the driveshaft (steel 40).
 
Axle with the new flange of the wheel
 
Axle with the new flange wheel (steel 40X, the holes for the mounting bolts of the brake drum is not shown).
 
Naturally, the alterations entailed the need for the manufacture of eyelets fastening the upper and lower longitudinal rods on the axle housing. When setting eyelets, special attention was paid to the alignment holes in them with holes in the rods, as even a slight discrepancy in size may lead to disruption of coordinated work of units and, as a consequence, overload. Rod used the standard, “Zhiguli”, the length of the lateral is properly increased.
 
When selecting gear ratios the rear axle (differential) I was counting on that, chosen correctly, it should provide a top speed and high acceleration capability. The lack of value of this ratio makes the car “stupid” during acceleration, and excessive displays the engine mode with the speed exceeding a limit of reliability.
So, if you are going to use the transmission from “Orbit”, I, after the settlement, and clarify the dynamic characteristics, changed gear ratio final drive with 1:3,9 1:4,22, putting another pair with the number of teeth of the gear 9, and wheels 38.
 
In the suspension of the rear axle for a better ride used springs and dampers from the VAZ-2121 “Niva”.
 
Propeller shaft with outboard bearing, as in “Zhiguli”, but with a more powerful frogs took from “Orbit”. With a specially made sleeve lengthened it to 84 mm.
 
Wheel “Lagoon” have the alloy wheels size is 5.5 J-14″ and tires brand Vagit size 195/75 R14. From trinadcatiletnie abandoned at the design stage — not looks a big car on narrow wheels!
 
Brake system — dual circuit, with vacuum booster. Front brakes — disc, rear — drum.
 
Steering — all the way from the “Moskvich-412”. However, I have the idea to install the “Lagoon” management of power from a Toyota — all self-respecting company car weighing more than one ton used hydraulic actuators. I think in a short time to implement the plan.
 
Electric car homemade, but installed using the mounting block from the VAZ-2108 and wires with the factory plug-in connections. Lights — from “the Muscovite-2141”, front — “Zaporozhets”, the rear lights, a heater and a beard dashboard — from VAZ-2108, instrument panel — from the VAZ-2107, the dashboard is homemade.
 
And finally — very important. All these years the wife and two sons, and was sympathetic to my constant disappearance in the garage. Moreover, helped to build a “Lagoon”. Of course, the cost was very high. And the time and effort spent a lot. Nevertheless, we are satisfied with their car. Over the past year, hitting more than 21, OOO km. I did what you wanted!
 
A. KLUNK,
Tyumen

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