The boys bent for to the technician, probably in the genes. Only now their life is quite a long period (the so-called transitional age) when playing with toy cars they already feel shameful for himself but to get behind the wheel of this car — they haven’t got the time, most often such just is not even from my parents.
But with such boys, we have designed and built several simple, but real cars, slightly differing in size and execution. But because those of them that little more, we have given the name “buggy”, and their smaller “cousins” called “cards”.
One of the options of our cars we decided to share with the readers of the journal “modelist-Konstruktor”, all the more so when they create a lot of information and knowledge from him and learned.
According to the construction of the proposed vehicle is similar to a cart and consists of the following components and mechanisms: the power unit with the control mechanisms, frames with arc security, front axle with guide wheels and steering, rear axle with leading right-hand wheel and chain drive and friction brake hub.
Car for a teenager:
1 — a rotary fist;
2 wheel (hand truck, 5 PCs.);
3 — pedal control;
4 — the steering mechanism;
5 — anterior arch of security;
6 — a connecting strut (2 PCs);
7 — floor (plywood s6);
8 — brace (2 PCs.);
9 — arm fixation / off clutch;
10 — seat (sofa and back);
11 — fuel tank (nylon canister with a capacity of 5 l);
12 — the power unit;
13 — rear axle;
14 — frame;
15 — the rear arc of security.
Incidentally, I note that the design of the drive axle and friction of the brake Assembly I have received the copyright certificate.
Frame-the frame of the machine is welded from thin-walled circular tubes made of medium alloy steel with good weldability (e.g. steel 30KHGSA, which is widely used for manufacturing Bicycle frames, handrails in public transport, etc.).
The total length of the most thick pipes with outside diameter of 35 mm and a wall thickness of 2 mm, used for making frames, for a total of about 6.5 m, and the pipe is thinner with a diameter of 25 mm is about 17 m. the Details of the pipes can be welded and composite parts, with subsequent Stripping of the circular seams. Bent tube blank by bending in cold condition. When the corner joints of tubular parts, the ends of the “slave” pipes (those that mate) grind the radius of the “leading” (the ones pristykovyvayas). Without such a fit of connected pipes cannot weld seam quality even for an expert.
Frame-frame (detail POS. 1,2,4 is made of steel pipe 035×2 mm; the details of the poses. 3,5,7, 8,9,11,12— from steel pipe ø 25×1,5 mm):
1 — the main spar;
2 — cross member;
3 — buffer-front of the spare wheel;
4 — intermediate spar;
5 — anterior arch of security;
6 — Klondike solitaire (St3 sheet s3, 2 PCs.);
7 — cross-member;
8 — brace;
9 — a connecting strut arcs of safety (2 PCs.);
10 — support the fixation mechanism is switched off clutch position (St3, the sheet s5, 2 PCs.);
11 —front seats (4 PCs.);
12 — rear arc of security;
13 — Shoe (St3, sheet s1,5, 2);
14 — bracket bearing housing of the axles of the rear axle (St3 sheet s3-3).
15 — bolt M8;
16 — washer;
17 — weld-on nut M8.
Frame-the frame can be made of dural profiles (for example, alloys D16, D19), however, they will require TIG welding. This frame will be lighter but more expensive.
The Assembly of the frame begins after the manufacture of the main elements of spars and beams. Workpiece length main spar (and he is bent out of the tube and consists of right and left branches and back buffer in between) 4 m, the radii of both curves is 150 mm. Assembly Operation is performed on a flat, horizontal surface of the slipway. The relative position of the parts is reconciled with the square and roulette strictly in accordance with the drawing.
After that, the details primatyvajutsja (welded points in several places). Again checked the dimensions, and where necessary, the symmetry and parallelism. If necessary, the position of the parts is also corrected and only then the parts are welded in a continuous seam. The ends of the traverse shall be closed with plugs. After that installed in the design position of the arc security and the strut. Details first also primatyvajutsja and verified, and then thoroughly welded to the side members. Between the arches are welded connecting their struts.
1 — wheel (2 PCs.);
2 — hub carrier (St3, circle 52, 2);
3 — bearing (80203 or 180203,4 PCs.);
4 — left axle shaft (STZ, circle, 20);
5 — the bearing housing (STZ, 50 round, 3 pieces);
6 — the base of the bearing housing (STZ, sheet s2, 3).
7 — mounting bracket bearing housing-rear axle (3).
8 — special nut М42х1,5 (STZ, circle 42,4 PCs.);
9 — the bearing bushing (St3, circle 30, 2 PCs);
10 — the left branch of the spar;
11 — disc left brake drum (STZ, sheet s2);
12 — the rim of the brake drum (STZ, strip 37×1,5, 2);
13 — brake band (strap from the VAZ-2108);
14 disc right brake drum (STZ, sheet s2);
15 — especulo (STZ, lap 47);
16 — spring washer Grover (4pcs.);
17 — thrust washer (22x11x2, 4pcs.);
18 — nut M10 (4 PCs.);
19 — the average spar;
20 to the drive sprocket of the drive wheel (t= 12,7, z = 55);
21 — the right branch of the main spar;
22 — right driveshaft (STZ, round 20).
If difficulties are anticipated for the storage of the car due to lack of space at the top, then mount the arcs security and brace to the side members and the arcs between them you can run a collapsible on the M8 bolts, For this purpose the contact areas in both parts are drilled diametrically through the corresponding holes. The connection of the front and rear arcs between them at the top of the struts is also provided with bolts, as shown in the attached figure. Brace in the lower part it is better to not attach them to the spar and to the front arc.
The management node:
1 — steering wheel (from the car “Lada”);
2 — cross the front arcs of safety;
3 — set screw M8;
4 — bracket steering shaft (bronze);
5 — steering shaft (STZ, pipe d16x2, L640);
6 — retaining bushing (pipe d EXT 16);
7 — bolt M6 (4 PCs.);
8 — floor;
9 — rope of a clutch;
10 — front cross member;
11 — trim (rubber, 2 PCs.);
12 — pedal (STZ, sheet s2,2);
13 — the lever of a pedal (STZ, sheet s5);
14 — the axis of the pedal arm (brass hex 27, 2 PCs.);
15 — brackets steering (STZ, the sheet s3, 2 PCs.);
16 — flanges (STZ, sheet KZ, 4 PCs.);
17 — the gear support (STZ, sheet 83);
18 — gear shaft (m = 3, z = 0);
19 — the rake (steel 30KHGSA, m = 3, z = 15);
20 — deadlifts (STZ, strip 20×4, 2);
21 — intermediate longeron.
Further, it can be welded to the side members of the saddle stand, and to traverse the buffer. But the brackets, supports and scarves better to weld during installation of those parts and mechanisms for the attachment which they are intended.
As a powertrain of the car used moped engine Д8М capacity of 1.1 HP with a speed of 5000 per minute, but you can set any other moped from the “desc”. However, a more powerful motor set is not recommended — even with this engine the car can accelerate to 25 km/h.
A diagram of the power transmission and brake mechanism:
1 — engine;
2 — the carburetor;
3 — the console subframe (pipe d25);
4 — front subframe (pipe d25);
5 — top knee brace (STZ, strip 20×4,2);
6 — threaded rod M8 lanyard (STZ, the range of 8.2).
7 — threaded bushing M8 lanyard (half — left-hand thread);
8 — threaded rod M8 Leo. (STZ, circle 8, 2);
9 — lower knee brace (STZ, strip 20×4, 2);
10 — cables clutch and throttle control of the carburetor (03);
11 — brake-belt (timing VAZ-2108, 2);
12 — node connections of the brake straps, and wire rope;
13 — wire drive brake (03);
14 — specivity M6 adjustment of clutch and gas (hexagon turnkey 10);
15 — middle longeron;
16 — bracket adjustment screws cables accelerator and clutch (aluminium angle 20×20);
17 — bracket-shelf (STZ, sheet s2);
18 — spacer, brake belt (STZ, sheet 81);
19 — connections of the brake straps and spacers (washers-plate 20×20 hole 06, STZ, sheet s1,5);
20 — support sleeve;
21 — brake drum (2 PCs.);
22 — drive sprocket of the drive wheel (t = 12,7, z = 55);
23 — right rear drive wheel d400;
24 — drive chain (t = 12,7, z = 1000);
25 — rear bumper main spar;
26 — high-voltage transformer TLM-3;
27 — the base plate of the subframe (STZ, sheet CI);
28 — sprocket output shaft (t = 12,7, z = 9);
29 — ratchet (chainsaw “Ural”);
30 — cover docking device of the motor start-up (from a chainsaw “Ural”);
31 — right drive axle;
32 — bracket bearing housing of the axles of the rear axle (3).
33 — the left axle shaft;
34 — left side rail.
The power unit is located behind the right side behind the driver’s seat. It mounts on the frame via a subframe — removable corner bracket, made of two pipe sections (console and rack) with a diameter of 25 mm.
Strut bracket is welded to the base plate that the three bolts M8 is screwed to the rear transverse part of the spar — buffer of the frame. The base plate is made of sheet steel STZ thickness of 3 mm. Holes in the spar (Diametric, horizontal) drilled the holes in the plate.
The motor is set to the “cylinder back” and with a slight tilt down. But the carb is mounted vertically, for this, his body slightly rotated in the mounting hole, and then fixed again.
Muffler (parts POS.5,6,8,9,10 made of stainless steel, sheet s1):
1 — engine;
2 — Union nut 30×1,5 (STZ, hexagon 36);
3 — nipple (St3, circle 28);
4 — connecting pipe d25;
5 — shell of the housing;
6 — the housing flange;
7 — bracket (steel bracket 25×10, 2);
8, the first partition;
9 — conical partition;
10, the second bulkhead;
11 — exhaust pipe (pipe ø 20X1, L25);
12 – rear bumper frame.
Starting the engine is a manual starter motor from a chainsaw “Ural”. For docking the starter by the end of the shaft maggino prevernal made adapter screwed into it with a ratchet. Ratchet covered with a modified cover, taken from the same chainsaw. Engine stop is the ignition switch located on a small instrument panel mounted on the front cross member of the arc security, the right of the driver.
The engine cylinder is interlocked with the housing which contains the clutch and reduction gearing. With an asterisk (z = 9) it is the output shaft the torque is transmitted through drive chain sprocket (z = 55) on the right drive shaft of the rear axle. This axle shaft installed in the two support bearings, housings which are attached to the side members of the frame, the middle and right branches of the main. Have chain the same step as on most bikes -12,7 mm, only the thickness of the sprocket (and hence the distance between the cheeks of chain links) more — 6 mm.
Shinebourne the layout of the car provided a simple construction of the transmission. Brake drums are mounted on the rod / axle to provide braking to both rear wheels. The engine is equipped with mechanism for manual actuation.
The right drive axle is connected with the left by means of special bushings. One end of the sleeve is rigidly fixed on the right axis, and the other planted on the outer ring of the bearing, the inner ring which sits on the left axis. On spermcult installed and welded another disc right brake drum. Left brake drum through the other bushing is rigidly secured on the left axle.
Braking takes place by friction of the rubber belts of the crimping the outer surface of the brake drum by pressing the pedal by the driver. When moving the straps just slide easily on the surfaces of the drums.
When driving in difficult conditions such as dirt or icy roads, disks, brake drums connected through the corresponding holes of the two pins M8, and the left rear wheel, thus, becomes also the leading.
The guide wheels of the little car front. They are from the steering wheel to the shaft via the steering mechanism (gear and rack), traction and steering knuckles. The steering is simplified, but it provides a consistent rotation of both wheels.
The locking mechanism is off the clutch:
1 — guide (brass or bronze, the sheet s6, 6 PCs.);
2 — masonry (steel 30HGSA, leaf s1,5);
3 — the slider (steel 30KHGSA 83);
4 — the base plate (stainless steel or St3, s2);
5 — latch (steel 30KHGSA, s3);
6 — middle spar;
7 — stand arm (steel hexagon turnkey 17);
8 — arm (road — from gear lever with threaded blind hole M8);
9 — the support mechanism on the frame (2 PCs.);
10 — cable d3;
11 — screw M4 (3 PCs.)
Steering wheel with shaft is borrowed from an old “Zhiguli”, and the rest of the parts of the steering gear is homemade, though the gear you can pick up and finish.
Gear (z = 10, z = 3) fixed at the end of the steering shaft through bushings and four bolts-pins (two on the steering shaft, two on the shank of a gear). From the rotation of the gears in the forward movement (right or left) is driven by a gear rack with tie rods attached on each side of it. The other ends of the rods are connected to steering knuckle arms, and the fists — with the axes of the wheels.
Axle steering knuckle attached to the ends of the front yoke, two M8 bolts each.
All parts steering knuckle is made of alloy steel 30KHGSA: axle — milling, and other parts, turning lathe and machining flat and squared with a file.
In the manufacture of axles, hubs and spachek must comply with high accuracy and surface quality to be installed in their bearings. Therefore, their production, as well as the manufacture of these parts with the rear axle pinion steering mechanism (if you are unable to pick up ready), it is better to entrust to specialists. The wheels for this car also it is advisable to purchase ready — fit even from a garden wheelbarrow.
Steering wheel and control pedal — just like a real car. Here only the handle not the transfer switch and lock in off position grip.
The engine muffler is hand made. Staff are too noisy and outsized for such a small car.
Exhaust silencer 4-chamber, barrel-shaped with flanges in the form of an ellipse with axes of 110 mm and 70 mm. Camera inside the housing is formed by two partitions (on the form are the same as flanges), and a partition in the form of a truncated cone (before the production of that part of its scan should be done first out of cardboard), In partitions and sections drilled at 20 evenly distributed holes with a diameter of 5 mm. All the parts of the muffler are made of stainless steel sheet with a thickness of 1 mm, although of STZ.
For supplying exhaust gas from the cylinder to the silencer is curved releasing a thin-walled tube with a diameter of 25 mm. Length of blank pipe is about 0.5 m. One end of the pipe is welded to the corresponding hole in the input chamber of the shell of the muffler, and welded to the other nipple with a pre-worn swivel nut for connecting the pipe to the cylinder. In the latter the outlet chamber of the muffler is also a hole in the sidewall — there is welded a short exhaust pipe out of the pipe with a diameter of 20 mm.
Exhaust silencer is fastened to the back buffer of the frame with two bolts M6, two angled bracket that is welded to the shell bottom.
1 — middle longeron;
2 — cross member;
3 — bracket (St3. sheet s2);
4 — pad (St3, sheet s1,2);
5 — joint (rubber band 45x25x3);
6 — clamp (lead seal);
7 pedal (St3, sheet s1,5);
8 — rope (d3).
In the power unit D-8M integrated clutch mechanism which allows you to turn off the motor from the transmission. This permits the car to stand still with the engine running, and start the engine not with “the pusher”, and the Parking lot. Disabling the clutch on the car is a real car, from pedals located on the floor on the left side of the steering shaft.
However, to keep this pedal when starting the engine one person is almost impossible. Also it is impossible to go with car, not drowning. To get rid of the listed disadvantages was made device, which fixes the clutch in the off position.
Removing the gas tank and putting the car on its side, will provide access to the steering gear (around the spare wheel) to the steering knuckle (at the top under the wheel) and the fixing mechanism is off the clutch (right).
In the heart of the device is a plate made of a stainless steel sheet with a thickness of 2 mm and a workpiece size 220×110 mm. in the absence of stainless steel can be used and STZ. Six rails made of bronze (brass). To the plate they are mounted with two screws each М5х10 so that the slider and the latch moved freely, but without backlash. The slide with cover and latch made of sheet steel 30KHGSA 3 mm thick.
The threaded holes M4 in the slider, it is necessary to mark simultaneously with the holes (without thread) in the overlay. Covering the holes with one hand should still razzenkovku for screws with countersunk head, with which between the RAM and the plate is fixed a clutch cable going from the pedal to the engine crankcase. Protruding from the locking mechanism to the ends of the screws need to whittle down flush and clean the surface to ensure its smooth sliding on the slab.
Strut arm machined from hexagonal bar under the key on “17”. Strut is inserted into the hole at the end of the retainer and secured by nut M10 with spring washer. The arm can pick up the car or make it yourself out of plastic or wood.
The gear Assembly is fastened to the supports in the middle longeron.
All friction surfaces of the mechanism and the threaded holes in the Assembly are lubricated with thick grease.
The accelerator pedal (“gas”) is a little different than the clutch pedal and brake. Her billet is cut from a sheet of STZ thickness of 1.5 m, and the edges are bent, providing the details of rigidity.
Steering knuckle front idler wheel (parts POS.2,3,4,5,6,8 made of steel 30KHGSA):
1 — front cross member;
2 — axle;
3 — the lever (lap 17);
4 — pin (hex 17);
5 — axis (circle, 20);
6 — hub (steep 52);
7 — spacer sleeve (tube 023×3);
8 — the bearing housing (circle 48);
9 — bearing 180203 (2 PCs.);
10 — wheel (hand truck)
The two pads also cut from a sheet of STZ, but with a thickness of 1 mm. Rubber band size 45x25x3 mm performs the function of a hinge. Through it the pedal is attached to the bracket, and the bracket is welded to the front beam on the right side of the steering shaft. The distance between the brake pedal and an accelerator “in the world” was not less than 70 mm End of the cable “gas” is inserted into the hole in the pedal and is fixed here with a clamp.
The gas tank is easy to pick up and suitable even nylon thick-walled canister from under the car consumable liquids with a capacity of 3 — 5 liters In the bottom of the tank need to cut and consolidate here the fuel tap and connect it to petrol-resistant pipe with a carb motor.
Secure the gas tank behind the back seat, but not necessarily its bottom should rise above the carburetor of the engine to fuel it acted by gravity.
Seat you can pick up ready — fit from different cars. But you can make your own. The dimensions of the backrest and the same seat — 850×300 mm. as a basis use a 5 — 6 mm plywood. On the plywood to glue upholstery foam or polyurethane foam and covered the seat and back and leatherette, and the interval between them to hang a nylon mesh. In order for safe operation on the drive chain and sprocket is also necessary to install the protective cover on the model of those installed in mopeds.
It would be nice to equip the machine and Parking brake. For this, in its pedal-power it is necessary to include the same mechanism as in the clutch.
In conclusion, all steel frame parts (except made from stainless steel or non-ferrous metals) should be colored. Before painting, all surfaces must be clean from rust, degreased and primed. The paint is desirable to use bright and apply it with a spray gun.