MINI-ROCKETS AT BAIKONUR

MINI-ROCKETS AT BAIKONURBaikonur is rightly considered the cradle of rocket and space technology. Go out in the space provided earth satellites, orbital stations and space ships to explore the uncharted expanses of the Universe.

 
At the end of September 2006, the cosmodrome became the launch pad for model rockets. Here were the 16-th world championship in the flying sports. A record number of participating countries is 25, nearly 300 athletes took part in it. And as said Chairman of the Subcommittee of the FAI space models, Serjan Pelagic, the championship has demonstrated a completely new standard of holding such major competitions.
 
Organized the championship was excellent. In the desert, 15 km from the city increased sports town that meets all the requirements: tents for the athletes of each team, judges, power supply, technical services; with a starting zone for participants, as well as tribunes, etc. Perfectly organized opening and closing ceremony. In all this the great merit of the head of administration of Baikonur Alexander Mezentsev.
 
Eight categories of model rockets competed participants—young men (till 18 years) and adults. Only been played 16 sets of medals in eight of the FAI classes of miniature missiles.
 
I believe our readers will be interested to get acquainted with the models of leading athletes of their sports “tools”.
 
Category high-rise models (S1) includes five classes. They vary according to the pulse of the engine, the diameter and length of the housing. For many years now in this category, championship (for which competitions) are two classes: Ѕ1В—for boys and S1C—for adults (according to international terminology—seniors). Technical requirements for such models.
 
S1B: minimum diameter—40 mm (more than 50 percent of the total length); length more than 500 mm, the total momentum of the engine—no more than 5 NS, the maximum weight of the model is 60 g.
 
S1C: diameter more than 40 mm (more than 50 percent of the total length), length not less than 500 mm. maximum total impulse of the engine in—10 N. C , starting weight—120 g.
 
It should be noted another aspect of this category. If you have two “working” levels—impulse model rocket engine (MRD) should be the same: 2.5 B. S. (class S1B) and 5 NS (for a class S1C).
 
World champion in the class S1C Vladimir Menshikov
 
World champion in the class S1C Vladimir Menshikov
 
Start to win
 
Start to victory
 
Takeoff rocket class Ѕ4А
 
On takeoff the rocket class Ѕ4А
 
Model rocket of the type
 
The model rocket of the type “flying wing” Vladimir Minkevich (Belarus)
 
Model rocket plane aircraft diagrams
 
Model rocket plane aircraft schemes
 
Based on the above requirements, each participant designs his athletic “shell”model of the rocket so as to use the energy of engine (or engines). I must admit that all participants in the Championships used the two-stage model. Moreover, most try the main sports ground (70%) to lay in the first step, which supply the engine with different characteristics than the second stage engine. While working MRD first stage is very small—less than a second. In the diagram, the curve is close to vertical, the slowing is absent. He is starting his task is to let the model accelerate (speed), in which occur the “hot” stages separation model. While working MRD the second step with pulse of about 3-4 NS (in the diagram, the curve is flatter), retarder— 1.5—2 seconds. I must admit that the models are the winners of the boys are very similar sports equipment adult world Champions 1996— 1998 O. Voronov and V. Menshikov in this class. The length of the first stage is about 400 mm, end-pieces conical, the lower longer than the upper two times. Feathers stabilizers (three of them) are made of balsa wood with a thickness of 0.6—0.8 mm and is reinforced with fiberglass for rigidity.
 
The second stage has a length of about 130-140 mm. Case it has a diameter more than 18 mm. Connection steps through the skirt MRD the second step with a length of 10-12 mm. Transmission of the firing pulse from the first stage engine to the MRD the second step occurs through the venting tube diameter 4 — 5 mm, is mounted in the upper, conical part of the first stage. The mass of the model without MRD of about 15-20 g
 
Model adult athletes performed similarly, in the same geometric proportions. A graphic illustration of the model of world champion Vladimir Menshikov.
 
Category parachute missiles (S) includes four classes and boys and adults. Championship is a class Ѕ3А. Requirements for sports “projectile” are: tier one, diameter more than 40 mm, the length not less than 500 mm. a launch weight not exceeding 100 g, single engine (pulse—no more than 2.5 NS), the maximum fixed time in a round is 5 minutes (300 seconds).
 
After three major rounds of “max” flew in boys—six participants, adults—fifteen. After the first fly-off (optional tour) they left and the young men, and adults of five athletes. And only the second fly-off has enabled the identification of Champions. The young men became Dmitry Lyakh (Ukraine) the model stayed in the air 10 min 13 s. the result of the flight is 32 min 45 s was allowed to become the winner among adults Sakano Michal from Slovakia.
 
The abundance of “highs” in the category of models with a parachute indicates good technical equipment of the participants and a good knowledge of the meteorological situation. I must admit that the model class ZA, differ little from each other. Today has been some form of model. Fairing—ogive shape with a length of 85-100 mm, the case is about 250-260 Mm, the tail—cone with a length of 150 mm.
 
The basic material for the manufacture of the hull fiberglass thickness of 0.03 mm with epoxy resin are wound in two layers. Many of the new boys made of paper for copier in a single layer. The tail Assembly was developed (surface area: about 35-40 cm2) includes three stabilizer. The models of most of the participants of the stabilizers are made of balsa plate with a thickness of 0.5—0.8 mm, lateral side reinforced with fiberglass. The mass of the miniature rockets without MRD and rescue system—about 10 g.
 
Speaking about models of missiles SO, it is impossible not to take into account the main design element — the parachute. It, or rather its diameter, is decisive—it 80-90% depends on the time of flight. But today, the diameter of the parachute the majority of participants of this class ranges from 900 to 1200 mm Material—metallized Mylar film with a thickness of 3 to 5 microns. (This applies in large space—it paste coiled objects spacecraft.) The number of lines from 12 to 16. For optional tours athletes use parachutes with a diameter of the dome is about 1.5 m.
 
Another important ingredient of successful performance of rakatomalala should be considered as the knowledge of the meteorological situation, the ability to navigate in it. And most importantly—accurately select the beginning of the campaign. It’s not always flying models are made in ideal circumstances — with complete calm. And the presence of upstream or downstream significantly affects the duration of the flight. The determination of these athletes often use all sorts of fire detectors, installing them at the start on a long pole. But an absolute guarantee of finding updrafts for the start of they do not. Usually the sensor is installed at a height of about 4-5 m, but the model flies at 250-280 m. Summarizing the above, I note that the sum of all the constituent elements of the competitions, their knowledge and their correct use of athletes for successful performance.
 
Category raketoplana—models of gliders with the accelerator (S4) is divided into six classes. Most popular Ѕ4А—championship. Technical data requirement apparatuses are: the minimum starting weight—18 g., the maximum is 60 g. the Momentum of the engine—2,5 B. S., “maximum”-180 C. the engine or its container must be separated from the model and land on the ribbon (smallest 25×300 mm) or a parachute with an area of more than 4 dm2. If this condition is not respected—flight is not credited.
 
The world champion among adults in the S7 category A. the Left is preparing its
 
The world champion among adults in the S7 category A. the Left is preparing its “Union” to start
 
World champion in the class Ѕ5В E. Yakunin with his coach E. Korobeinikov
 
World champion in the class Ѕ5В E. Yakunin with his coach E. Korobeinikov
 
World champion in the class of redirectable (S8D) Wang Fu Nan
 
World champion in the class of redirectable (S8D) Wang Fu Nan
 
At the start of models raketoplana three main round finished without any losses (shown by the three “maximum”) for four participants and in boys, and adults. The first fly-off was able to identify Champions in both age categories. The young men became Ukrainian athlete Dmitriy Smolyakov with result 3 min 44 s. adults—Vladimir Minkevich (Belarus). The time of flight of his rocket glider 5 min.
 
This class of sports “shells” are always different from the others an abundance of schemes and designs. In this class there is a permanent search of original technical solutions, as it provides room for creative thoughts of rocketmodeler. After all, to create the rocket, or rather, the glider is a task difficult enough.
 
Making a review of the structures of these models, it is possible to allocate three main schemes presented in this championship.
 
First, the most common being raketoplana so-called “Moscow” scheme. Its main feature— the folding wing and its rotation by 90 degrees along the rail of the fuselage. Folded (at the start) a rocket plane similar to a conventional rocket. At the height of 230-250 m after shooting MRD wing unfolds and the model becomes a conventional glider. It is very similar to the project “Angara” in this (large) space. For many years this scheme models raketoplana allow them to become Champions and prize-winners of many competitions our Russian athletes.
 
The second group of rocket gliders are aircraft, made under the scheme “flying wing”. This scheme is called “khokhlovskaya” since authorship here belongs to Vladimir Khokhlov—for many years he promotes and embeds it in competitive practice. With models of such a scheme were athletes of Belarus (which was the first and the third prize-winners of the championship), Japan and Slovakia.
 
Design features such raketoplana—container type. The airframe is a “flying wing”—foldable, fit into a container (a missile). It gives you a big advantage in the altitude. Some disadvantages include the difficulty of tracking and it is not always clear aerodynamic planning.
 
The third group—airborne scheme was presented a little. The main reason—high probability of receiving zero marks for a start. After all, one of the requirements for raketoplana—do not use aerodynamic performance during takeoff. A model resembling a plane, is not always able to meet this requirement of the code of the FAI. This scheme is universally used only in the early stages of development of rocket modeling.
 
Several original models of a class Ѕ4А introduced the boys from team Slovakia. Their peculiar aircraft (container type, made on a wing”, Rogallo”), had a rigid supporting plane made from foam plates of thickness 3 mm. In my opinion, they have one drawback—the small size. This complicates the observation of the model during flight. By the way, the small size had raketoplan, which of course complicated the work of judges-timekeepers. Often models even lost sight of.
 
An important technical problem for a category of raketoplana is to ensure the safety of the sports “equipment” to be able to run it a few times. It is possible to make a forced landing of the aircraft by the imbalance in the plan that can only provide machine (device). And in conditions of deficiency of weight to do it. In fact, even installing miniature timers (weighing approximately 8 to 10 g) significantly increases the load. Many years for this purpose, athletes use an ordinary wick, which is lit before the start of the model. Utrirovat and its burning rate (by impregnation with a weak solution of potassium permanganate), choose the desired length. The source material for the wick is common cotton cord with a diameter of 3-4 mm.
 
Smoldering wick is a kind of Executive mechanism for the introduction of the operation of the machine forced landing. At the appointed time (when “high”) the wick burns through the locking thread and is a small deviation of a weight of about 1-2 g along the fuselage. Thereby disrupted the alignment of the model—and that begins to cabriolet and decline. Possible options for lateral movement of the balance weights along the wing. Then the model is included in a flat spiral and is also losing altitude.
 
In the practice of rocketmodeler developed several raketoplana with the use of brake flap (spoiler) on the stabilizer. But I must admit, the mass use of this method would be because of the difficulty of its implementation.
 
This material revision is completing a technical report of our correspondent V. Rozhkova on the 16th world championship flying sport. In this story about the four remaining categories of sport model rockets.
 
Six classes includes the category of model-copies on the altitude of the S5. Championship classes are two Ѕ5В—for boys and Ѕ5С for adults. Requirements for models are as follows. Ѕ5В impulse MRD no more than 5 NS, maximum weight—120 g., the minimum diameter (the length of more than 50%)-40 mm, length not less than 500 mm. Ѕ5С impulse MRD—no more than 10 NS, the maximum weight—150 g., the minimum diameter is 50 mm, length not less than 650 mm.
 
Preparing sports equipment for competitions, each rocketmodeler needs to choose a prototype (a real rocket), which would provide enough complexity had two stages and a large exterior detail. From these components (including craftsmanship) is the highest amount of points for bench evaluation—one of the components of victories in this category. The second is the achievement of highest elevation. And here without the two working steps are not necessary. It is only in this category, the two terms”stand” and altitude—can provide a good final result.
 
Incidentally, the model-copy a two-stage rocket “Tauras-Tomahawk” was a good poster rating is about 600 points. And the best “stand” received the boys—Michal Zambesi (copy “Ariana 2”)-624 points in adults—Alex Griazev (“Tauras-Tomahawk”)-628 points. In flight tests of models-copies “Thurstonian” stood the undeniable advantage at altitude.
 
The maximum height of 332 m allowed to win the title world youth Elena Yakunina (Russia). Her total amount of points—918 (586—”stand” plus 332—height). And played it with the above copy of the rocket. Such models were presented to six of the first seven participants of this start.
 
Similar pattern and in the final minutes of class Ѕ5С adults. Eight of the athletes occupying the first eight places were models-replicas of missiles “Tauras-Tomahawk”, and the highest altitude is 446 m reach model Romanian athlete, Audio nick. But he in the end only the fourth place. And the best sum—1023 (“stand”-595 plus flight—428) points from a Japanese competitor Takuma, Terao. He became a champion. And in the second place Alexey Gryazev (Russia)— 1008 (“stand”-628 and flight—380) points. The third — Miroslaw Stankiewicz (Serbia)-988 (“stand”-559 and flight—429) points.
 
To sum up about S5, I want to give advice. To achieve good results should be preferred a two-stage prototype. And the choice of such missiles is quite wide—”Suriname-1″, “Nike-Apache”, “Dragon III”, “M-100B” (Russia), “Bumper-WAС”, etc.
 
Category S6 (model on the flight duration with the tape) includes four classes. Championship class—one Ѕ6А and boys, and adults. Technical requirements for models of this class are the same as the class TA. Brake band from a homogeneous, non-perforated material with a length to width ratio of 10:1. In flight, the tape must be fully deployed. The number of tapes for the competition is not limited. The maximum recorded time round—3 minutes (180 points).
 
I must admit that to achieve maximum results (540 points) failed to anyone—neither the young men or adults. In both age categories the victory was celebrated by Polish athletes: Michael Kumar (boys)-465 points and Leshak Malaga (adults)-507 points. By the way, this is an example of the excellent cooperation between student and coach. Russian athletes medalists were Pavel Krasnov (silver award) and Vitaliy Maiboroda (bronze medal).
 
Speaking of sports equipment—the model rockets of this class, it should be noted that they are similar to parachute. The most important part of providing the greatest duration of flight,—the brake band.
 
And all design, process, searches are conducted mainly with the brake band. It is the choice of their size, the thickness of the film and of course fashion styling. On the basis of starting conditions, the participant chooses the type of the tape. So, for wind we need “hard” tape, to calm—”soft”. The degree of hardness determines the thickness of the source material film. From the first it varies from 0.015 to 0.025 mm, the second—about 0.01 mm. we Need to recognize that the FAI code does not limit the number of bands for the competition.
 
Second and third prize winners of the championship G. Sergienko and M. Frances with their sports
 
Second and third prize winners of the championship G. Sergienko and M. Frances with their sports “shells”
 
World champion in the class Ѕ9А A. Mazarico
 
World champion in the class Ѕ9А A. Mazarico
 
Sports family Mayboroda. Pictured in the center, Anastasia became the winner of the 16-th championship of the world
 
Sports family Mayboroda. Pictured in the center, Anastasia became the winner of the 16-th championship of the world
 
Ways of styling the brake band— a lot of the most common folding. It resembles the bellows of the Russian musical instrument. Step (width of the pleat) from 5 to 25 mm. Many athletes after folding of the tape is subjected to the forming (heat treatment). Folded clamp it in a fixture and kept in this state at a temperature of 55-60 degrees Celsius. Such processing of the brake band increases its stiffness, it holds the “harmonica”. The best athletes for each flight in the new round uses a different tape, allowing time for “rest” used.
 
A good confirmation of this are the brake band Champions of the Polish athletes. Their sizes are: length 1050 mm, width of 97 mm, and “bunching” of 4-5 mm, film thickness—0.02 mm.
 
Category S7—model-copies on the realism of flying is the only divided into classes. Perhaps the competition in this category is the most interesting for the audience. After all, few of us manage to observe what is called “live” launch of these missiles. And launches of models to simulate this start.
 
Competition models on the realism of flight (S7) includes a” two stages. First—poster evaluation, the maximum number of points is 850. This amount is awarded to judges on the following items: the documentation for prototype, according to the scale of workmanship and degree of difficulty. The second stage is the flight characteristics, the maximum number of points is 250. This amount is the sum of points awarded for demonstration of effects, characteristic of the prototype that implements the model in flight: the division of stages, the reset of the fairing, ejection accelerators etc And it all has to be documented.
 
Based on the requirements of the code of the FAI, each copyist, dreaming of victory, opted for a complex prototype. Them today can be attributed, such as boosters of comic objects”Soyuz”, “proton”, “Saturn 18”, “Ariane” all modifications “Zenit-3”, “Cyclone-3” and others. And needless to say that in many respects the advantage of already being set in the first stage—testing the assessment. So, the young men of the highest amount of points for a “stand” had Alexander Lyashko (Ukraine)-754. He presented a model copy of the rocket “Zenit-ЗSL” in the three-stage version. Only two points gave Barbara Bakastova (Czech Republic), presented to the “court” of the jury a copy of rocket “Ariane 44 LP” in scale 1:50.
 
Flying models did not shake the leadership of the Ukrainian athlete. Received for flight demonstrations the largest number of points 196, he became world champion (with a total of 950 points). Good rating for the flight allowed the Russian Junior Maxim Demidov and Nikolai Petrov (194 and 178 points) to become the silver and bronze medals. Their total amount, respectively, 877 and 855 points. By the way, they were identical copies of the “Arian 1”.
 
The abundance of models of the rocket “Ariane” was observed among adults. Of the 21 participants, speakers in this category, 9 were presented a miniature “Ariana”. A prototype of the rocket “Saturn 1B” took as a basis the copy 6 athletes. And only a single one of the athletes—Alexander of the Left (Russia), performed with a miniature copy of the carrier rocket “Soyuz—U”—Soyuz—TM-12”. And I must admit, were great.
 
After bench evaluation Alexander took the lead. The jury appreciated a copy of it to 826 points out of a possible 850. On the second and third places went Tomasz Karch (Poland) with a copy of the rocket “Saturn 1B”-779 points and Zdenek Kolar (Czech Republic) with the model “Ariane 44 LР”-772 points.
 
After flight testing to get for flying the greatest number of points 214 and typing in the end, the magnificent sum of 1040 points, Alexander Left became a three-time world champion. I must admit that its flight model allows you to visually represent (except sound effects) launch and flight of this launch vehicle spacecraft “Soyuz”. After all, his miniature “Union” in scale 1:50 height of about one meter is not enough that the subtleties, down to the smallest detail, hatches, decals reproduced the external elements of the prototype, but showed some elements of flight, namely: the separation of the lateral blocks of the first level, reset the valves of the fairing, the operation of engines of the second and third steps, the separation of the spacecraft and the landing of all parts on a small parachute. In General, it had to be seen.
 
Category radio controlled model raketoplana S8 is divided into six classes. In the class S8D compete with the boys on the flight. The requirements for models in this class are: impulse MRD—10.01—20.00 B. S., starting weight—not more than 300 g, a wing span of 950 mm, a maximum flight time of tour—6 min (360 s).
 
In the class Ѕ8Е/R are adults, and they compete for flight duration and precision landing on a platform the size of 10×50 meters. Technical requirements for models in this class are: impulse MRD—20,01 -40,00 researcher, starting weight—not more than 300 g, a wing span of more than 1100 mm.
 
The boys after the main three rounds it was clear that the entire podium “booked” for Chinese athletes, and the title of champion and a gold medal in the fourth (additional) round was played between Wang Fu Nan and Wu Yang. With a clear advantage won Wang Fu Nan: the time of flight of his model—8 min (480 s). Celebrated by the Chinese and convincing team victory.
 
Making a review of the class S8D, it should be noted some of their unification, uniformity. The usual classic, airplane diagram with the top engine. Can be seen some negligence in the manufacture of sports projectiles. The main focus in preparing for any competition — to-practice runs, so — called plaque. So, from talking with the athletes of China, I learned that every athlete on the national team has around 200 starts in a year. Many participants about this can only dream of. Including Russian rakatomalala. It is only to purchase model rocket engines (MRD) have to spend about 1000 $.
 
Of the 32 participants of this championship started in class S8E/P, only one—Franz Weisgerber (Germany) managed to get through all the rounds without the loss of 3000 points out of 3000 possible. He won in the final. Award him the gold medal of the FAI.
 
He alone conquered the “top” of 1000 points. The total is 4000 points. A bit behind him, the Russian team leader Grigory Sergienko—3859 glasses, his silver. And bronze at the Englishman Mike Francesa—3776 points.
 
Speaking about the winners in the class Ѕ8Е/R, it should be noted that they had certain advantages over the others. First of all, it sports the “shells” model of raketoplana. They are distinguished by some academic—high quality workmanship, knowledge of aerodynamics and the proper practical application. It should be noted that the German and British athletes have extensive experience with radio controlled models, large common “RAID” (each of them more than 50 years).
 
Model rocket Franz Weisgerber—normal scheme. The location of the MRD—bottom. The wing is solid, has a smooth dual angle “V” of the console—with a rounded rim leading edge. Stabilizer—V-shaped, the apex angle at the top. The fuselage-beam—CFRP.
 
Rocket Grigory Sergienko—classic aircraft of the scheme. The wing is of two halves mated to the fuselage. Console — trapezoidal, its length equal to the span of the wing. The tail Assembly was of conventional (rudder and stabilizer). Engine compartment at the bottom that ensures the safety of using MRD.
 
Model class Ѕ8Е/R Englishman Mike Francesa quite complicated to make, made on a “frame”. The fuselage, or rather, his two tail boom length 500 mm, — CFRP, are carriers for a V-shaped stabilizer. Moreover, the vertex angle of the tail is at the bottom. This makes it safe from accidental contact with the products of combustion when operating MRD, located in the middle of the engine compartment.
 
Wing elipse shape in plan, with slightly sharp edges at the rear. The scope of his 1200 mm. the Frame consists of two spars and beams of double skin “sandwich” of balsa and fiberglass. The mass of the model—250, servos—5 pieces of 5 g.
 
Category models rotachute (S9) includes four classes. Championship is a class Ѕ9А. Technical requirements are the same as classes SA and Ѕ6А: minimum housing diameter 40 mm, MRD—no more than 2.5 NS, the starting weight should not exceed 60 g, the maximum round is 3 min (180 sec).
 
Of the 42 athletes was launched in this class of juniors, only one Kumoru Michal (Poland) was able to show all three “high”. Typing in the total of 540 points, he became a double world champion at the space station for the second consecutive time in the class Ѕ9А. Just six seconds gave him our Anastasia Mayboroda, she has a silver medal. And the bronze—Sergei Smirnov (Ukraine)-513 points.
 
In the adult age group in the class Ѕ9А started 49 privateers. And only three have been three major tour without any losses, scored 540 points. In the first fly-off, “weed” Renatas, Petkevicius (Lithuania). His result is 4 min 20 s, for which he was awarded the third prize and bronze medal of the world championship. Just four seconds settled the dispute for the title of world champion. Showing the second fly-off 3 min 36 s, won by Antonio Mazarico (Italy). With a score of 3 min with 2 silver award was won by Polish athlete Leszek Maluga. Only three seconds separated the Russian “rocket” Alexei Reshetnikov from the podium—he’s got the fourth place.
 
Category of rotochutes (S9) of rocket modeling is still very “young”. It was only the third world championship (2002), which included this class of model rockets. A lot of effort I had to expend his supporters to rotocut their rightful place in the medal of the FAI. And I must admit that this category is a large scope for creativity, for improving airframes.
 
Today the leading position in the class Ѕ9А occupied by Polish and Russian “the rocketeer”. They are distinguished by their forethought of manufacturing technology sports equipment and creative schemes and designs. The main direction of creativity—improvement of the main component of rotachute—rotor. After all, a carrier (container) its almost all the same. It is the same as corps championship classes: SA, Ѕ6А and close, in my opinion, to the ideal. On the flight quality of the rotor is influenced by several factors: diameter, number of blades rotating propeller, blade profile, etc.
 
The size of the rotor, or more specifically the diameter of its sweeping surface, restricted to the technical requirements—length of the model itself. The increase is due to the folding blades, which undoubtedly increases the degree of risk in disclosure. But it should be noted that in this way are many athletes. With the exception, perhaps, of the poles. They are the adherents of the other schema: blade—one-piece, with a strongly curved profile and a large number six. The most popular scheme is three-lobed, with straight and swept wings-blades. Similar models were Atonio, Maserati and Anastasia Mayboroda.
 
In command offset victory among juniors was celebrated by rocketmodeler Russia, in second place—the team of Ukraine, and the “rocket scientists” of Poland. Among the first adults were also sportsmen from Russia, the second—the Polish modelers, third—team Slovakia. In the same order they are located and United in the team standings.
 
V. ROZHKOV

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