CRUISER OF THE “BRICKS”

CRUISER OF THE We have already told, how was the fate of the original program “atomization” of the U.S. Navy. In fact, the product became experimental single ships: one aircraft carrier -“enterprise” – and his escort: one large cruiser “long beach” and one small “Bainbridge”. Of course, the “experimentalism” and “odinochnoi” does not prevent them to be quite efficient units, but for the fleet-hegemony on the oceans of the world was not a noble, single, and the serial ships. Especially in large series the cost of even very expensive projects decreased significantly. Since the creation of a large-scale cruiser has become the dream of overseas admirals, which had to wait a few decades.

All attempts to “push” the construction of copies of the “long beach” was not successful. To spend 200 million then, still quite full of dollars each -it was too much even for not loving us congressmen of the late 50-ies.

Needed to find a special “flavor” that would justify the costs. To the greatest extent its role has come a new weapons system. Initially the bet was put on a missile system “Typhoon”. It was assumed that this new weapon of the air defense substitutes a “long-range” “Talos” and “Terrier” medium range due to the release of two variants with different accelerators. This would significantly reduce the cost of production; at the same time formed the released funds that you can invest in the construction of platforms for “Typhoon.”

It is clear that these “platform” young could not be: design the rocket had a significant size and weight. The most preferred media to look a cruiser. And, not for the first time, as the first victims chose the largest and most modern “artillery relic” type “des Moines”. And again the bad. The calculation showed that given the “reformers” is hardly inferior to the price of a nuclear ship, with that serve he can less. Yes, and the project “Typhoon” safely dead, unable to be realized in the “product”.

After that, the question of nuclear-powered missile cruisers back not once, not twice, but with the same result. Finally, in the mid-1960s to the end of a long tricky games managed to include in the plan the construction of a nuclear destroyer URO is a failed project with turbine installation. Soon, however – once again – it became clear that the “atomic scientists” can only be a cruiser. The size of the projected “destroyer” (eventually reclassified to cruiser only in 1975, after the entry into operation) rapidly swelled, as did his price. Besides, he had a “brother”. Fate so hard embossed new nuclear warship hung in the balance after final approval of the project. Happened a rarity: U.S. Secretary of war Robert McNamara said that it is too costly. It had to join the Congress, which put pressure on the “peaceful” Minister (in fact, mired in the Vietnam war). Recall that the usual roles between the military and the legislators were distributed exactly the opposite.


After much anguish, “California” and “South Carolina” moavites to light a rather large “child”. 10,000-ton hull fit easily and a nuclear power plant, and a real mix of different types of military equipment. In fact, it should be noted that each of the elements is quite modest: for example, anti-aircraft component was represented by two single missile launchers Standard. (The so-called system, created on the basis of the once “middle” “Tartarus.”) Of course, the “rate” of “descendant” has increased significantly, and the missile itself could realistically be used both against air and against surface targets at considerable distances, but compared with a powerful missile “battery” “long beach” such, “California” looked more than modestly. However, anti-ship opportunities subsequently improved significantly through the placement of 8 containers for “Harpoons” combined in two blocks. (This configuration has become the standard for nuclear cruisers of the United States, the same “long beach” received a similar missile battery when upgrading.) In this respect, the Americans went out of our way, taking a cue from universal Soviet vehicles, starting with the project 1143. It is present on “California” and artillery, at present it is quite powerful, in the face of a pair of automatic 127-millimetrovogo MK.45 in light weight installations. Melee defense meant another pair of cannons, six-barreled “mincing” -20-mm machine guns “Vulcan-Phalanx”. Ended list of means to combat submarines: the standard “package” of torpedo-missiles “Asroc” and four torpedo tubes for the production of light anti-submarine MK.46. In principle, cruisers could land and take off helicopters, naval means of permanent basing, they were not included, and count on their service and weapons on Board was not necessary.

It is easy to see that for very large ships the size of a standard “Washington” cruiser 30 years this set of weapons is simply and frankly inadequate and even unworthy. However, the American experts have adopted a new principle: the ships must be a floating platform which is much more important to have the ability to quickly and inexpensively deploy new types of weapons, than from the very beginning of loading to the brim with missiles, guns, torpedoes and other “military hardware”. Potential for modernization became a sort of fad of the new shipbuilding doctrine, and the vast empty deck “California” and “South Carolina” indicate the possibility of its implementation at the right time. Moreover, with such a massive margin the weight and volume of the Americans are very severely restricted yourself. So, initially assumed by the location of the quite heavy (but more rapid) 127-mm guns MK.42 and solid torpedoes MK.48 (produced by the original way – from devices located back at the transom stern), but replaced the first light “faulkne”, and the second refused completely, and all for reasons of weight saving and the desire to have a “clean deck”.

However, in new times, in addition to by itself a new weapon, the increasingly important role played by the means of its application and control ship in the battle. The Foundation now served as the integrated combat system, allowing you to quickly identify a possible threat from any point around the vehicle: air, sea surface or from under the water, process it, and to give the original installer for artillery, missiles or torpedoes in a respectable radius of 70 miles. A distinctive feature of “California” have become a powerful means of electronic suppression of enemy radar; in this respect, the nuclear-powered cruiser was the undoubted leaders of the U.S. Navy. Significant progress has been achieved in the nuclear propulsion system. Reactors of a new type D2G company “General electric”, allowed without replacement of the active area “measure” a three times greater distance than would pass through the firstborn – “long beach”. Once again Americans “pritomnost” without specifying precisely the maximum speed of the cruisers, limiting vague “around 30 knots”. However, even if you operate with the declared maximum capacity of each of the reactors 70,000 HP, it is easy to estimate that the ships could develop for a couple more nodes. However, their main property, as well as any nuclear ship, and was able to walk fast a day in a row that are unavailable to their colleagues without nuclear installations. Their “about 30” they could easily make a full trip around the world, just no way met a violent storm.

The contents of the nuclear cruisers cost more expensive; in the mid-90s every year of service the couple at a cost of 80 million is still relatively full of dollars. So the first project intended for mass reproduction, in a large series did not go. The appetites of sailors had to be limited to two units.

However, “nuclear promotion” they are not stopped. The first couple had not yet entered into the system, when the stocks were already working on the reincarnation of “California”. New 4 units of the “Virginia” was a direct development of their predecessors. Of course, with the necessary adjustments. First of all, they touched arms. Single launcher “standards” was replaced by clarkem. However, it is not for nothing: the aft was intended not only to launch anti-aircraft missiles, but also anti – “timing”. Such a solution allows to get rid of the heavy and impressive size of the “box”, but few have reduced the ammo of both types and is not allowed to simultaneously defend against air and water of the enemy. (However, the case is very exotic.) In addition, for the first time on the American “atomico” appeared “legitimate” helicopter from its hangar equipped with the type of domestic battleships and cruisers of the Second world war, under the deck in the stern. It should be noted that the very popular “chopper” is not used: strong excitement of her flight deck was filled with water and stopped any attempt of departure. Moreover, through the inevitable cracks in the Elevator the hangar turned into a sort of apartment which broke through all the possible communications. Therefore, prefer ocean voyages in the helicopter on Board not to take all and to “caulk” cracks in the deck. And the final outcome was complete removal of “the ugly duckling”, fortunately, there was a reason. In accordance with the General setup of missiles for action at surface and shore targets “Virginia” has received not only the standard “package” containers for “Harpoon” (the rockets were produced not quite trivial way -in the stern). They added covered with armor plates eight containers of offensive weapon – cruise missiles “Tomahawk”, which was successfully held such a vacant area in the rear. The upgrade, without a doubt, is a good illustration of the principle of “free platform” in action: the combat power of the cruisers has increased several times, while without a doubt, overload.

However, the “Virginia” and “California”, really serial and not steel. After all, nuclear ships were too expensive, even for the first nation in the world. The history of cruisers with nuclear reactor in the United States ended – yet, anyway.

But not the history of cruisers in General. In the late 1970’s, when sea power, the Soviet Union continued to grow, and the sad end of the second world powers could not predict even the most penetrating analysts, the transatlantic strategists decided to significantly upgrade its Navy. The program included and present in a series of missile cruisers, the largest for this class of ships.

This time they were served as a “slightly enlarged copy of the” being built in large series of destroyers URO “Spruance”, but these clarifications have served primarily for “slow-witted” congressmen and taxpayers. Although imposed on them “fathers” of the new cruisers destroyers the US is indeed much borrowed. First of all, the system was built. It: the Americans managed quite successfully be applied to peacetime production block-sectional method helped them to “rivet” in a large number of ships and vessels during the Second world war. The hull was divided into 10 blocks of modules, which are pre-assembled much of the equipment. Then on the stocks section welded together. Good service the financial side of things has served to unify the blocks, and their “content”, including the power plant. Helped “Spruance” and their experience: the results of ocean trips destroyers on their “older sisters” – “Ticonderoga-Gah” – the body extended and fixed an additional bulwark in the nose, which improved the possibility of applying the nasal artillery and rocket launchers in bad weather.

One of the major tasks of designers was to develop an architecture building, structures its sections and blocks that it was possible without large expenses and in a relatively short time to carry out their modernization. Hence, a huge angular add-ins, partly for the crew, a habitat which has improved markedly. Paid much attention to engineers and to reduce the noise, in fact, for the first time on the big surface ships. Where possible, install sound-absorbing device and coating. For cruisers has designed a special “quiet” power equipment, up to the propeller on the edges of the blades which move air is supplied to reduce cavitation “thunder”.

 

CRUISER OF THE

If these measures do not cause any issues, attempts to improve the service life of the” cruisers through the use of new materials is mixed. Designers generously used new materials: aluminum alloys, plastics, wear-resistant coating is definitely more durable than traditional, but it is unsafe in combat. Although in these battles “Ticonderoga” to take part failed, some “practice” they’ve been through. The most famous and high-profile story happened with the second unit in the series, “Yorktown”. This cruiser accompanied by one of the “daddies”, the destroyer URO of the “Spruance” – “Caron” in 1998, arrived with a “friendly visit” in the Black sea. Our command decided this time to punish the intruders if they try to enter the territorial waters of the Soviet Union. The Americans did not fail to do this, and the patrol ship “Selfless” project 1135 and “SKR-6” project 35 came out to intercept. Was found both groups at the Cape Sarych. After warning both patrol swooped down on “Americans” by pushing them “home” to the open sea. The operation looked pretty adventurous: on a cruiser with a displacement of 10 thousand tons on the go “docked” 3000 ton “Selfless”. (The other couple seemed even more hopeless against destroyers with a displacement of 7800 tons were made by a very small boat just 1,300 tons.)

However, the difficult and dangerous task had been fulfilled. High forecastle “Selfless” (which for greater effect, posted overboard the anchor) broke the left side and a massive bow superstructure of the American cruiser. A victim of steel containers for launching anti-ship missiles, “Harpoon”: the pair broken in half missiles hung like a pencil from a stand after a good punch. But the main damage was hidden from our eyes. Inside the body started to burn, “durable materials”, and a fire broke out in the area of the cellars of the “Harpoon” anti-submarine missiles “Asroc”. The Americans managed to cope with adversity, but the courage of the crews of such events are unlikely to have added. Indeed, in the case of the impact of real weapons, the consequences could be much more severe.


However, the “Ticonderoga” suffered without the use of weapons and “navarivanija” our ships. During the service of the cruisers of this class (until 2010) they found and patched more than three thousand cracks of various aluminum surfaces! Sailors who served on them, and told scary stories about broken masts or fuel arising from the “schelyasty” tanks. Cracks in the tanks was formed (and is still happening), mainly because of the “resort” climate. Day deck and superstructure glowing under the sun, and at night to cool down quickly. What cruisers had to put on emergency repairs, as happened with the “Port Royal” in 2009. Scientists and engineers have proposed almost two dozen different versions of the struggle with their own materials, but whether they have achieved success in this struggle, yet veiled in mystery.

From the above may give the impression that “Ticonderoga” the Americans failed. In fact, it is far from the truth. Minor (and common to most ships of new construction in all countries) “fleas” with the materials leave a little stain on the last cruisers of the United States. Here is a list of their merits is very impressive.

First of all, it refers to the weapon system. Already in the first five units provided for double universal installer to launch anti-ship missiles “Harpoon” anti-aircraft “Standard” and anti – “Asroc”. But unification was not over. In 1986, the Americans have completely changed the principles to the deployment and use of missiles on large ships. Typical installation replaced mine-cell-containers for vertical launch missiles, completely hidden under the deck. Thus was completely removed the problem of choosing the right “ammunition”: to start can be a simple click to choose the “cell”. And those on the “Ticonderoga” there were as many as 122, are grouped into two module – in bow and stern. The modules themselves are a fairly broad platform, honeycomb for covering mine on top of the armored lids of the containers.

Standard General “filling” is 26 cruise missiles “Tomahawk”, 16 anti-tank “ASRock”, 80 anti-aircraft “Standard-2”, but quite easy in almost any port with a tap to replace one container to another. This system allows to increase the survivability of the weapons, increase ammo, and most importantly – to reduce the reaction time (the term “charge” is gone). In addition to the limit facilitates the introduction of new models of missiles. After 2000, all of the “Ticonderoga” got rockets-3 Standard. Under control of the guidance system aegis, another “nail” for new cruisers, these “interceptors” (not dare to call the new “Standard” “antiaircraft gun”) can bring down not only aircraft, but ballistic missiles and even satellites at a distance of 500 km and at altitudes up to 160 km and demonstrated That in early 2008, the cruiser “lake Erie” by shooting down a satellite target located in space at the distance of 275 km. the benefits of “silo method” demonstrated by experiments in which the standard “cell” cram for 4 anti-aircraft missiles near the action and successfully fired them.

In General, the “Ticonderoga” “with friends” is a terrible ship, though not as impressive as our “Peter the Great”. The Americans are taking and the number: the stocks in the late 80’s-early 90 – ies of the last century was down 27 units. The top five container without set decided not to rebuild and has already sent to rest in 2004 – 2005. But all the rest were modernized at the beginning of the new century and ready to serve another 15-20 years. Of course, not free: the program of construction and modernization was one of the most expensive to surface ships, the benefit, the value of each casts once seemed terribly wasteful “long beach” in the ranks of “the poor”. Although technically the United States ceased the construction of cruisers (not least because of their prices), in fact it continues. Now back to “feint”: type “early Burke” called the destroyer URO, although it is not so much inferior to “Ticonderoga” in displacement and armament, types, which are the same those of the “big brother”. But they built 65 units, and the construction continues. (While “Burke” planned total of 75.) Initially transatlantic strategists want to have 2/3 of the cost of the “Ticonderoga” 3/4 of its capabilities -quite the best “deal.” However, “cheap destroyer” from the beginning, famously overcame the bar at a cost of one billion dollars and is rapidly approaching polutoramilliardnuyu record. Well, the United States can afford such luxuries – yet.

V. KOFMAN

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