FORERUNNERS OF SPACEFLIGHTIn September 1931 under the Central Council osoaviahima of the USSR in the Bureau of air technology was organized by the Group of jet propulsion study (gird). Its first Chairman was the enthusiast of interplanetary flights, by F. A. Tsander. The group has launched a scientific advocacy of missile technology and was the initiator of the campaign, “the assault On the stratosphere”.

Osoaviakhim paid great attention to the training of rocket scientists. In the spring of 1932 when Gird was organized by the engineering courses on rocket engineering is a kind of short-term Institute.
In April 1932 gird got a room in the basement of the house number 19 on Sadovaya-Spasskaya street in Moscow, where he created an experimental plant, which became the birthplace of the first Soviet liquid-propellant rockets. The successful operation Gird has led to the fact that in 1932, the group was transformed from public into public research organization, which since may 1, 1932, was headed by S. P. Korolev.
In Gird had four design teams. First developed liquid-propellant rocket engines and designed liquid rocket gird-X. This team was headed by F. A. Tsander. The second team Hydra, led by the experienced aircraft designer
By K. M. Tikhonravov designed liquid rocket and created a pump unit for supplying fuel into the chamber rocket engine.
The third brigade, which was headed by Yu. a. Pobedonostsev, was developed and tested on bench and in flight the world’s first ramjet engines gird-08. The fourth brigade of Gird, which was led by S. P. Korolev, designed the world’s first cruise liquid rocket, the gird-06 and started to conduct flight tests based on the glider B. I. Haranoskogo BEACH X1 rocket plane gird RP-1, for which the team of F. A. Tsander developed the rocket engine.
ROCKET “07” (R-2):
1 — nose cone, 2 — relief device fairing, 3 — a place to parachute, 4 — pressure accumulator (compressed air up to 150 ATM), 5 — instrument compartment, 6 — reduction valve, 7-pipeline, 8 — atomizer fuel 9 — fuel tank, 10 — tank for liquid oxygen, 11 — spar (longitudinal stiffness), 12 — jet engine, “02”, 13 — rib, 14 — fuel pipeline system, 15 — the pipeline of oxygen supply into the combustion chamber, 16 — stabilizer, 17 — covering of the stabilizer, 18 — ending of the stabilizer.

The first Soviet rocket, soaring into the sky of our homeland, was a rocket designed by M. K. tihonravova “09”. Her flight on 17 August 1933 marked the birth of Soviet rocket. November 6 was the second flight of the upgraded prototype of the rocket, the designation “13”. And on 25 November in the city launched a second rocket gird, design of which began under the leadership of F. A. Tsander, — gird-x In 1933 Gird, the team designed and built another two liquid rockets, “07” and “05” which has subsequently made several flights.
Assessing the scientific results of construction and testing of the first Soviet liquid-propellant rockets, M. K. Tikhonravov wrote: “the test Results made a great scientific material and helped to clarify the direction of further research and development work”.
Dimensions, m:
length …. 2,01
the scope ….. 1,074
Engine thrust, n. p. 85
The maximum range
flight km … 4
engine operation … 22

The decision team Girda problems of creation of liquid rocket had a great influence on the further development of rocket technology in the Soviet Union.
“The first flights of rockets Gird — recalled M. K. Tikhonravov, and has proven that our science, technology and industry have already reached the level required for the successful development of the rocket that the team of Soviet rocket scientists capable of solving complex problems of design of aircraft structures”.

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