LEARN TO FLY!

LEARN TO FLY!You built the plane. Naturally the desire of the designer to quickly rise into the air. However, the first thing you must “train” to learn flying on your aircraft are extremely serious and responsible. First of all it’s elaborate and it is good to understand the fundamental principles of flight dynamics, principles of stability and controllability of the aircraft. You need to assess what dynamic features are common to your machine – in particular, what is the stall speed, takeoff and landing and maximum speed, how effective are the rudders, and finally, how stable in the air the unit itself. And only then can you begin the exercises in the cockpit and actually fly, strictly following the principles of gradualism in the development of the machine. Today we open a kind of correspondence summer school for Amateur constructors and pilots. We will introduce you to the basics of flight art the most common mistakes novice pilots, as well as techniques correct behaviour of pilots in extreme situations.

I. AIRFIELD AND FLIGHT operations

 
It is best to fly at airfields, flying clubs or sites belonging to civil aviation. Of course, this requires prior coordination with the relevant organizations – the owners of the airfield.
 
A suitable platform for flight can be considered smooth, grassy surface, located as far as possible from local airfields, restricted areas, settlements and areas with heavy air traffic.
 
The size of the flying site must ensure landing within its limits when the engine stops at any point on the circle. It is permissible turn-UPS at the rate of not more than ±15°.
 
It is highly desirable that the surrounding area was, if possible, suitable for forced landings.
 
The size of the site should allow for approach to a height of 1…2 m, followed by planting in a straight line. And, moreover, if the engine suddenly refuses to first turn, you have to have a place to land straight ahead with lapel from the take-off rate of no more than 15°.
A crucial consideration when assigning altitude in a circle – a sure hit on the pad for engine failure.
 
Note that the smaller height when flying in a circle, the greater should be the purity and precision of flying – low altitude aircraft “blab” turbulent air flows, to fend off their impact need quickly and accurately, on reflection there is simply no time! Therefore it is not necessary to perform the circling below 100 m.
 
The allocation of airspace for flying ULTRALIGHTS with a radius of 5 km and a height of 300 m when visibility is more than 5 km and the height of the lower edge of the cloud cover of more than 500 m (the Directive of the commander of the air force No. 123/17/363 from 9.10.84 g) is allowed after filing the regional centers of air traffic control (ATC RTS).
 
Earth knows no compromise and with complete indifference takes both young and old, unknown and famous – everyone who makes a mistake and fails to correct their mistakes.
 
Maximum height of the flight circle must be confined to the height of clouds and the intensity of air traffic in the area. In any case, there is no need to exceed a height of 300 m.
 
Pay attention: do not come to the bottom edge of the clouds is closer than 50 m to randomly not be in the clouds.
 
Neither your camera nor you to fly in clouds is still not ready!
 
Flight out of sight of the natural horizon requires special equipment, a great deal of preparation on the simulator and test flights at self-summer with an instructor.
 
Marking the flight the site is as follows. The site must be marked by clearly visible signs (for example, painted lime) extreme points of the workspace. It is very desirable to limit the runway (left it running) several checkboxes. During the flight should make the best of a landing “T” (two cloth white in summer and black in winter) and two panels, limiting the borders of the land.
 
Please note that on field groundwater areas occur from time to time dangerous obstacles (wormholes, furrow, abandoned farm machinery, etc.): they must be aligned, or signs, flags or visible light wands.
 
The purpose of a clear fly – guarantee maximum security. The whole aviation experience “paid with blood” and says the main provisions of the fly should be the same!
 
1. The organization of flights is based on the principle of unity of command. All that at the start, engaged and involved in the flight, implicitly obey the head of operations (RP).
 
Encountered in the flight of the claim, doubt, displeasure and other both business and emotional objections can be made ER at the end of a summer day on the debriefing. Knowledgeable and intelligent flight Director will always be able to listen, to understand, and if you find it necessary, to object to the participants of the flight, without losing common sense and, preferably, a good sense of humor.
 
2. Prior to the flight need to make a plan of their conduct. This plan shall be communicated to all participants of a summer day. A clear plan – support the head of operations.
 
In addition, it relieves nervousness and relieve the confusion of those who have to prepare material and to fly the plane. The plan will specify: who flies the mission, time of departure and time of flight, the machine on which the job runs.
 
At the end of the flight, the RP conducts post-flight analysis, during which the issues of mistakes of all flight participants, including RP.
 
LEARN TO FLY!
 
The discussion should be friendly, correct. Its main goal is once the mistakes should not be repeated in subsequent flights. And:
 
More important than the enumeration of the blunders themselves – a clear identification of their reasons!
 
For flights it is necessary to evaluate the weather conditions. The visibility must be such that from any point of a normal circle clearly visible start and landing signs. The height of clouds should not be below 500 m (circle in this case, should not be performed above 300 m). Limitations on the power of the wind for different aircraft, of course, different, but under all conditions a counter-wind component should not exceed 20 m/s, and lateral – 3 m/s.
 
Attention! Novice pilots should only fly with a headwind no more than 5 m/s.
 
If the wind is gusty postpone the flight!
 
Flight in a turbulent atmosphere or in the “mash” brings no pleasure; in addition, it is unsafe, as there is an increased probability of stalling or maximum permissible overload. When injected into a “mash” of all of the evolution run particularly smoothly and in a coordinated manner, and the unexpected deviations of the apparatus from the balanced position fend off vigorously and without delay.
 
Possibly need to go from areas of “turbulence”, namely, strong winds from the surface layer (with height intensity of turbulence of the wind falls), in the hot weather of strong updrafts; in any case not be appropriate for the cloud. Special attention should thus be paid to the unacceptable loss of speed.
 
Simultaneously with meteorological conditions must be evaluated and ornithological situation. In other words, a large concentration of birds in the airfield area is very dangerous, so we must either temporarily refrain from flying, or to fly with increased caution.
 
The first case of collision of the aircraft with the bird was in 1918, since there was not a single year without such collisions with a variety of endings.
 
3. During flights at the airport should be a doctor, paramedic, or person able to assist if necessary first aid. In addition, the training plan must provide for the manner and means of evacuation of casualties to the nearest hospital.
 
To avoid unfortunate consequences, it is necessary in advance to prepare!
 
4. Each day start consistently taxiing, run, approach is the surest way to avoid accidents!
 
5. Radio communication is desirable for all flights. However, if radio communication is not, and this has to be tolerated, then the signal flag should be fail.
 
6. Key visual cues:
 
“Let me rise” – the pilot raises his right hand.
 
“Clear for takeoff” – the head of flights raised above his head the flag and pulls it in the direction of takeoff.
 
“Take off the ban” – two checkboxes poznatih up.
 
“Stop the engine” – hands crossed over the head.
 
No radio, flying several aircraft simultaneously is invalid.
 
7. All members of the flight – both flying and non-flying, must be continuous monitoring of air and situation on the ground.
 
About any “abnormal” in the behavior of the aircraft, the change of the situation on the ground, threatening the safety, noticed, immediately report to ER.
In the air, all attention is paid to pilot flying apparatus and diligence. As you gain experience, it becomes possible to monitor the air space and ground, and the sight of the pilot usually describes a figure of eight, first on the left side of the forward-down-back-up-forward, then in the same order on the starboard side.
 
8. During the flight it is necessary to fill in the “flight Log”. The journal recorded: date, task, duration of flight, name of pilot, if you noticed an error in piloting technique, faulty material and work to eliminate them.
 
“Magazine” is put on every aircraft is not a testimony of the bureaucracy and essential for the designer a guide to action is a source of important statistical information to improve the car.
 
II. PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT LEARNING AIRCRAFT
 
Despite the fact that the level of training of pilots of ALS is different, the principles of flight the development of aviation technology (flight training) remain unchanged.
 
The main of them is the principle of gradualness – from the simple to the complex. The pilot must move to the next stage of development or training only after quality testing action at the previous stage.
 
Necessary an elaborate system of exercises. Trials should be conducted in the cockpit of the aircraft simulator. At first, you just need to get used to the car, to accustom the hands to work on the touch. This effect can start to work out the elements of the flight, just sitting in the cockpit and gradually mentally tracking all of your actions.
 
If possible, you should try balancing her on the ground, wind flow, hold the unit with ailerons from kraneia.
 
You must also sitting in the cockpit, to remember the takeoff and landing position of the aircraft. To do this in the Parking lot, several people have to lift the tail of the device (for cars with tail wheel) or dip (for the car with nose wheel), and sitting in the cockpit need to remember the projection parts of the aircraft to the earth’s surface (horizon).
 
The exercises should be practiced as often as possible, and directly before the flight – is necessary.
 
Very useful if a novice pilot long before will start to fly, will be watching takeoffs and landings simultaneously receiving qualified comments of your instructors (permanent during the whole period of study).
 
It is possible to allocate the main stages of flight development of new aircraft (phases of flight training):
 
exercises in the cockpit of the AIRCRAFT (in the simulator);
 
taxiing in a straight line with the pivot;
 
Jogging;
 
approach at a height of 1 – 2 m;
 
approach at a height of 10 – 15 m without turns (if the size of the summer field);
 
flying in a circle with 4 u-turns (in terms of trajectory forms a closed quadrilateral).
 
III. ASSEMBLY OF THE AIRCRAFT
 
a). First, you need to make a flow chart of the Assembly of the aircraft. For this it is best to think carefully and not relying on memory to record the entire sequence of upcoming actions.

 
b). The Assembly produce strictly according to the scheme drawn up. Controlling each stage, make a note: “Done”.
 
in). Pay special attention to the locking of bolted connections and control of the normal value gaps! The movable elements must be movable without excessive friction and jamming, but without the backlash!
 
g). When connecting the elements of the design should not have any deformations of the parts (except for fabric and film, as well as elements that do not have their own stiffness).
 
During Assembly, do not forget to eliminate lubrication and apply to the working friction parts lubrication.
 
LEARN TO FLY!
 
The most thorough build can be considered complete before it will be performed a thorough leveling-determination and clarification of the relative position of parts of the aircraft and deflection of control surfaces in accordance with the design data. At the end of the leveling control is useful to put risks on docked items; this will help to identify any violations of leveling in the process of operation of the aircraft.
 
Remember that flight safety starts on the ground! During Assembly, do not smoke near the aircraft. Connect the spark engine to the mains can only be on the race site.
 
IV. BEFORE THE FLIGHT
 
Carefully assembled and leveled the aircraft to fly is not yet ready!
 
The machine must to inspect. This, however, and all subsequent examinations, it is best to make at once selected the scheme, in strict order, say, from the nose, counter-clockwise, moving the look from top to bottom.
 
To check the adequacy of the deflection of all control surfaces. You will see that nothing is jammed, not “bites”.
 
Deviation must be without backlash, without excessive friction, to match the given direction.
 
Clamp; mooring fixtures, covers an aircraft needs to be removed. For the past eighty years been many UPS and significantly less landings of aircraft not removed before take-off clamps. Remember that all who failed to land, hoping to live to see gray hair…
 
With special attention to the inspection of the cab! It should not be any foreign objects, debris, dirt. A forgotten spanner, even a small screwdriver can be the cause of the accident.
 
Make sure your pockets nothing can fall out. Check, clean the lamp.
 
Flying without seatbelts, with unreliable straps, with hard buttoned or, on the contrary, hard-of-lock should not be. Remember that the first victim of Russian aviation – captain Leo Matsievich died because his plane seatbelts.
 
Make sure that the amount of fuel corresponds to the time allotted for the task. In any case, you should have 15 minutes of fuel remaining after execution of the task! Also check the presence of grease and other liquids and gases in pressure cylinders.
 
V. SECURITY MEASURES
 
a). Refuel with fuel, lubricants, fluids and gas should be done in a designated area under the supervision of the duty officer.
 
b). At the filling site need to have a fire extinguisher, entrenching tools and a supply of sand.
 
in). Aircraft during refueling must be grounded.
 
g). Fill the fuel tank only through the filter.
 
d). Prior to the filling drain the sludge from the gas tank and from the tank into a glass jar and make sure the fuel has no water (in cold season).
 
e). If necessary, make the determination of the actual alignment (in case if the mass of the pilot significantly affects this fundamental safety of the flight).
 
W). Check whether tubes are closed tanks. Sitting in the cockpit, you must:
 
adjust the height of the chair and the length of the pedals to your growth;
 
to “missing legs” for a full deflection of the pedal;
 
to fasten and tighten the straps;
 
rejecting the handlebars in end position, to make sure that nothing interferes with the free movement of the handle and the pedals, as the rudders are deflected in accordance with the direction of movement of the handles and pedals;
 
check the ease of movement of light (doors), reliability of constipation.
 
Once everything is ready the material, take a deep breath and ask yourself: “And I myself am ready for the job?”. Subject to the positive answer to this question is possible to start the engine.
 
VI. START
 
Before starting the engine:
 
a). Substitute under the wheel pads.
 
b). Check means to extinguish the fire.
 
in). Remove all unauthorized persons to a distance of at least 50 m from the unit. No one should be in the plane of rotation of the screw (it is advisable to have safely located a “square” with four red flags, limiting this area).
 
g). On the sides of the aircraft place a spotter.
 
Turning of the screw to produce only on command from the cockpit: “Turn the screw!” Pre-starter must ask: “is Disabled?”. Triggers make sure that the ignition is switched off, and says: “Off!”.
 
The starter motor turning the screw needs to be in a fur leather gloves, equipped with protective pads and helmet. The safest way is to crank the screw paw Shutova.
 
At a startup before turning on the ignition trigger should loudly command: “clear!” and begin to run no sooner than I get the answer: “There is from the screw!”
 
After the launch of the not in a hurry to try out the motor before it is thoroughly warmed. A cold motor is a bad motor!
 
Special attention! Do not attempt to crank the screw manually when the engine is hot, this is totally unacceptable!
 
In case of abnormal operation of the engine, the self ignition of the fuel, the partial destruction of the power plant, strong shaking – you must turn off the ignition to shut off the flow of fuel to leave the cabin and take steps to extinguish the fire.
 
If the flame can not knock down – evacuate people to a safe distance, without waiting for a possible explosion!

 
VII. TAXIING
 
Before taxiing carefully primaries to the cabin: is it comfortable to sit in, does that reject the handlebars, to get to the tumblers and cranes.
 
His cabin every pilot needs to know literally by heart and with closed eyes to find there everything from control knobs and the Gaza strip to the power button of the radio, unless it has on Board. Remember, what the earth looks like when the landing position of the aircraft.
 
Start taxiing, with the permission of the flight Director. Control surfaces set neutral, the engine rpm increase smoothly, having just departed from the scene, do not exceed speed of 5-7 km/h (pedestrian speed).
 
Holding a direction with the tail (nose) wheel and a separate braking, ensure reliable handling of the aircraft on the ground.
The speed of taxiing adjust the engine speed and brakes. Avoid sharp turns on the ground. The inner wheel must have a certain radius in a turn. Trying to turn around on the spot may cause damage to the chassis.
 
Special attention! If the taxiing aircraft stops you to obey – turn the ignition off, stop and look for the cause of “abnormal” behavior of the machine. Do not try to “change” the plane is in motion – the idea is useless and unsafe.
 
Sudden braking is risky! Especially at high speed. On aircraft with a tail wheel it may lead to the nosing – rollover plane “on the shoulder.”
 
After taxiing out to the runway, increase the speed and translate the aircraft in the mode jog. Jogging is running at speed, a lesser speed of separation and sufficient to feel the effectiveness of aerodynamic control surfaces.
 
Jogging should strictly follow the straightness of the movement, acting in conjunction with brakes and rudder and increasing speed one rudder.
 
Bringing the jog speed to a value 20% lower speed of separation, put the aircraft in takeoff position (motion of the handle must be exceptionally smooth!), lock and note the position of the aircraft in space. Then turn the engine on small turns and keeping the direction of finish a run.
 
Attention! The rate of giving and cleaning of gas often causes a more or less sharp reaction plane – the machine deviates in the lateral, and possibly also in the longitudinal direction. The desire to turn must fend off the preemptive effect of the rudder at the beginning of the action.
 
If the aircraft accelerates slowly, gaining speed as if by force, a run should stop and investigate the cause of this phenomenon.
 
VIII. APPROACHING
 
The approach runs on the runway. All actions of the pilot correspond to actions on the run, but the engine speed at this time brought to takeoff.
 
At the time of separation of the aircraft from the ground is possible to closely estimate the pitch angle and lock it. The handle for this we need to give a little “by itself” (as they say, even not to give, but just think about it!). This way you will not suffer an abrupt transition in the recruitment and loss of speed, will not touch the ground wheels again.
 
Attention! If the plane from the ground does not come off, don’t force the car to do a sharp selection handles. Even the most flexible aircraft are not able to “hold” in the air at supercritical angles of attack! Flight is speed! No speed – and flying, not starting, will go into uncontrollable decline.
 
With increasing speed the effectiveness of the rudder increases, and the required deviation decreases. You will feel it on the first approach.
 
After separation soak a maximum height of 2 m, see in this case 20° to the left and 15 – 20 m ahead, his eyes following a pattern of the earth’s surface. Sliding eyes ensures the correct determination of the distance to the ground, and this is very important!
 
LEARN TO FLY!
 
Parry emerging rolls on the approach, keep the direction (course) movement. Rudders work smoothly – Dala, a little removed, again, given, if necessary, again removed…
 
Flying 100 – 200 m, gradually reduce engine speed and allow the aircraft to decrease the height of 0,5 – 1,0 m. From this height, as it approaches the earth, it is necessary to choose the control knob “on” to 15 – 30 cm from the landing strip, the unit was in a landing position. At the time of the touch lock handlebars still.
 
All the movements of the rudders to maneuver the landing should be smooth, can not in any case prevent any wide deviation of the handle “on itself” – the “himself”.
 
That plane landed beautifully, the rate of travel of the handle should match the approach of the aircraft to the ground.
 
In one of the following approach (but not in the first), off the ground, turning down the handle for a moment take a moment and try to assess how the car reacts on your action! It is very important to feel the reaction of the plane. Machines, like people, are different characters: some planes to get along easier, and others harder…
 
The approach, paradoxically, is the hardest of the elements of mastering a single device, as occurs when acute shortage of time. If during landing the aircraft touched the ground and was back in the air (“goat”), or was there not touching the ground, it is necessary to hold the handle while fending off a climb, give the car to fall and “dokazivat” her acting Elevator in accordance with the rate approaching land, there are a few more energetic than a normal landing.
 
Do not abruptly to give a pen away, stopping departure from earth at the beginning of the “goat” or “usmania”, since such action can lead to repeated “goat” and the speed loss.
 
Warning: Themselves “goat” and “ballooning” special danger is not present, a dangerous confusion and delay of the pilot. They can lead to loss of speed and subsequent “stall” the aircraft on the wing.
 
Correspondence flight school “M-K”
 
FLIGHT IN A CIRCLE
 
Height and distance from the landing areas when flying in a circle are determined by considerations of security, in the case of engine failure must ensure landing on the airfield.
 
Looking up from the ground and at a height of 0.5 – 1.0 m, runup 25% more than the speed of separation, you can begin to gradually gain altitude. At an altitude of 100 m the aircraft is transferred to horizontal flight. Increasing the speed by another 10 – 15 km/h, you can run the first turn 90°. The turning at a height less than 30 m!
 
To enter in the reversal trend the handle and pedal in the direction of the turn, keeping the pitch and keeping the ball pointer slide in the middle.
 
Reaches the roll angle of fix it by reducing the deviation of the pedal and returning the handle to the neutral position or rejecting it somewhat in the opposite rotation direction. The maximum roll handling SLA – 30°.
 
All turns on the circle is performed without a set height, without slipping and with constant roll.
 
A turn, watch for traffic coordination rudder, proportionality of deflection of the ailerons and rudder, as uncoordinated turn leads to stalling even at low angles of attack. The speed should be constant. Arbitrary increase parry roll with a light stick against the roll.
 
On aircraft with the wing, the elongation of which is less than 5, the input and output of reversal are performed with one control stick (ailerons). If the elongation of the wing is greater than 5, then when you enter the aircraft in a turn it is necessary to “help” him, “giving a” leg by turning left on the left and right on the right. Accordingly, the conclusion of the reversal is carried out by handle and pedal.
 
In flight around the circle must take into account the speed and direction of wind and to take pre-emption at the rate that the actual trajectory of the aircraft corresponded to a given quadrilateral route (in calm conditions).
 
The second turn will do thus to the movement of the aircraft with the course, reverse landing, occurred over the area and allowed us to make an immediate landing on it when the engine failure.
 
The third turn should be calculated to provide the height output of the fourth turn at least 100 m. turns on the decrease of the height of 100 m is invalid.
 
Place the fourth turn it is advisable to adhere to some guidance on the tarmac.
 
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Speed reduction should be 25% higher than the landing speed. When landing fly the “point alignment” – it is 100 – 150 m closer to the point of landing (the true position of the “point alignment” depends on the landing speed and the aerodynamic qualities of the aircraft, and the speed and direction of wind).
 
Landing calculation to perform better so that in the process of reducing slightly “pull”, “go to rpm”. At the idle engine it is necessary to focus on the small “flights”, and the excess altitude to lose small flaps, sliding or using the air brakes.
 
Alignment start at a height of 5 – 7 m, gradually reducing the gliding angle and engine speed. The task is to bring the aircraft to a height of 0.5 – 1.0 m in the horizontal line of flight. Next to act – as on approach.
 
TYPICAL ERRORS
 
Loss of direction on the taxiway. The reason is the diversion of attention from the guide. Note that you can pick it better at a sufficient distance from the aircraft, preferably on the horizon. Another mistake – undue acceleration of the apparatus due to poor control. Possible overestimation of his own abilities – “can do it!” Among the gross errors during taxiing applies sudden brakes work due to the lack of proven skills. This error sometimes leads to unfortunate breakdown of the aircraft on the ground.
 
Wrong visual determination of the height of approach due to the fact that has not yet developed a “rolling” look at the ground. For beginners it is useful to train the slide to look at the ground when riding on the train, by car. While looking at the ground at an angle of 15-20 degrees and 15 – 20 m ahead, delaying look at the individual detail of the surface, and freely move the “beam” vision “moving” earth. When you approach dangerous break at a low speed due to the haste of the pilot, as well as the sharp separation and ballooning. The first approach makes sense to set the limit switch of the Gaza strip, that the engine was not developing full power.
 
Threat also landing with high alignment, ballooning, “jerk”, the rude touch of the ground at high speed. The reason is most often in the wrong direction, which carried a penalty of error in determining the distance to the ground.
 
Loss directions on the trail. The reason for this failure is a belated reaction to the desire of the aircraft to pivot when changing the angle of pitch, and work with brakes and rudder and the “loss” of the benchmark that started the movement of the aircraft.
 
The pitch angle for a run does not match. Most likely, this angle is not fixed a pilot during training. The bug is very unpleasant, threatening the loss of speed and stalling of the wing.
 
When flying in a circle typical errors are the loss of speed in the climb, slide, roll increase in the spread. The reason is a lessening of attention to the angular position of the vehicle on the visible parts of it relative to the horizon, to the control of flight speed, gross actions rudders.
 
Threat also non-permanent the speed and altitude, the yaw, the flight with a glide. The reason is in incorrect switching of attention, violation of the sequence of actions in flight: controlling the position of the aircraft in space, the readings of the speed indicator, altimeter, slip indicator. Again, an important visual assessment of the spatial position and the relevant amendments.
 
Unpleasant early or late transfer to planning, along with early or late implementation of the fourth turn due to the lack of skill, distraction from the land in calculating the landing or in poor visibility the landing marks.
 
Beginners often err by acceleration or loss of speed on the planning, prematurely stopping to watch the speed on the device or making a mistake in assessing the effects of wind.
 
Typical error calculation for a landing undershoot or flight. Cause premature (or later) decrease the engine speed, the underestimation of the impact of wind or a wrong determination of the point of alignment.
 
SPECIAL CASES IN FLIGHT
 
If in flight you have the slightest doubts about the reliability of the engine and have the opportunity to sit on the airfield -control, you can choose the area and prepare for landing.
 
If the engine failed or unreliable works on takeoff, remove the gas to a small and intensively slow down. Next, turn off the ignition and close the fuel supply. Dodge the head-on collision in the obstacle, and the inevitable clash try to keep the blow fell not on the forehead, and on the wing. Pre-brace, the legs tighten the abdomen, bend your head forward, elbows push knees, tighten all the muscles, especially of neck and back, While stopping as quickly as possible leave the cabin.
 
If an operation fails, you must perform the opposite of the previous one. For example, when the flaps appeared heeling moment is to remove the flaps.
 
If in flight there was failure of any system, you should first verify the correctness of their actions. So, forced landing sometimes occur due to incorrect switching and the switching of fuel tanks and pumps, and termination assignments – because of the “failure” of the equipment as a result of incorrect switching.
 
LEARN TO FLY!
If the engine failure after lift-off, the first thing to give a pen away! Put the unit in planning, avoiding loss of speed.
 
Make a forced landing straight ahead, evading a frontal impact. The cuffs should not be more than 15° off course and complied with a roll of 5…10°. Ignition off, fuel shut off! After landing leave the cabin.
 
If the engine refused after the turn, providing the aircraft a speed of about 10…15 km/h above the most advantageous, think about the possibility of landing on the airfield. If full confidence in this, determine the area for the forced landing. Such sites should be identified in advance of the flight.
 
Having made the decision, don’t change it! There’s nothing more dangerous during a forced landing than indecision and throwing!
 
On approach to an emergency landing turns follow smoothly, with a roll of not more than 30°, the speed increased by 10 km/h compared to the speed of rectilinear planning. Fit, if possible, make against the wind. Perform the calculation with minor “flight”. Before landing, switch off the ignition and close the fuel supply. Immediately after the run leave the cabin. Landing on a plowed field it’s safer to run along the grooves and against the wind.
 
Extremely dangerous is the stall. This happens when pulling the handle, especially if you have a slip. The first manifestation of signs of stalling -shaking, rocking from roll to roll, yaw, arbitrary lowering of the nose. This should immediately give the control knob. The roll and yaw fend off the rudder. After the set speed and the disappearance of the stall smoothly bring the aircraft in horizontal flight.
 
Unintentional deep spiral. It is characterized by large roll, high speed and high congestion. Is terminated as follows: first, it is necessary to remove the roll (ailerons), and then display the aircraft in normal horizontal flight plan.
 
The simultaneous action of the ailerons and Elevator will only exacerbate the situation!
 
A fire in flight. While it is possible to quickly make the landing. Thus it is necessary to switch off ignition and shut off the flow of fuel to the engine, and then try to knock down the flames with increasing speed and glide – “from the flames”. Please note that if the slide height is lost faster than normal. Fighting with fire, prevent loss of speed! If possible, put the machine on the water, not far from the shore.
 
You know, a forced landing on water has its own characteristics. Before splashdown tighter tighten seatbelts. Find the castle and get ready for rapid release from the harness. Open the door or reset the lamp. Try to splash down close to the shore.
 
Before tap water brace, as soon As the movement stops and the start of the dive, leave the cabin.
 
A forced landing on the forest – the procedure unpleasant, but not hopeless. Before planting, tighten seatbelts, come in, wherever possible, low-growing trees or shrubs. Before you touch the tops, turn off the ignition close the fuel supply. Alignment and landing should be made, taking the tops of the trees over the surface of the earth. Before the touch it should be grouped.
 
SOMETHING ABOUT THE GEAR
 
The pilot should be comfortably and warmly dressed, so that all his movements were free and natural. The pockets preferably have clasps to nothing fell out.
 
In addition, clothing should not be flammable or melt. I advise you to use cotton clothing or natural leather. Shoes should be comfortable and not interfere with the movement of the pedals.
 
The helmet should be equipped with goggles and a filter (points in flight will certainly fall on the eye), if the cabin is not closed by the lantern. Leather gloves should securely cover hands, to be tightened and buttoned. Gloves will protect you from the fire if in the air there’s a fire.
 
Mandatory on Board must have individual package (better first aid kit), a good folding knife (preferably with a saw), ID (passport), some money, a map or plan of the area.

 
Test pilots: V. MAKAGONOV, A. MARCOS, M., MOLCHANJUK

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