GLIDING CAR…

PLANING A CAR...Curious views accompany this anipa everywhere. And no wonder — too unusual looks drown it in the car… a boat on wheels. We are talking about a vehicle that exists so far in a single copy— planing of the amphibian Triton. It was built by a man who, it would seem, very Dalen. D. T. Kudryachev not constructor, and a professional musician for a long time akademicheskom worked in the Moscow musical theatre named after K. S. Stanislavsky and V. I. Nemirovich-Danchenko.

However, Dmitry Trofimovich showed uncharacteristic of his profession the talent of the engineer and inventor to solve a very difficult task: to make a full-sized vehicle not only to swim but also glissirovat (and if you want and even transform it into a “clean” boat).

 
Tan appeared original suspension with bystrorezhuschej hinges, unusual steering and paradoxical “dry” connectors for the brake hydraulic system, not encountered in transport technology.
Sea trials have confirmed the efficiency and reliability of all systems and units amphibious. Positive ekspertnoe conclusion, specialista US was the basis for the registration of “Triton” in the SAI. In turn, the State inspection on small size vessels (GIMS) suffered him and n the navigation on all inland waterways in the category of “L” and “R”. Since amphibian faithfully serves his master now notary year.
 
In elektronnoy and the printing press there were reports about the “Triton”. Adnano the current publication is the most complete. It reveals the logic of the search of original technical decisions, allowed to create the vehicle, equivalent in its performance properties can be on land or on water. Together with the detailed description presented and extensive graphical material, which will give interested readers and possibly followers not only understanding of the essence of the original konstruktorska nahoon D. T. Kudlackova, but maybe tolcon to solving their own technical problems.
 
 
“Triton”:
 
I dry the connectors of the hydro-brakes, 2 — rear light 3 — fan 4 — kakovy fire 5 — a sidelight turn (aka — fire-waved), 6 — distinctive fire, 7 light, 8 — deck air duct, 9 — lifeline 10 — motor, 11 — reducer, 12 — transmission, 13 — a wardrobe, a 14 — hoist lift suspension wheels, 15 — boot 16 — fuel tank, 17 — heater cabins, 18 — cannon, 19 — silencer 20 — the water cooling radiator, a 21 — oil cooler 22 — outer ramp, 23 — cooling fan exhaust manifold, 24 strong background, the 25 — cover the collector 26, the window side of the duct, a 27 — side inlet, 28 — folding of the roof panel 29 — the hatch of the driver, 30 — eye-duck, 31 — pendulum-lever steering, a 32 — local strengthening of the hull, 33, 34 — vertical and horizontal walls of the side members, longitudinal stiffness, 35 — axis, 36 — socket-bearing suspension, 37 — axis of the control arm, 38 — Shoe spring suspension, a 39 — engine mounting, 40 — vtotal exchanger,41 — a branch pipe of the water cooling system (the external circuit).
 
TEHNICHESKIE DATA AMPHIBIAN TRITON
 
TEHNICHESKIE DATA AMPHIBIAN TRITON

 
Surprise, as you know— the beginning of all philosophy. For me too it all started with udaleniya, or, rather, with the question: does the amphibious vehicle will forever remain inferior vehicle? Almost a hundred years to accompany him two “birthmarks”: low speed on water and non-compliance of boating safety (low freeboard, poor maneuverability, seaworthiness zero). The result — a ban on water inspection of its operation along with the courts one purpose.
 
What’s the matter? What prevents wheeled, amphibious vehicle on the water high-speed boat? It turned out, a lot.
First of all, the usual car design. From Naga should be abandoned. Unlike the floating car that has speed 7— 9 km/h even with the factory body, the body of this amphibian must meet the conditions of a new “habitat”, that is, uncompromising to repeat the contours of the bottom of the speedboat.
 
The architecture of the surface part can be practically any, but then again — given the features of operation on the water. For example, desirable in the normal camerascreen deck with a small slope, because it is a workplace under the lockage, mooring to the pier or the approach to unequipped shore.
 
Further. Nothing must interfere with the body glissirovat. The entire car chassis — wheels, elements of the steering gear and the transmission must be removed from the water completely. The kopromiss is excluded. Any fairings, or partial screens preload wheels will add speed, 2-3 km/h, and amphibian remains may floating, but the car.
 
And the last one. If even a significant excess of the recommended carrying capacity has little effect on his running performance, then to amphibians, the implementation of the planing requires a strict coordination of its total weight, of an engine power. There is a threshold to cross which is unacceptable: if the value of the specific engine load greater than the critical value, the amphibian ceases to be planing.
 
In our case, this threshold — 22 kg/HP, and because of the severe operating conditions of the engine on the water are only 80% of its rated capacity.
 
Preliminary estimations showed that the hydrodynamic requirements and the conditions of habitability of the dimensions of the “Triton” could not be less than the prevailing camerascreen type “minimal boats with a car engine” with the length of 5 and width of 2 m. In this case it appeared that the curb weight of amphibians with the car stuffed to 300 kg will exceed the weight of the cabin of a boat of comparable size (1000 kg). Thus, the complete displacement of 1 300 kg, it was possible to use the engine GAZ-21 with restriction to 80% of rated power. Thus the resulting specific load 22 kg/HP to exceed the limits restricting the possibility of planing.
 
This can be explained by the design features and layout of the “Triton”.
 
CASE
 
Chine hull shape with a little camber boards have moderate deadrise (5% on transom). The Board in the areas of suspensions of the wheels vertical. The nasal branches of the frames dowry is very large collapse, which allowed us to get a large, almost rectangular deck. Note that ia theoretical Carthage (and in table blazovich y) zygomatic Briz-hotbounce, the vertical portions of the sides in the area of suspensions and camber nasal frames for simplicity is not shown.
 
Constructively the hull of the amphibian — bearing. Rather, it applied the species — carrying bottom, the bottom of which is a solid box-like platform consisting of a cut-cov-speci.
 
Power set the case is made by longitudinal-transverse scheme with the use of oak and pine. Frames are assembled on the brackets on both sides. Toprimary have a variable cross section with the broadening of the cheekbone. I-beam longitudinal framing and covering panels (aircraft plywood in various thicknesses) can interface “on condition”. The case outside is covered with fiberglass. All connections are epoxy glue with opress-cownoy screws or clamps. The hardware was used only galvanized or cadmium. Inner surface of the housing coated with epoxy varnish. Unsinkable by its secured sealing of the forebody sections and the bottom of the carrier.
The slope of the transom aligned with the angle of the jet and is equal to 6 degrees to the vertical. On transom mounted hard ladder: he is comfortable on the water and on land and also serves as a fence radiators, muffler and reversal-steering complex of the cannon.
 
The case is made fully closed, without cockpit and side Potapkin (uchastkov narrow deck along the side). Instead of them — through the Central passage along the axis of the amphibian. When otkrytoi the roof it connects the bow and stern sections of the deck. The middle fold of the windscreen leans back and the rear door and the roof panel are formed in a compact package and are mounted to starboard.
 
Because the body had hung a lot of “unnecessary” ordinary neteru components and assemblies, particularly acute problem of weight loss. At all stages of the work carefully justified as the choice of the materials used and the dimensions and cross section details.
 
Theoretical hull lines and construction sections in the midsection
 
Theoretical hull lines and construction sections in the midsection:
1 — the coach roof, 2 — rubber seal glass, 3 removable deck, 4-6 — lever device for the pickup of the seats.
 
 
TABLE BLAZOVICH ORDINATE
 
 
Interior layout
 
 
Interior layout:
1 — navigation drawer for small items, 2 — sun visor in the position of setrootbyname, 3 — rear view mirror in the “afloat”, 4 — pillers, 5 — slide the seat back, 6 — passenger seat, 7 — roof panels in-folded, 8 — folding table, 9 — a door to the galley, 10 — roof rail, 11 — shade 12 — a table in the folded position, 13 — kitchen 14 — drinking water tank 15, and roof engine compartment 16 — a guide Shoe suspension 17 — trap-Shoe, of 18.21 — step rear ladder, 19 is a dry socket the hydro-brakes, 20 — socket-bearing suspension, 22 — retractable sink-23 — table legs, 24 — hoist the seat, 25 — step front inner ladder.
 
Intermediate node transmission control
 
The intermediate node transmission control:
1 — rear cover of the gearbox 2 stock slide, 3 — the console, which transmits the reciprocating motion of a 4 — rod transmitting the rotational movement, 5 — shaft control box.
 

 
Important reserve of reduction of weight there was multiple use of structural elements subject to rational relationship. For example, the vertical side members of the carrier bottoms are used and the walls of the lockers; they, being reinforced at the rear, form the basis of the sub Basement. Different size of space (400, 550, 600 mm) is not only strictly linked to the living space, but also eliminates the duplication of a set of cross as coordinated with the mounting dimensions of the units chassis. Reference nodes suspension of the wheels supported by two pairs of reinforced frames, and the two pillers on the sides of the Central passage partially relieve the power set of the roof and at the same time serve as a support for the mast for more sail armament.
 
CABIN
 
The rejection side Potapkin allowed to expand the cabin from side to side, which greatly increased its useful volume. The interior space is divided into two parts: the main tube, the boundary which are the backs of the front seats and pillars, and the salon is located aft of it a galley and a wardrobe.
 
Front seats — driver and Navigator — have folding duralumin frame and can be installed in two levels with a difference in height 400 mm. Lower position normal — “car”; the upper is used only on the water for improved visibility in difficult conditions of navigation. For this above the seats made hatches. Cover them recline, and sun visors, turned up to protect the face of the driver from the oncoming air flow, is very significant at speeds of 40-50 km/h.
 
Six seats in the cabin located along the sides on the lockers; four of them are equipped with a hinged and easy transformirovalsya in a full-sized double bed across the hull. To reduce the weight of all the seats made of slabs of foam PVC 1 50 mm thick, covered with polyurethane foam and covered with leatherette.
 
Equipment and stock of products is stored in twelve lockers and large boot in the fore peak (above the tank). In addition, there are side pockets and the mate “SAC” for route maps, binoculars, chinafotopress and small things.
 
Ventilation natural through half-open or fully open any combination of doors, doors and roof panel over the Central aisle.
 
A few words about the galley. Essentially, the cabin as if it is not, because when pushed into a niche Desk he closed and similar to located opposite the wardrobe. However, there is enough space for the two “Bees” slide-sink with tap from the reservoir of drinking water and all kitchen utensils. In the niches surround the door kept the thermos, small dishes, spices, tea, coffee, sugar.
 
POWERPLANT
 
Engine GAZ-21, gear shift with the differential from “Zaporozhets” and a homemade reducer are a single power unit. It is set on five rubber pads close to the transom, above the water cannon. With this arrangement minimises the length of the engine compartment.
 
Access ratchet colineal — through the hole in the transom, the overlapping spring-loaded lid with seal.
 
The engine cooling system dual. Aft it has required some add-ons: for a more intense airflow water cooler installed guide casing; a regular four-bladed impeller fan replaced a light shestilopastnye deployed in the opposite direction; a cooler from the GAZ-51. Air enters through a separate carrier-based air duct and partly across the wide gap between the transom and the housing of the fan.
 
Reducer
 
Gear:
1 — gear cover, 2 — cover of the gearbox of GAZ-21, 3 — shaft, 4 — pinion gear, 5 — intermediate gear, 6 — flange jet drive, 7 — driven gear with a Cam clutch, 8 — drain plug 9 — fitting shirt water cooling, 10 — jacket cooling, 11—rib, 12 — Cams driven shaft, 13 — Cams drive shaft of the gearbox, 14 — housing, 15 — drive shaft transmission.
 
Scheme steering
 
Steering control scheme:
I — clutch control on wheels or jet, 2 — steering, 3 — intermediate, thrust, 4 — chair, 5 — horizontal rod 6 — swing arm, 7 — socket-bearing suspension, 8 — the case of amphibians, 9 — lever axle suspension, 10 — side thrust, II —ball joint, 12 — rocker 13 — arm suspension.
 
 
Dry socket the hydro-brakes:
1 — Board housing, 2 — nut side of the hemisphere, 3 — pipeline brake master cylinder, 4 — side hemisphere, 5 — screws of membranes (2×6 pieces), 6 — pressure washer, 7 — countermeasures (expendables) hemisphere, 8 — wheeled hose section of the hydraulic system, 9 — membrane, 10 — nut, 11 — valves, primary flow of the hydraulic system.
 
Transmission (drive circuit is not shown):
1, 5 — a nylon bushing, 2 — gimbal hinge axis, 3 — socket-bearing rear suspension, 4 — shaft, 6 — axle housing suspension arm, 7 — the case of amphibians, 8 seal-bellow, 9, 13 — eccentric bearing, 10 — cover Assembly window, 11 — check-locking eccentric buildings, a 12 — leading stars, 14 —cover host, 15,16 — Windows drive chains 17 — slice under the pin-clamp, 18 — holes for lubrication of the bearing, 19 — the magnitude of the eccentricity of the axes of the socket-bearing and the drive shaft 20 to one of the two pipes of the suspension arm, 21 — spacer sleeve, 22 to driven shaft (wheel axle), 23 — shield of the brake drum 24 to the hub wheel 25 is the driven sprocket, 26 — lock washer 27 — nut castellated eliminate bearing play, 28 — cover of the slave node.

 
When the jet afloat automatically connects the second external cooling circuit, consisting of water heating coils embedded in the highway between the radiator and water pump. Outboard water was also fed into the coil cooling oil in the crankcase of the engine into the shirt of the gearbox.
 
The exhaust manifold enclosed in a light casing that cools on land and water two-speed centrifugal blower motor which is interlocked with the throttle. When the engine warms up the fan is off. At medium revs it is activated for low speed and high (over 2500 rpm) — on big.
 
The exhaust gases are ejected through a tube having a front transom of a compensation spacer — bellows that absorbs engine vibration. Over the transom — the muffler is rigidly fixed under the bottom rung of the ladder.
 
The engine compartment air is drawn through air inlets located on both sides of the cabins. For corabatir the pipes it goes to the engine and gearbox and is discharged then through a special grid in the transom.
 
To transmit power to the jet and the transmission applied to the gear reducer. Gear ratio 19:18. Spur gears with a module of 3 mm and heat treated to 48-52 Н1ЧС. The noise from these gears compared to helical, more (8-10 dB), but their use allowed to reduce the size and weight of the gearbox. (Later the gear was still replaced by COSATU-bye, but to cram them in the old building was not easy.)
The gear case welded. All of the holes and the seats are processed on a boring machine. On the side walls and the bottom of the reducer welded jacket cooling.
 
Control gear placed on the sector “water jet — n — wheels”, located to the right of the driver, near the shift lever. Here, the reverse lever of the cannon.
 
In-line transmission control introduced by the “pantograph” — a kind of Pro – interstitial usep necessary because the control shaft, passing under alanami, and the stock slide boxes are at different heights.
 
Water CANNON
 
Water-jet propulsion unit of the “Triton” is made of stainless steel. Based on adopted the design described in the journal “Motorboats and yachts” № 11 and 25. Of course, with a substantial” amendments: expanded
 
the inlet conduit is a viewing hatch; cone guide vane apparatus is extended; removable (screw-in) portion of the fairing located bearings and seals the rear of the prop shaft; the cross section of the rotor blades and guide vane apparatus is reduced by half; the gap between obecirol and the rotor blades sustained 0,4 mm; significantly facilitated reversal-steering complex.
 
The conduit is made of two symmetrical halves, picolata which was greatly alleviated thanks to a preliminary longitudinal cuts in the cylindrical part of the future of zagotovo. Half-fitting, Ustin and tightened the dummy wire ties, welded in a single pass. This technology, in my opinion, gives the least distortion of the geometry of the conduit and ultimately shortens the length of the welds.
 
SUSPENSION
 
Poskolku AI some the school suspension was not suitable for “Triton” had to make their own independent single lever suspension welded construiti with the underlying Yeshe in the manufacture of installation angles of inclination of the king pin, camber and HS La convergence back. The angle of convergence of the front wheels is adjustable transverse rod inside the housing.
 
The axis of the levers all suspension hollow, with a large. They sdelany to in the front to move freely lateral thrust steering, and rear fit universal joints, sprockets and posiblemente with eccentric housings for regulating a tension of the chains.
 
When installed on amphibious, UN arms of the suspensions are inserted into socket – supports with zapressovany andtheir nylon bushings and rotated into position. These nodes represent the fast detachable swivel, reminiscent of the bayonet. But if a conventional bayonet connection parts are fixed stationary relative to each other, the axis of the levers suspensions “Triton” have a radial freedom in all-in-one sector up to 170 degrees, which more than enough and to an oscillatory cycle of their work, and for lifting Noles out of the water to a height above the waterline.
 
Springs and hydraulic dampers set the same for both pairs of hangers from the car ZAZ-968. The upper legs of springs and dampers are special traps that move on rails and locks into place with pins shoes springs.
 
On the water suspension with the wheels rise along the sides of the cable winch. Thus, Triton, unlike other amphibians, can stay afloat indefinitely, because all of the units chassis do not corrode and are not overgrown with algae and at any time ready n use on land. STEERING
 
Made on the basis of an appropriate mechanism of “Zaporozhets”. However, with significant additions due to the use of a fundamentally different schema of the steering actuator, the essence of which is to combine the longitudinal axis of the lateral rods with the axis of the swing levers of the suspension and the transmission to the steering knuckles through koromysla, which has support on wishbone suspensions. In this form, each suspension spring, shock absorbers and elements of the steering gear is a single mounting block, Nana does not require any adjustments when installed on the housing.
 
Kinematika of this scheme, in contrast to all other diagrams automotive steering gear, seamlessly and without disruption of the angle of the wheels to raise them to an unusual height — 700 mm.
 
The shaft of the steering mechanism has a device with a jaw coupling, which includes work or the cable drum of the drive valves to the intake or the mechanism of the wheels.
 
All communications remote control engine, gear box, reducer, reverse jet, and also the Parking brake cables and speedometer are held under the floorboards of the cabin.
 
TRANSMISSION
 
The sides in the area of the supports of the rear suspension from the gearbox are the axle shaft with universal joints connected to the leading axes of the sprockets, a sleeve Rainey chain (two on each of the cats) work inside a sealed tubular wishbone rear under a good oil bath. Their tension is regulated by turning the eccentric bearing housings.
 
A favorable distribution of weight “Triton” wheel is achieved due to the inclination of the front and rear suspensions ago. It also gives a smooth ride, because on rough roads the suspension experience a smaller dynamic loads.
 
BRAKE SYSTEM
 
Here, too, in full used brake system “Zaporozhets”: foot separate hydraulic drive on front and rear wheels, and manual cable (Parking) —only the rear.
 
For ease of installation or dismantling of suspensions hydraulic I applied another high-speed connection — “dry” connector of supply lines are, allowing you to connect or disconnect the brake hoses Noles without losing braking jednosti and without subsequent time-consuming pronoucne the entire system.
 
Such connectors on the “Triton” four. Each of them consists of two hemispheres, covered with elastic membranes: side (it ocenivaetsa pipeline internal line), and response (RRA expenditure) attached to the end of the tubing of the wheel. Response to the side-Curling collar nuts.
 
When you press on the brake pedal the two membranes are deformed by squeezing the liquid from the expenditure of the hemisphere in the working cylinder of the wheel is braked.
 
The amount of the expenditure of the hemisphere is 3.5 times greater than the volume used in the working cylinders, therefore, any operating losses will be compensated. In the absence of brake fluid in any hemisphere (or even all four) brake system is not failing: when pressing on the pedal under the action of pressure of the membrane is punched through, and the brake fluid freely flowing from the internal to the external line, doing his job as in a conventional hydraulic system of the vehicle.
 
ELECTRICAL equipment
 
It is fully automotive, although the visual alarm is performed according to two schemes with the switch “ground — water”. Lights left behind in the scheme of “water” in order to use them when approaching the shore in the darkness. Front turn signals work and the lights-a visual signal. Both schemes are equipped with switches ground.
 
Lights, front position lamps and distinctive lights “drowned” in the niches along the edges of deck pass and well protected by overhanging sections of the bow deck.
 
Regular the signs of the mode of operation of the engine supplemented by an electronic tachometer and a “Vodopadnaya”, which is used as the manometer with a scale, programmirovanii to kilometers. Possible and control the temperature of the oil in the engine. For this sensor TM-101 installed in macropodidae, from time to time dexpositions connects the toggle switch on the dashboard to the instrument indicator water temperature.
 
On the shield are also shown knopki manual “gas” and air stalking-carb.
 
Thanks to these “complications”, which is set up with amphibious (quick plug-in connections, etc.), it is extremely simple to turn e “clean” boat. After removing the suspension, for example, can be towed vodnolyzhnogo or to take aboard two more passengers or extra fuel, product, equipment, as without suspensions capacity (displacement) amphibious increased by 170 kg.
 
To do this, simply Unscrew the four sleeve nuts “dry” connectors, disconnect from the pendulum levers side pull strand and the outer ends of the hand brake cable. Such a simple operation we are holding almost every time for a month and a half leave in the summer on the Moscow sea.
 
D. KUDRYAKOV

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