It consumes the earth’s reserves of fuel so intensively that, according to forecasts, should exhaust their 25-50 years. It pollutes the atmosphere so that in other cities people are forced to resort to gas masks and special machines, which can gulp oxygen. He brought the noise in the cities to a level that threatens human health. However, the congestion of cars has led to a significant reduction in average speed, long traffic jams, so sometimes car operation becomes unprofitable. Despite the relatively slow movement, increased traffic accidents, as cars are driven by millions of “ordinary” people, not elected, qualified drivers.
All together has forced humanity to take action — Yes, action — vs car: different prohibitions, restrictions. Part of them is aimed at streamlining the current situation, the other part to prevent even more complex in the future.
Started modestly with the fact that banned sound signals in urban areas. Then restricted” maximum speed. Took control of the content of harmful substances in the exhaust gases of the engines. Then I went to the prohibitions of the entrance to the Central part of cities, and sometimes even in the city, for example — resort. On the other hand, began to pay more attention to public modes of transport to reduce the inflow of cars. It goes to the fact that the car Park should be classified as — urban (relatively slow moving, mostly public buildings) and country. The latter include cars, coaches, haul trucks and road trains.
However, these measures do not solve completely the problem of cleaning air, reducing noise and saving fuel.
With all the differences between the first and third paintings and found significant similarities. If the car is only for city service, typical speed and daily mileage slightly greater than at the dawn of motoring, when almost all cars were urban. It turns out that the use of electric cars, despite them still not sufficiently energy-intensive batteries that are not only necessary but becomes technically possible.
That’s why in recent years it has resumed production of electric vehicles. Designers, of course, already satisfied with the level of electromobility beginning of the century. The current electric car is not the same crew with a huge battery, heavy duty (stationary type) motor and a chain drive from it to the wheels. He learnt a lot from modern cars. This does not mean, however, that it is sufficient to replace on the car engine, transmission and fuel tank electrical installation to create an electric car.
10-15 years ago there were many attempts to build electric cars. They failed: the machine is very heavy and tractor electrical equipment did not respond to a convenient location on the chassis. Now designers tend to create a special electric device which is dictated by real conditions.
Suitability to the operating environment determines the efficiency of the construction of any machine. What this means in application to the electric car!
In the early days of electric vehicles, for example, it was considered normal to recharge the batteries without removing them from the machine. Therefore, there were complex recrimina battery on the frame, and the difficulty of their flats from the machine. The present approach is different. Maybe he suggested it many years of experience of motoring.
Fig. 3. The scheme of the power plant of the electric car NIIAT—research Institute of electric
1 — accelerator, 2— switch 3 — “key saigas”, 4— reverse (lever direction), 5 — control unit, 6 — outlet for rapid recharging, 7 — unit thyristors, 8 — unit chokes, 9 — capacitor, 10 — terminal block, 11 — with the battery cover, 12 — emergency stop switch-automatic, 13 — motor, 14 — connector wiring, 15 — reducer, 16 — container with rechargeable battery, 17 — the driveshaft 18 — rear axle.
Battery think like a part of the “fuel”. So, they need to “refuel” an electric car. Containers of batteries must be several standard sizes, and replacing them is extremely simplified, mechanized. Future ectromelia “filling station” will become a warehouse of containers, and the “hose” will serve as a loading device. Will PI battery charging to occur immediately, “column”! Probably not. After all, when a large number of batteries harmful fumes when charging is highly polluted to the atmosphere around the “columns”. So the charger will probably charge a special centralized stations located outside the settlements. Containers of batteries will deliver to “columns”, maybe via the pipeline system or otherwise.
Here we look at the fourth picture. But before you finish it, you need to tell more about modern electric cars.
They are also mostly designed to replace batteries. Only in some of today’s designs there are wiring diagrams with built-in charger. The current transducer provides a basis for the application of the AC motor. Because the charger in the future, probably, actually charging is not required, you can expect widespread use of more simple systems with a DC motor.
If provided with simple and quick change of batteries, the problem is the range of the electric car loses its edge. How not to remember a time when, going on a trip, the motorist took a few cans and a barrel of gasoline!
WHAT IT SHOULD BE!
Design features of electric podskazhyte it ostogradsky purpose. The strength of parts of most cars are designed for movement and high speeds and on bad roads. The same parts of the body and chassis of the electric vehicle designed for slow movement on the asphalt., can be made thinner, less durable materials. This reduces vehicle weight and to some extent kompensiruet still a large mass of batteries.
We have noted here only the most important features of the nature of the electric vehicle, proving the need for its re-design (instead of re-car in an electric car).
Modern designs are very diverse. In addition to differences in the system of electrical propulsion — AC or DC voltage, with controller or rheostat control (most designers still adhere to the first system and combines it with the thyristor start control devices — see article E. Kochneva in “M-K”, 1975, No. 10) — there are at least seven layouts (see Fig. 1) and six types of destination machines: double microelectronic, double small, regular 4-5-seater cars [type taxis), light-duty van, utility [truck etc.), a bus of average capacity.
All these cars really need, each for a specific city service. For them (excluding taxi and bus) typical daily mileage.
When creating constructors had to solve a number of problems beyond those described. For example, protection of occupants from electric shock at high voltage (usually 144), heating body, the electric appliances of alarm and lighting. The solution to the last two tasks proved to be difficult. For heating the bus takes about 15-20% of the energy available to the battery that is necessary either to expect in winter conditions on an even smaller reserve, or apply (as is done on many machines)… petrol heater, such as that installed on the “zaporozhtse”.
For food service equipment put additional a car battery, but this raises the problem of its frequent recharging. Most designers is going to still expend energy the traction battery to charge the extra, which is mounted on the traction motor generator. There is also a purely mechanical task. So, avoid rear suspension longitudinal leaf spring to their ends does not reduce the space in the middle part of the electric vehicle battery containers, and does not increase the length (and hence weight) of the electric vehicle.
The reader knows from the Newspapers that in the USSR, work on electric vehicles conducted in Riga, Yerevan, Volga, Ulyanovsk automobile plants, in a number of research institutes of the automotive and electrical industries. To the stage of operation of small experimental batches came two works — Gaviotans together with the all-Union scientific research Institute of electromechanics and research Institute of motor transport Institute together with the electric vehicle (Kaliningrad) and Riga electrical engineering plant. The capacity of machines in both cases of 0.5 t, batteries — lead acid; power unit located under the body, drive wheels — rear. Exploited in Moscow, the electric cars created on the basis of the truck UAZ-451ДМ equipped with power unit AC, battery charger and electric regenerative (that is, returns some energy to the battery) braking. Own vehicle weight — 2.5 tons Machine NIIAT operated in the suburban town of Podolsk. They are designed from scratch with extensive use of the units chassis of the car GAZ-24 “Volga”; the power unit — DC; – own vehicle weight — 2 tons
Global interest in electric vehicles, their prospects fascinated and Amateur designers. They have already built several models of electric vehicles, some of them described in “M-K”. It is possible that in makeshift structures will be found ingenious solutions to some of the “electromobile” task, which would be shared with the creators of the future production of electric cars without bending! And resistance machines provided a low center of mass: the body under the floor are the battery and engine, the bodywork is lightweight. On his side is another external feature of the machine — the arms of the city. The fact that almost all of them are public facilities. Not only buses, taxis and vans, but also those which residents and visitors manage. This rolling double carriage. The effective use of public cars and their compact size has led to the unloading of the streets. It is now possible in complete safety to move around the city with sufficient (at least moderate and, as already noted) speed. Security also contribute to the powerful aspectratiomode, simplified management (no shift), the maneuverability of compact cars and a good overview with the high driver’s seat.
But on some machines the office and completely automated… But it is, perhaps, the fifth stroke of the painting, which today is not included in our story.
We’re not talking about the prospects of cars with internal combustion engines. Suffice it to say that the division of fleet for the city and country will extend for decades to the proliferation of conventional cars. The automobile will be developed as a machine for country business trips, tourism, recreation, sport, and freight and buses for mass high-speed mainline traffic. The end points of their flights will be bus stations, loading platforms, warehouses and public garages on the outskirts of cities, in the precincts which will dominate smokeless and noiseless electric cars.
Y. DOLMATOVSKIY, candidate of technical Sciences