Flying 100 – 200 m, gradually reduce engine speed and allow the aircraft to decrease the height of 0,5 – 1,0 m. From this height, as it approaches the earth, it is necessary to choose the control knob “on” to 15 – 30 cm from the landing strip, the unit was in a landing position. At the time of the touch lock handlebars still.
All the movements of the rudders to maneuver the landing should be smooth, can not in any case prevent any wide deviation of the handle “on itself” – the “himself”.
That plane landed beautifully, the rate of travel of the handle should match the approach of the aircraft to the ground.
In one of the following approach (but not in the first), off the ground, turning down the handle for a moment take a moment and try to assess how the car reacts on your action! It is very important to feel the reaction of the plane. Machines, like people, are different characters: some planes to get along easier, and others harder…
The approach, paradoxically, is the hardest of the elements of mastering a single device, as occurs when acute shortage of time. If during landing the aircraft touched the ground and was back in the air (“goat”), or was there not touching the ground, it is necessary to hold the handle while fending off a climb, give the car to fall and “dokazivat” her acting Elevator in accordance with the rate approaching land, there are a few more energetic than a normal landing.
Do not abruptly to give a pen away, stopping departure from earth at the beginning of the “goat” or “usmania”, since such action can lead to repeated “goat” and the speed loss.
FLIGHT IN A CIRCLE
Height and distance from the landing areas when flying in a circle are determined by considerations of security, in the case of engine failure must ensure landing on the airfield.
Looking up from the ground and at a height of 0.5 – 1.0 m, runup 25% more than the speed of separation, you can begin to gradually gain altitude. At an altitude of 100 m the aircraft is transferred to horizontal flight. Increasing the speed by another 10 – 15 km/h, you can run the first turn 90°. The turning at a height less than 30 m!
To enter in the reversal trend the handle and pedal in the direction of the turn, keeping the pitch and keeping the ball pointer slide in the middle.
Reaches the roll angle of fix it by reducing the deviation of the pedal and returning the handle to the neutral position or rejecting it somewhat in the opposite rotation direction. The maximum roll handling SLA – 30°.
All turns on the circle is performed without a set height, without slipping and with constant roll.
A turn, watch for traffic coordination rudder, proportionality of deflection of the ailerons and rudder, as uncoordinated turn leads to stalling even at low angles of attack. The speed should be constant. Arbitrary increase parry roll with a light stick against the roll.
On aircraft with the wing, the elongation of which is less than 5, the input and output of reversal are performed with one control stick (ailerons). If the elongation of the wing is greater than 5, then when you enter the aircraft in a turn it is necessary to “help” him, “giving a” leg by turning left on the left and right on the right. Accordingly, the conclusion of the reversal is carried out by handle and pedal.
In flight around the circle must take into account the speed and direction of wind and to take pre-emption at the rate that the actual trajectory of the aircraft corresponded to a given quadrilateral route (in calm conditions).
The second turn will do thus to the movement of the aircraft with the course, reverse landing, occurred over the area and allowed us to make an immediate landing on it when the engine failure.
The third turn should be calculated to provide the height output of the fourth turn at least 100 m. turns on the decrease of the height of 100 m is invalid.
Place the fourth turn it is advisable to adhere to some guidance on the tarmac.
Speed reduction should be 25% higher than the landing speed. When landing fly the “point alignment” – it is 100 – 150 m closer to the point of landing (the true position of the “point alignment” depends on the landing speed and the aerodynamic qualities of the aircraft, and the speed and direction of wind).
Landing calculation to perform better so that in the process of reducing slightly “pull”, “go to rpm”. At the idle engine it is necessary to focus on the small “flights”, and the excess altitude to lose small flaps, sliding or using the air brakes.
Alignment start at a height of 5 – 7 m, gradually reducing the gliding angle and engine speed. The task is to bring the aircraft to a height of 0.5 – 1.0 m in the horizontal line of flight. Next to act – as on approach.
Loss of direction on the taxiway. The reason is the diversion of attention from the guide. Note that you can pick it better at a sufficient distance from the aircraft, preferably on the horizon. Another mistake – undue acceleration of the apparatus due to poor control. Possible overestimation of his own abilities – “can do it!” Among the gross errors during taxiing applies sudden brakes work due to the lack of proven skills. This error sometimes leads to unfortunate breakdown of the aircraft on the ground.
Wrong visual determination of the height of approach due to the fact that has not yet developed a “rolling” look at the ground. For beginners it is useful to train the slide to look at the ground when riding on the train, by car. While looking at the ground at an angle of 15-20 degrees and 15 – 20 m ahead, delaying look at the individual detail of the surface, and freely move the “beam” vision “moving” earth. When you approach dangerous break at a low speed due to the haste of the pilot, as well as the sharp separation and ballooning. The first approach makes sense to set the limit switch of the Gaza strip, that the engine was not developing full power.
Threat also landing with high alignment, ballooning, “jerk”, the rude touch of the ground at high speed. The reason is most often in the wrong direction, which carried a penalty of error in determining the distance to the ground.
Loss directions on the trail. The reason for this failure is a belated reaction to the desire of the aircraft to pivot when changing the angle of pitch, and work with brakes and rudder and the “loss” of the benchmark that started the movement of the aircraft.
The pitch angle for a run does not match. Most likely, this angle is not fixed a pilot during training. The bug is very unpleasant, threatening the loss of speed and stalling of the wing.
When flying in a circle typical errors are the loss of speed in the climb, slide, roll increase in the spread. The reason is a lessening of attention to the angular position of the vehicle on the visible parts of it relative to the horizon, to the control of flight speed, gross actions rudders.
Threat also non-permanent the speed and altitude, the yaw, the flight with a glide. The reason is in incorrect switching of attention, violation of the sequence of actions in flight: controlling the position of the aircraft in space, the readings of the speed indicator, altimeter, slip indicator. Again, an important visual assessment of the spatial position and the relevant amendments.
Unpleasant early or late transfer to planning, along with early or late implementation of the fourth turn due to the lack of skill, distraction from the land in calculating the landing or in poor visibility the landing marks.
Beginners often err by acceleration or loss of speed on the planning, prematurely stopping to watch the speed on the device or making a mistake in assessing the effects of wind.
Typical error calculation for a landing undershoot or flight. Cause premature (or later) decrease the engine speed, the underestimation of the impact of wind or a wrong determination of the point of alignment.
SPECIAL CASES IN FLIGHT
If in flight you have the slightest doubts about the reliability of the engine and have the opportunity to sit on the airfield -control, you can choose the area and prepare for landing.
If the engine failed or unreliable works on takeoff, remove the gas to a small and intensively slow down. Next, turn off the ignition and close the fuel supply. Dodge the head-on collision in the obstacle, and the inevitable clash try to keep the blow fell not on the forehead, and on the wing. Pre-brace, the legs tighten the abdomen, bend your head forward, elbows push knees, tighten all the muscles, especially of neck and back, While stopping as quickly as possible leave the cabin.
If an operation fails, you must perform the opposite of the previous one. For example, when the flaps appeared heeling moment is to remove the flaps.
If in flight there was failure of any system, you should first verify the correctness of their actions. So, forced landing sometimes occur due to incorrect switching and the switching of fuel tanks and pumps, and termination assignments – because of the “failure” of the equipment as a result of incorrect switching.
If the engine failure after lift-off, the first thing to give a pen away! Put the unit in planning, avoiding loss of speed.
Make a forced landing straight ahead, evading a frontal impact. The cuffs should not be more than 15° off course and complied with a roll of 5…10°. Ignition off, fuel shut off! After landing leave the cabin.
If the engine refused after the turn, providing the aircraft a speed of about 10…15 km/h above the most advantageous, think about the possibility of landing on the airfield. If full confidence in this, determine the area for the forced landing. Such sites should be identified in advance of the flight.
Having made the decision, don’t change it! There’s nothing more dangerous during a forced landing than indecision and throwing!
On approach to an emergency landing turns follow smoothly, with a roll of not more than 30°, the speed increased by 10 km/h compared to the speed of rectilinear planning. Fit, if possible, make against the wind. Perform the calculation with minor “flight”. Before landing, switch off the ignition and close the fuel supply. Immediately after the run leave the cabin. Landing on a plowed field it’s safer to run along the grooves and against the wind.
Extremely dangerous is the stall. This happens when pulling the handle, especially if you have a slip. The first manifestation of signs of stalling -shaking, rocking from roll to roll, yaw, arbitrary lowering of the nose. This should immediately give the control knob. The roll and yaw fend off the rudder. After the set speed and the disappearance of the stall smoothly bring the aircraft in horizontal flight.
Unintentional deep spiral. It is characterized by large roll, high speed and high congestion. Is terminated as follows: first, it is necessary to remove the roll (ailerons), and then display the aircraft in normal horizontal flight plan.
The simultaneous action of the ailerons and Elevator will only exacerbate the situation!
A fire in flight. While it is possible to quickly make the landing. Thus it is necessary to switch off ignition and shut off the flow of fuel to the engine, and then try to knock down the flames with increasing speed and glide – “from the flames”. Please note that if the slide height is lost faster than normal. Fighting with fire, prevent loss of speed! If possible, put the machine on the water, not far from the shore.
You know, a forced landing on water has its own characteristics. Before splashdown tighter tighten seatbelts. Find the castle and get ready for rapid release from the harness. Open the door or reset the lamp. Try to splash down close to the shore.
Before tap water brace, as soon As the movement stops and the start of the dive, leave the cabin.
A forced landing on the forest – the procedure unpleasant, but not hopeless. Before planting, tighten seatbelts, come in, wherever possible, low-growing trees or shrubs. Before you touch the tops, turn off the ignition close the fuel supply. Alignment and landing should be made, taking the tops of the trees over the surface of the earth. Before the touch it should be grouped.
SOMETHING ABOUT THE GEAR
The pilot should be comfortably and warmly dressed, so that all his movements were free and natural. The pockets preferably have clasps to nothing fell out.
In addition, clothing should not be flammable or melt. I advise you to use cotton clothing or natural leather. Shoes should be comfortable and not interfere with the movement of the pedals.
The helmet should be equipped with goggles and a filter (points in flight will certainly fall on the eye), if the cabin is not closed by the lantern. Leather gloves should securely cover hands, to be tightened and buttoned. Gloves will protect you from the fire if in the air there’s a fire.
Mandatory on Board must have individual package (better first aid kit), a good folding knife (preferably with a saw), ID (passport), some money, a map or plan of the area.