THE LAST CAR ENZO FERRARI

THE LAST CAR ENZO FERRARI

SNCO Ferrari, the famous racing driver and sports car designer, was born in 1898 in the Italian city of Modena. By the will of Providence was the same age as the car, Enzo already in his youth became a great racing driver. After the First world war, he entered the famous team of riders firm CMN, and in 1920, Ferrari was invited to head the racing team of the famous car company Аlfа Romeo, making him also the functions of the racing driver and driver-tester.

Nine years later, Ferrari has set up his own racing team called Skuderia Ferrari (“Ferrari Stable”), Signature her mark was selected as a rearing black horse, seen as the Enzo on the fuselage of the aircraft of Italian ACE Francesco Barak. From now on, this logo was present on all his cars. The main task of the team was the improvement of racing cars firms whitelam. However, Enzo has not yet could the firstborn be your name – the fact that, in accordance with the contract between Alfa Romeo.
 
At the end of the 1930-ies Enzo Ferrari created the company Auto Avio Construzioni. It was here he developed and built his first car model “815” with 1.5-liter engine. However, Enzo has not yet could the firstborn be your name – the fact that, in accordance with the contract between Alfa Romeo and Auto Avio Construzioni, Ferrari pledged over four years to produce its own cars. In 1940 riders of the firm of A. and Oscar L. Rangoni by car model “815” in the race “Mille Miglia”, but, unfortunately, the prizes they didn’t.
 
At the beginning of the Second world war, Ferrari evacuated his company to the town of Maranello, located 20 km from Modena. However, this did not save the enterprise from attacks by British and American bombers.
In 1946, Ferrari was able to recover the company and to establish production sports cars Ferrari 125 GT 12-cylinder, V-neck 72-horsepower engine capacity of 1,497 l. Significant that this car became the first bearing the name of a great racer and designer.
 
For the first Ferrari followed racing model 125S, 159S and 166 V12 design engineer Gioachino Colombo. As for them, a distinctive feature of these engines was the presence of one camshaft in each cylinder head.
 
The first runs of these cars racing on the track in Piacenza in may of 1946, he failed – three laps to the finish line in the lead up to this rider Franco Cortese went off track. However, in the next race – “Grand prize of Rome” – new cars brought victory to the team of Enzo Ferrari.
 
A prototype of a racing formula 1 car, dubbed the Ferrari 125, was first introduced to the public in 1948. In the future, it has been repeatedly modernized under the leadership of Aurelio Lampredi, technical Director of the company. A racing car equipped with the two-stage rotary compressor Roots and cylinder heads with two camshafts, which increased the engine power from 230 to 280 HP, and developed a new suspension type De Dion.
 
In racing cars the main attention paid Ferrari power units, continually seeking opportunities to increase capacity. So, the new V 12 engine with a cylinder capacity of 3,322 l had 300 HP, the next 4,101-liter – 335 HP, and finally a motor with a displacement of 4,439 l reached 350 h. p. These engines were equipped with racing car 275.F1 and 340 F1 and 375 F1. The latest in this series the car was a worthy competitor of a race car company Alfa Romeo – July 14, 1951, the Argentine Froilan Gonzales on the English track in Silverstone won her Big prize competitions.
 
In 1962 Enzo Ferrari in accordance with the new technical requirements, developed the design of the Ferrari 500 F. 2 with 2-liter four-cylinder engine, thus changing your addiction to the 12-cylinder power units. As it turned out, the car with an economical engine that allows you to go the distance races without intermediate stops for refueling, proved to be competitive compared to the more powerful and fast opponents. In 1953 – 1955 the famous racing driver Alberto Oscar Ferrari 500 twice became the champion of the world.
 
Releasing a racing car, Ferrari did not leave dreams of creation of sports cars for their General sale. The first such vehicle was the Ferrari 375 America with a body of Pininfarina company, followed by a Ferrari 500 Mondial and 750 Monza Ferrari.
 
In the mid 1960-ies the design Bureau of the Ferrari started to develop the rear-engined racing cars. It should be noted that the sports model of the highest class (Ferrari 375 GTB and the Ferrari 330 GT) had a front engine layout.
 
Classic sports car Ferrari is considered the model 365 GTB/4 with a 12-cylinder 4,39-lit-rovym engine, capable of speeds up to 280 km/h. On the second place experts put the Ferrari 308 GTB/GTS with the Central location of the 12-cylinder motor and on the third – Ferrari 400 GT engine V 12. All three cars were fitted with bodies of the company Pininfarina.
 
Geometric diagram of sports car Ferrari F40
Geometric diagram of sports car Ferrari F40
 
In 1966 Ferrari began to use the names of cars brand Dino – in memory of his early deceased Alfredina son (Alfredino), a talented designer, has created a series engines V-6 for light racing cars. Such 6-cylinder engines with cylinder capacity of 1.5 l was the decision of the International automobile Federation in 1967 equipped the cars “Formula 2”.
 
Soon the same 1.6-liter engine was installed on the sports car Dino-166S, and then based on it released Dino 206S with 2-liter engine, which racing driver Ludovico Scarfiotti won first place in the European championship of mountain races.
 
Enzo Ferrari has long wanted to try his hand in the vehicle class Grand Tourismo. To do a couple of cars in this class for the Ferrari complexity did not represent, however, the competition in this class were only permitted production samples, production of which was not less than 500 cars. To provide such “circulation”, Ferrari had to sign an agreement with FIAT first took up the development of engines, and the second, in turn, provided the release required number of production cars.
 
In the process of joint activities revealed that the FIAT is very advantageous to have a branch engaged in the development of small scale of high-speed cars, and in 1969, FIAT offered the office of Enzo Ferrari more closely. The transaction took place, while Ferrari retained
the right independent life branch management.
 
The Union of the two firms has been very productive and already in the early 1970-ies there was a serial production of super-expensive sports and racing cars of a high technological level, designed for professional racers and wealthy car enthusiasts. The first such car was the Ferrari 512ВВ, the production of which was launched in 1973. He was followed by Ferrari models and Ferrari 512TR 512ТМ – latest engine developed the power of 440 HP, allowing the car cost 200 thousand dollars to accelerate to the speed of 315 km/h supercar is the Last of this series was the Ferrari 550 Maranello with 485-horsepower V-shaped 12-cylinder power unit.
 
Simultaneously, the branch developed and less expensive models: in 1980 a quadruple Ferrari Mondial Central location, the V8 engine in the 1989 Ferrari 348TS Ferrari 348ТВ with 3,405-liter engine. The brightest in the constellation, sports cars have become superexpensive models, modeled after a racing car class “Formula 1”. In particular, it relates was produced from 1987 small series model Ferrari F40.
 
Since the creation of the legendary Ferrari F40 has been more than 25 years, and over the years there were many racing car, earned the reputation of “the fastest in the world.” But it was the Ferrari F40, built in the heyday of the mechanics and almost complete absence of electronic components in vehicle construction, thus became a sports car that
required the racer full communion with his well-honed mechanics.
 
The Ferrari F40 was designed to win over eternal rivals of Ferrari racing cars the Porsche 959 and Lamborghini Countach. The fact that in recent years, the number of victories of the racers from team Ferrari decreased significantly. Even in the class “Formula-1” the victory become a rare event. Enzo Ferrari by the time 90 years old, and time was not on his side. Their new sports car-the winner he wanted to put a spectacular end to his professional achievements.
 
Based on the F40 took the Ferrari 288 GTO of the class of 1984, which although was designed for racing, but, nevertheless, in competitions not yet participated. The machine, however, was in great demand among professionals and wealthy enthusiasts, and prompted Enzo Ferrari to create the F40. Since the adoption of the decision on the beginning of the design of the F40 before running it in production only one year has passed.
 
The main goal when developing the bodyshell of the new sports car was the maximum reduction of its mass. That is what is focused designers and engineers. As a result, the Ferrari F40 was designed superlibrary body, consisting of lightweight space farm from an aluminum alloy and the sheath of heavy-duty carbon fiber.
The Ferrari F40 was the first car design which used composite materials – even before they were used in the model of the Ferrari GTO, but it was at F40 the body was entirely made of these materials. To reduce the weight of the car had to sacrifice even the comfort of the rider, removing the cockpit, all optional equipment – electric Windows, audio system and so on. Left only the most necessary, and most importantly – air conditioning, without which ride on the F40 was simply unthinkable, because a powerful engine is strongly heated the cabin. To further reduce the weight of the F40 sometimes completed Windows of plexiglass instead of the usual, heavier glass. And seat lightweight design had no adjustment – when ordering F40 with the future owner of the car was measured and the set is already tailored to his seat.
 
The decor and appearance Fеггаri F40, tried to make it as similar to a racing car, equipping it with a huge wing and lots of air intakes. In the end, the appearance of the car was powerful and even dangerous, and the machine itself is very trebovalos to control, because there was almost no electronic components: antibio-kirovckoe systems, traction control systems and electronic stability and other control devices. According to the concept of Ferrari, the driver had full control of the car.
 
The front of the cabin of the Ferrari F40
The front of the cabin of the Ferrari F40
 
Under the hood was located a V-8 engine with a dual turbocharger system with a capacity of 478 HP Engine had dual overhead camshaft on each cylinder block and the valve 32, each of which was equipped with a pair of injectors, which improved filling of the combustion chamber at the cylinder cover and piston crown. System electronic engine control, ignition and injection fuel supply system was developed by IAW. When the working volume of the cylinder 2,936 l engine Fеггаri F40 developed the power to 478 HP at the engine speed of 7000 rpm./This was an outstanding result for the middle of the 1980-ies, which did Fеггаri F40 fastest car of its time. Its dynamic performance – acceleration to 100 km/h in 3.8 s and a top speed of 321 km/h a few years has remained elusive indicators for competitors.
 
The body was mounted on a platform with a wheelbase of 2,450 mm, the same as ATT, but both the front and rear track was widened, and the total length was increased due to the long “aerodynamic” nose.
 
The Layout Of The Ferrari F-40
 
The Layout Of The Ferrari F-40
The Layout Of The Ferrari F-40
 
The basis of the design of the car body – spatial farm from metal pipes. To its compliance with the safety requirements adopted today, almost all countries of the world, the front of the car made consistently crushed in a frontal impact. Outer body panels were mostly composite, and according to this indicator, the F40 became the first leader among other production cars.
 
While on ATT rear body section is fastened by bolts, which facilitates the access to the engine on the F40 such a construction is not required, since the rear section was removed completely.
 
Five-spoke light-alloy wheels manufactured by SpeedLine (8Jx17 front” and rear 10Jx17”) is attached to the hub by a Central nut. For discs located perforated ventilated brake discs with two hydraulic actuators, devoid of any amplifiers. In the design of an independent suspension used a tubular wishbones, coil springs, hydraulic shock absorbers and levers roll bars front and rear. In the course of production as the option began to offer customers the suspension with variable clearance electronics.
 
The Ferrari F40 was presented to the public at the Frankfurt motor show 1987. The car premiere was timed to the 40th anniversary of the company, which is reflected in the model’s name – the F40, the last created during the life of Enzo Ferrari. At the presentation Maestro said that the Ferrari F40 is the best car in the history of his firm.
 
New superfast and superexpensive car immediately became wildly popular in the narrow circle of wealthy motorists. Among the first buyers F40 was a famous footballer Diego Maradona and no less famous boxer Mike Tyson.
 
Initially, the company Ferrari planned to produce only 400 cars F40, but the demand for it, despite the huge cost (about $ 300 000!), significantly oversubscribed. In the end, the company more than three times increased production, and by 1992, produced a 1311 copies.
 
Reggae P40 was not intended for competition, but in 1989 its racing version debuted in the IMSA race on the track Laguna Seca in a class of DTO, finishing third. In the future, the F40 has become popular with private riders participating in the race series ST.
 
In 1994 the car for the first time participated in international competitions, but lost them in the car McLaren F1 GTR. However, a year later, Reggae P40 still got a victorious revenge in a race in the city of Anderstorp, his last speech in the class GT.
 
The Ferrari F40 is considered the embodiment of the technical ideas of its Creator Enzo Ferrari, for whom this car was a great end to his illustrious career of racing driver, designer and organizer.
Igor EVSTRATOV

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