ELECTRIC CARS (YESTERDAY, TODAY, TOMORROW)Almost a hundred years ago, when automotive depape the first steps in this were interesting, from the point of view of our contemporary, of the phenomenon. Today it goes without saying that a car is a vehicle with a gasoline or diesel internal combustion engine (ice). And in those days, at first, considered as a sports car or a expensive toy (the vehicle was not considered due to lack of reliability), and secondly, the machine is then operated not only gasoline engines.

On the first official ride in 1894 was declared along with the petrol cars steam, electric, spring, pneumatic and even active, as asserted by their designers, in a concise (!) water or using the earth’s gravity. Victory, however, won petrol. However, in those years, they were, for example, in the U.S. only a trench a quarter of all produced (in 1898 — 936 of 4191), steam was 40%, electric — 37%.
Interestingly, the first constructed in Russia I. Romanov, the car was the battery. A good half of the speed records on the verge of centuries belonged to was also not diesel, and steam and electric cars. In particular, the speed above 100 km/h was first reached by electric car (racer, Jenatzy)…
Gradually, the situation changed. Eliminated not only all inefficient engines, like gravity, but rapidly decreased and the proportion of steam. First and foremost, because of their complexity, the threat of explosion of the boiler and the need to “dissolve the pair” before the trip.
The longest lasted electric. A number of them can be found on the postal service, the delivery of goods to stores and customers in Berlin, new York and other big cities still in the 30-40-ies. But their number in the total fleet is already in 1905 did not exceed 15%, in the 20’s only fell to 1% and in the period after the second world war — 0,1%. It would seem that the competition for automotive power plants final victory of the internal combustion engine.
But what is no less interesting events taking place in our days. In all industrialized countries, the newly developed cars with different tops engines, including especially a lot of electric. A number of companies in the United States, England, Japan, Italy, Poland already produces electric cars series. Operated pilot batch of electric vehicles in our country.
Scientists, economists, planners, sociologists forecasts for the future predict that by the end of the century, the number of electric vehicles will gradually increase to 50% of the total fleet. On 1585-1990 years call, for example, such numbers: for the United States — from 15 to 90(1] million, Germany 2 million Poland — 4-6 million
What angered the people so beloved of their petrol or diesel car! And the appeal is now defeated!
It is certainly not in love and not in anger.
To answer these questions, consider the conditions of the work vehicles in the early twentieth century, in its second quarter, in our time and in the future as it is represented in the forecasts.
So, picture first. The completed ion crews and trucks to the streets occasionally, in General the pace (as he wrote to the then rules of motion “faster horse trot”) and wheeled horseless carriages — automobiles. They belong to the aristocrats, big merchants, manufacturers cars are driven by hired drivers, to be served by experienced mechanics. The city machines don’t go — there are bad roads, there is no mechanic, had some kind of fault. If you translate the strokes of this painting in technical language, will be: a speed not exceeding 30 km/h, power reserve — 50 km, the necessary energy (for crew with total weight of, say, 2 t) is about 10 kWh. These ramps could then fit practically any car, whether it is a not reliable diesel, whether it be electric, with his heavy and comparatively weak battery. The latter also had considerable benefits — smokeless, noiseless, ease of management, for which he was especially valued by motorists of the world; they even called him a “ladies ‘ car”.
Fig. 1. Common layout of the units of the electric car.
Fig. 1. Common layout of the units of the electric vehicle.
Fig. 2. Scheme of the process of production and use of energy for automobile and electromobile transport (harmful stages of the process outlined with a double line, and what is happening in places of mass energy consumption pouring).
Fig. 2. Scheme of the process of production and use of energy for automobile and electromobile transport (harmful stages of the process outlined with a double line, and what is happening in places of mass energy consumption pouring).
Here you need to stop to explain why we are called the battery is relatively weak. We are talking about lead-acid (alkaline or Nickel-iron) batteries, which by their chemical entity capable of producing at most 50-60 W•h of energy per 1 kg of its mass During the heyday of electric cars, this value was three times less in our days — an average of one and a half to two times (30-40 W•h/kg). Until now, these batteries only fit availability, price and reliability for use in mass transportation. Meanwhile, the internal combustion engine already at the dawn of its development showed specific energy up to 60 WH/kg and could deliver the car in the early XX century the supply of energy to 22-24 kWh (taking account of the volume of the tank]. Looking ahead, we note that for modern us vehicles typical value 500— 700 WH/kg (and more) and 40-50 kV•h.
…It took about a third of a century. Scene II. There are millions of cars. They are built for roads, gas stations, so you don’t have to buy gasoline in pharmacies, as it did before. Cars are reliable and fast (up to 100 km/h), they can be managed by everyone, not necessarily mechanic. The smoke and noise from the engines was reduced. By the way, if “at dawn” the smoke of the cars brought a lot of anxiety to the townspeople, one owner 20 years, we read: “the Replacement of horse transport by road is of great importance for urban hygiene. Horses are very polluting roadways and yards. The car, however, has the disadvantage that it spoils the city’s air with the smell of processed gases. But in the use of good grades of fuel, this disadvantage is almost eliminated”.
But back to the automotive engine. Its specific (liter) capacity reached 15-20 HP/l (10-15 kW/l) and fuel consumption dropped to about 10 n/100 km per ton total mass. So a 40-liter tank of a car with mass 2 tons short of two hundred kilometers. In other words, to meet such conditions, the supply of energy at an average speed of driving (in town) 50 km/h should be about 40 kWh.
Very easy to make sure to meet these universal conditions, using as energy source the battery is almost impossible, since she is one (when the specific energy consumption of about 20— 25 WH/kg) will weigh up to two tons, and the whole machine is up to four, which would require an even bigger battery… And so on to infinity.
That’s why electric cars at the time became obsolete, giving way to more versatile vehicles with internal combustion engines, and preserved only where the conditions of work remained approximately the same (mail and commercial urban transport, etc.).
It took another few decades and we reach the present day. Kargin third. The global fleet has exceeded 300 million machines, it is concentrated in the cities and on major intercity routes.
It consumes the earth’s reserves of fuel so intensively that, according to forecasts, should exhaust their 25-50 years. It pollutes the atmosphere so that in other cities people are forced to resort to gas masks and special machines, which can gulp oxygen. He brought the noise in the cities to a level that threatens human health. However, the congestion of cars has led to a significant reduction in average speed, long traffic jams, so sometimes car operation becomes unprofitable. Despite the relatively slow movement, increased traffic accidents, as cars are driven by millions of “ordinary” people, not elected, qualified drivers.
All together has forced humanity to take action — Yes, action — vs car: different prohibitions, restrictions. Part of them is aimed at streamlining the current situation, the other part to prevent even more complex in the future.
Started modestly with the fact that banned sound signals in urban areas. Then restricted” maximum speed. Took control of the content of harmful substances in the exhaust gases of the engines. Then I went to the prohibitions of the entrance to the Central part of cities, and sometimes even in the city, for example — resort. On the other hand, began to pay more attention to public modes of transport to reduce the inflow of cars. It goes to the fact that the car Park should be classified as — urban (relatively slow moving, mostly public buildings) and country. The latter include cars, coaches, haul trucks and road trains.
However, these measures do not solve completely the problem of cleaning air, reducing noise and saving fuel.
With all the differences between the first and third paintings and found significant similarities. If the car is only for city service, typical speed and daily mileage slightly greater than at the dawn of motoring, when almost all cars were urban. It turns out that the use of electric cars, despite them still not sufficiently energy-intensive batteries that are not only necessary but becomes technically possible.
That’s why in recent years it has resumed production of electric vehicles. Designers, of course, already satisfied with the level of electromobility beginning of the century. The current electric car is not the same crew with a huge battery, heavy duty (stationary type) motor and a chain drive from it to the wheels. He learnt a lot from modern cars. This does not mean, however, that it is sufficient to replace on the car engine, transmission and fuel tank electrical installation to create an electric car.
10-15 years ago there were many attempts to build electric cars. They failed: the machine is very heavy and tractor electrical equipment did not respond to a convenient location on the chassis. Now designers tend to create a special electric device which is dictated by real conditions.
Suitability to the operating environment determines the efficiency of the construction of any machine. What this means in application to the electric car!
In the early days of electric vehicles, for example, it was considered normal to recharge the batteries without removing them from the machine. Therefore, there were complex recrimina battery on the frame, and the difficulty of their flats from the machine. The present approach is different. Maybe he suggested it many years of experience of motoring.
Fig. 3. The scheme of the power plant of the electric car NIIAT—research Institute electric vehicle
Fig. 3. The scheme of the power plant of the electric car NIIAT—research Institute of electric
1 — accelerator, 2— switch 3 — “key saigas”, 4— reverse (lever direction), 5 — control unit, 6 — outlet for rapid recharging, 7 — unit thyristors, 8 — unit chokes, 9 — capacitor, 10 — terminal block, 11 — with the battery cover, 12 — emergency stop switch-automatic, 13 — motor, 14 — connector wiring, 15 — reducer, 16 — container with rechargeable battery, 17 — the driveshaft 18 — rear axle.
Battery think like a part of the “fuel”. So, they need to “refuel” an electric car. Containers of batteries must be several standard sizes, and replacing them is extremely simplified, mechanized. Future ectromelia “filling station” will become a warehouse of containers, and the “hose” will serve as a loading device. Will PI battery charging to occur immediately, “column”! Probably not. After all, when a large number of batteries harmful fumes when charging is highly polluted to the atmosphere around the “columns”. So the charger will probably charge a special centralized stations located outside the settlements. Containers of batteries will deliver to “columns”, maybe via the pipeline system or otherwise.
Here we look at the fourth picture. But before you finish it, you need to tell more about modern electric cars.
They are also mostly designed to replace batteries. Only in some of today’s designs there are wiring diagrams with built-in charger. The current transducer provides a basis for the application of the AC motor. Because the charger in the future, probably, actually charging is not required, you can expect widespread use of more simple systems with a DC motor.
If provided with simple and quick change of batteries, the problem is the range of the electric car loses its edge. How not to remember a time when, going on a trip, the motorist took a few cans and a barrel of gasoline!
Design features of electric podskazhyte it ostogradsky purpose. The strength of parts of most cars are designed for movement and high speeds and on bad roads. The same parts of the body and chassis of the electric vehicle designed for slow movement on the asphalt., can be made thinner, less durable materials. This reduces vehicle weight and to some extent kompensiruet still a large mass of batteries.
We have noted here only the most important features of the nature of the electric vehicle, proving the need for its re-design (instead of re-car in an electric car).
Modern designs are very diverse. In addition to differences in the system of electrical propulsion — AC or DC voltage, with controller or rheostat control (most designers still adhere to the first system and combines it with the thyristor start control devices — see article E. Kochneva in “M-K”, 1975, No. 10) — there are at least seven layouts (see Fig. 1) and six types of destination machines: double microelectronic, double small, regular 4-5-seater cars [type taxis), light-duty van, utility [truck etc.), a bus of average capacity.
All these cars really need, each for a specific city service. For them (excluding taxi and bus) typical daily mileage.
When creating constructors had to solve a number of problems beyond those described. For example, protection of occupants from electric shock at high voltage (usually 144), heating body, the electric appliances of alarm and lighting. The solution to the last two tasks proved to be difficult. For heating the bus takes about 15-20% of the energy available to the battery that is necessary either to expect in winter conditions on an even smaller reserve, or apply (as is done on many machines)… petrol heater, such as that installed on the “zaporozhtse”.
For food service equipment put additional a car battery, but this raises the problem of its frequent recharging. Most designers is going to still expend energy the traction battery to charge the extra, which is mounted on the traction motor generator. There is also a purely mechanical task. So, avoid rear suspension longitudinal leaf spring to their ends does not reduce the space in the middle part of the electric vehicle battery containers, and does not increase the length (and hence weight) of the electric vehicle.
The reader knows from the Newspapers that in the USSR, work on electric vehicles conducted in Riga, Yerevan, Volga, Ulyanovsk automobile plants, in a number of research institutes of the automotive and electrical industries. To the stage of operation of small experimental batches came two works — Gaviotans together with the all-Union scientific research Institute of electromechanics and research Institute of motor transport Institute together with the electric vehicle (Kaliningrad) and Riga electrical engineering plant. The capacity of machines in both cases of 0.5 t, batteries — lead acid; power unit located under the body, drive wheels — rear. Exploited in Moscow, the electric cars created on the basis of the truck UAZ-451ДМ equipped with power unit AC, battery charger and electric regenerative (that is, returns some energy to the battery) braking. Own vehicle weight — 2.5 tons Machine NIIAT operated in the suburban town of Podolsk. They are designed from scratch with extensive use of the units chassis of the car GAZ-24 “Volga”; the power unit — DC; – own vehicle weight — 2 tons
Global interest in electric vehicles, their prospects fascinated and Amateur designers. They have already built several models of electric vehicles, some of them described in “M-K”. It is possible that in makeshift structures will be found ingenious solutions to some of the “electromobile” task, which would be shared with the creators of the future production of electric cars without bending! And resistance machines provided a low center of mass: the body under the floor are the battery and engine, the bodywork is lightweight. On his side is another external feature of the machine — the arms of the city. The fact that almost all of them are public facilities. Not only buses, taxis and vans, but also those which residents and visitors manage. This rolling double carriage. The effective use of public cars and their compact size has led to the unloading of the streets. It is now possible in complete safety to move around the city with sufficient (at least moderate and, as already noted) speed. Security also contribute to the powerful aspectratiomode, simplified management (no shift), the maneuverability of compact cars and a good overview with the high driver’s seat.
But on some machines the office and completely automated… But it is, perhaps, the fifth stroke of the painting, which today is not included in our story.
We’re not talking about the prospects of cars with internal combustion engines. Suffice it to say that the division of fleet for the city and country will extend for decades to the proliferation of conventional cars. The automobile will be developed as a machine for country business trips, tourism, recreation, sport, and freight and buses for mass high-speed mainline traffic. The end points of their flights will be bus stations, loading platforms, warehouses and public garages on the outskirts of cities, in the precincts which will dominate smokeless and noiseless electric cars.
Y. DOLMATOVSKIY, candidate of technical Sciences

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