START FROM THE DUCE

START FROM THE DUCEWe left the Italian fleet during the “great war”. Unlike France, Italy is not as strongly experienced its hardships; in fact, the only really available to the enemy, Austria-Hungary, “processed” beyond its fleet. The allies have allocated more than sufficient power. So, the Italians stayed mainly to prevent possible attacks of the Austrians against their shores. And to continue the development of all marine weapons, including, of course, and so “fashionable” submarine forces.

 

The construction of the submarines has been actively continued during the war, both in the development of existing varieties and create new types. On the first version of their “exercise on” continued, in particular, Curio Bernardes. The project is quite successful “Nautilus” and “Nereid” was further amended. In particular, provided for the installation of 76-mm anti-aircraft guns, and the cabin was supposed to be made of low steel, for better performance of the compass. In other respects, particularly in hull shapes, a new type of “N” repeating “the Nereid”. For Italy the war began, and the government has provided directly to the six units, four of which went to the venerable firm “Ansaldo”, and two “Tozi”, mostly engaged in engines. And, oddly enough, this pair has turned out most successful. By the end of 1915, the Italians have learned to do quite a decent diesel engines and production of the “Tosi” were powerful enough and very economical. In the end, “N-5” and “N-6” and had greater speed and increased range compared to their “sisters” from “Ansaldo”.
 
However, they were commissioned considerably later, in 1918, and boats from “Tosi” – after the end of the war. All lived not too long (until the middle of 1930-ies), but very serene life. No accidents, no big trips or, especially, action.
 
But the same Bernardis had the opportunity to create, recreate and more interesting type of submarine. Shortly after the war Italy insulted “a betrayal of an ally” the Germans sent into the Mediterranean sea a few submarine mine-layers. One of them was the “UC-12” and transferred to the exploded view in the Floor and re-assembled and launched. Within six months the boat safely lay mines, as it should be, “by itself” until March 6, 1916 during the regular productions at the entrance to the Italian base at Taranto known inferiority of this method finally worked. Explosion of own mines, and the boat instantly went to the bottom.
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “N-1”, Italy, 1918
 
Built at the shipyard company “Ansaldo” in Sestri Ponente. Design type – double-hulled. Displacement overwater/underwater – 275/365 t Dimensions: length – of 45.90 m, width 4,28 m draught 3.17 m diving Depth up to 40 m Powerplant: two diesel engines with a power of 650 HP and 2 electric motor producing 400 HP Speed overwater/underwater – 12,5/7,7 bonds. Armament: two 450mm torpedo tubes in the nose (4 torpedoes), one 76-mm anti-aircraft gun. The crew of 23 people. In 1916 – 1919 built six units: “N-1” – “N-6”. All excluded from the lists in the late 1920s – early 1930s.

 
Underwater frontier
 
Underwater frontier “X 2”, Italy, 1918
 
Built at the shipyard company “Ansaldo” in Sestri. Design type – double-hulled. Displacement underwater/surface – 410/470 t Dimensions: length – 47.1 m, width – 5.1 m, draft – 3.06 m.. immersion Depth up to 55 m. Powerplant: two diesel engines with a power of 660 HP and 2 electric motors with a capacity of 640 HP Speed overwater/underwater – 8,25/6,25 bonds. Armament: six 450 mm torpedo tubes (two in the bow and stern and two lattice – external, eight torpedoes), one 76-mm antiaircraft cannon, 18 min. Soon after coming into service in the early 1920s, installed two 450-mm torpedo tubes. The crew of 25 people. In 1918 built two units: “X-2” and “X-3”. Both delisting on 10 October 1946

 
This event occurred at a distance of only one mile from the shore, was not lost on the Italians. Divers examined the remains of the submarine, and found that the hull of the boat broken by the explosion into two parts, which sank at a depth of about 30 m Followed the decision of the leadership of the fleet to raise the boat. It has managed to hold surprisingly quickly (given the very strong destruction), in just two weeks. Raised the submarine then towed to the Arsenal of Taranto, and then Bernardes, who by that time already a Colonel, received the trophy for study and restoration.
 
The fuss over the German boats very specific destination is clear: an unexpected “gift” was just what we needed. The Royal Navy not only had their own submarine mine-layers, but I didn’t no their building and even had their own project developments. It is clear that the trophy was immediately seized. “UC-12” quickly restored, despite the fact that the stern was literally torn down by the explosion, and the volume of work was very significant: on the submarine had to change most of the equipment and overhaul repair diesel, for which there were no spare parts. Had to use the domestic works managed to finish in the same 1916, and the boat launched for the third time in her short life. Frontier has received the designation “X-1”. And in April of 1917 a new combat unit, the “Regia Marina Italiana” has already started the production of minefields, is now an enemy of the Adriatic coast.
 
Meanwhile, even before the full “revival” of “UC-12” Bernardes commenced the second part of the task. Carefully examining a trophy, a military engineer has developed and significantly improved the draft of the underwater mintage. He kept the German principle of laying mines, but increased the size of the boat doubled, and the number of accepted “gifts” from six to nine. In August 1916 the project was completed and immediately began to bring in metal. Although the drawings of the Italian designer for all key parameters is fundamentally different from the original German, “UC-12”, two laid in the same year at the shipyard “Ansaldo” in Genoa and units as it has decided to merge with the former “German” to General type “X”, giving them the designation “X-2” and “X-3”. They managed to build a surprisingly fast for the then Italy – craft even managed to take part in the war, putting a few jars of mine at the Austrian coast.
 
However, the main task was the final development of the unusual German setting device min. And not only. After the first outputs from the sea have revealed that the contours of the NASAL tip failed. Both boats returned to the Wharf and built a housing on the sides. And again failure: the case has only worsened, now a fore end gaining “emergency” ballast, and the boat had a regular trim on the nose in the surface position, which ultimately ruined seaworthiness. The submarine returned to the shipyard where built on the front side sewed on top of the metal sheets. Now “x” has finally acquired a more or less decent seaworthiness.
 
After the war, “prototype” – “X-1” is immediately sent to be scrapped, but the products Bernardis managed to survive until the next world war. In the early 1920s, they considerably rebuilt, increasing the cutting height for the sample of captured German submarines, and setting two torpedo tubes. However, the Italians knew that their real combat characteristics and capabilities were very limited and does not meet the requirements. So in 1940 they were sent to stand against the wall, removing all weapons and most equipment. In this state, they survived the capitulation of Italy, her move to the side of the allies, ending world war II and only at the end of 1946 they were excluded from the lists is greatly reduced by the time the Italian Navy, who were among the vanquished.
 
Special attention is given another interesting subclass of “submarines of the Apennines,” which could be called national. Indeed, in Italy first tried to create and, in the end, created a little bit of efficient miniature submarines. Although, as we know, is quite small submarines were built in the “baby” stages of development of the underwater case practically in all leading countries, but their capabilities remain extremely doubtful. Recall the German “gift” of our fleet, the submarine “Trout”.
 
However, the Italians it went not immediately. Before the start of the First world war, in 1913 at the Royal Arsenal in Venice was built two underwater crumbs on electricity with a total length of six meters. These “things” called without excessive ingenuity “alpha” and “Beta” is called rather “polupodvizhnym” as they swam, holding his mini-cabin over the water. Although the motor is allowed to “passport” to develop up to eight nodes, the battery capacity is not enough even for a hour. Meant “semi-submarine” for patrol service over the naval base, but no actual use of them is not planned. From a record low life expectancy: after a couple of years they were removed from service, which, in essence, has not begun.
 
Small submarine
 
Small submarine “A-1”, Italy, 1915
 
Based on hovery in Spices. Type of construction – single -. Displacement overwater/ underwater – 31/37 t Dimensions: length is 13.50 m, width – 2,22 m draught 2,27 m immersion Depth up to 50 m. Powerplant: one electric motor with a capacity of 45 HP Speed surface/ submarine 6,75/5 ties. Armament – two 450-mm outer torpedo tube open. The crew – four people. In 1915 – 1916 built six units: “A-1” “A-6”. All disarmed in January 1918 and later in the same year are excluded from the list

 
Small submarine
 
Small submarine “b-1”, Italy, in 1916
 
Based on hovery in Spices. Type of construction – single -. Displacement overwater/ underwater 40/46 t Dimensions: length – of 15.12 m, width – 2.32 m, maximum draught of 2.56 m. the immersion Depth up to 50 m propulsion: one petrol engine capacity of 85 HP and one electric motor power 50 HP Speed overwater/underwater – 7/5 bonds. Armament – two 450 mm torpedo tubes in the nose. The crew – five men. In 1916 built three units: “1” – “v3”. Excluded from the lists in 1918 – 1919

 
But the tenacity of Italians deserves respect: along with the resignation of the “Greek letters” in 1915, on another Arsenal in La Spezia, opened the building following a series of small boats designed for the protection of their bases. This time – practical, since Italy entered the war. Designed by the naval General (in the Apennine Kingdom, there were and are) Edgardo Ferrati mini-submarines, which entered into operation mainly in 1916, and like its predecessor, had only a motor and a battery that had to recharge solely at the pier. But at least, unlike their predecessors, they were able to fully immerse yourself. The structure was simplified to the limit: simple round-shaped case with ballast tanks inside, pointed tip, a cylindrical cabin with a fixed gear(!) periscope. Cheap, but not very practical.
 
Just Arsenal “has here” six of these units received the designation “A” and corresponding number. The main task they were assigned the defense of the ports of the Adriatic coast of Italy, facing the main enemy, Austria-Hungary. Originally intended to use them to protect bases in Brindisi and Valognes (in Albania). However, almost immediately it became clear that their distance (12 miles on the surface and one and a half times less under water, and in this case with a speed of just four knots) is much smaller than the distance from neznamena them patrolling areas. Wonder: lead-acid batteries of the time had too small capacity. The usefulness of such boats in combat for the protection of databases, called well-founded doubts.
 
Had to find little girls more appropriate application. The Spice remains only the parent “A-1”, two boats (“A-2” and “4”) transported by rail to the port of Bari (it even built a special conveyor), and the remaining three were sent to Venice. “The Venetian” local command tried to use more actively, sending them to tow the destroyers in the port area of Grado for action in the Gulf Pensano. But surgery is in his combat phase never took place and was towed to Ancona, where mini-submarines successfully stood until January 1918, when they were expelled from the Navy because of an apparent inability to find applications. In General, the service “mini-A” is hardly useful.
 
Perhaps the main reason was in short range speed and the ability to recharge the battery only in the database. Asking the only possible solution: add the usual “heat” engine. As such chose the gasoline engines that gave a decisive result: the range of the surface position immediately increased 10 times and decreased 5-key move it has reached more than 200 miles. A new battery has unexpectedly resulted in a marked increase and range underwater – it also exceeded that of type A, although with a completely “turtle” in the course of three nodes. Another important innovation was the moving of torpedoes in the devices located inside the enclosure (“A” they were in the open holders). Otherwise, the appearance and layout of the boats of a new type “In” almost completely repeated its predecessors. By the way, came handy and were in Spices A-1, which was used for crew training built units. Initially they were supposed to build too, but in the end, was limited to only half of that number. And the constant crash of engines has led to the fact that they were installed only on the first two. In early 1917, “In-1” and “2” were transported from La Spezia to Bari, where they replaced the “A-2” and “4” is sent to “retire”. Both pretty much sailed in coastal waters, but the real participation in hostilities did not accept. And their “sister” “In-3” remained in Venice, mostly ottawas at the wall. In June 1918, disarmed her. And immediately after the war, the reserve was taken and the remaining “active” couple.
 
In General, the 1920-ies started for Italy, like other European winners, is not favorable. All the countries were badly devastated by the war, and Italy is no exception, which affected, in particular, on the development of the submarine fleet. Ending the war with a substantial number of boats – 56 “Regia Marina” has started with the exception of the most old and “sick”, leaving the ranks of about 40 units. Building new was not conducted at all.
 
Although submarines moderate displacement was still dominated by the Italian Royal Navy, Imperial ambitions, only increased with the coming to power of Mussolini in 1922, and dictated his will. “The Empire must have ocean-going fleet” at any cost are the main slogan in this area is proclaimed by the Duce. In particular, it was, of course, about the ocean and boats. This subclass has received the designation of “amarilli di Grande deslocamento”, “submarines of large displacement,” although it began a “large” with only a thousand tons.
 
However, the first series of submarines, considered by the Italians to a large, irrelevant to the Duce and his “ocean” has not. First-borns were six units of the “Pietro micca”, founded three pieces in late 1915 and early 1916. In fact, increased to 830 tons displacement boats talks about their, still typical of the “sea,” not ocean destination. So it was: in the technical specification issued by the engineering team of the Royal Arsenal in La Spezia and oversaw their work the captain of 1 rank Cavalini mentioned only the possibility of a long stay in the sea, better seaworthiness and speed. And all that remains for the conditions of the native Mediterranean sea.
 
However, when designing, the designers have made many fundamental innovations compared to previous “Laurentina”. They used a fully dvuhkonusnyh design with a cylindrical inner case and a very “noble” form, reminiscent of the old destroyers.
 
Despite the seemingly decent performance, these “big” boats after the war finally was in the position of “between two chairs”. On the one hand, they clearly did not meet the requirements of ambitious Nazis, actively engaged in the Royal Navy for ocean operations, these subs still not particularly good. On the other hand, as a medium submarines were too large and expensive to operate. More preferable seemed to build new, rather than “pull” to the desired level “Pietro micca” and “sistership”, a situation that has been repeated subsequently, and with the newer types. Submarines after the “great war” have become “mass product”, which was easier to throw away than to bring in a proper state, and in Italy. Moreover, the formal figures data conceal serious deficiencies, e.g., poor maneuverability. Besides, they failed and fiatovskie diesels, lumassina almost as often as the pre-war production of the main Italian automotive group. As a result, neither one of the boats of this type, in contrast to the more humble representatives of the truly eternal “hollandsche tribe” or “type 14”, did not live up to the 2nd World war. And the four of them left the fleet after only 10-12 years in its composition, and shy even to the 1930-ies.
 
Then in the construction of the submarine fleet, as we have noted, came a break. But that would not speak about the Nazis to create a vast and far-reaching plans they could. And not always foolish and reckless. In the first phase, from the mid-1920-ies, it was assumed only the development of prototypes of submarines of different sizes and build them in small batches. Then was to follow the refinement with the additional construction of a small series, similar to the first. These stages are expected to be completed by the beginning of 1930-ies, after which the ability to quickly increase production, relying solely on their own strength, that is, the domestic shipyards and materials, not to mention designers.
 
According to foreign experts, the Italians were technically in the same way that “sons” Yamato: copying foreign models, with a gradual adaptation to domestic conditions of production. Partly it was: as a prototype, the designers used the inherited Italy German submarine, while “peeping” for projects of the same English. And capacity of the shipbuilding industry is simply not allowed to build a lot of units, especially the ocean “underwater predators”. So they had to be limited to small batches, from two to four units. But this disadvantage had as the reverse side of its advantages, namely, flexibility. In each subsequent mini-series were able to implement specific improvements, even in places seemingly insignificant, but improve as the ships themselves, and the conditions of life and work on them crew members.
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Pietro micca”, Italy, 1917
 
Based on hovery in Spices. Type of construction – single -. Displacement overwater/underwater – 842/1245 t Dimensions: length – 63,2 m, a width of 6.21 m, maximum draught of 4.26 m. the immersion Depth up to 50 m. Powerplant: two diesel engines with a power of 2600 HP and two electric motors with a power of 1300 HP Speed overwater/underwater – 14,5/11 ties. Armament: six 450mm torpedo tubes (four in the nose and two in the stern, 8 torpedoes), two 76-mm guns. The crew of 40 people. In 1917-1919 built six units: “Pietro micca”, “Luigi Galvani”, “tor-ricelli”, “Angelo Emo”, “Lorenzo Marcello” and “Lazaro Mocenigo”. Excluded from the lists in the 1930 – 1938

 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Balilla”, Italy, 1928
 
Built at the shipyard company “OTO” in Muggiano. Design type – double-hulled. Displacement underwater/surface – 1430/1875 t Dimensions: length – 86,5 m, a width of 7.80 m, maximum draught of 4.72 m. the immersion Depth up to 120 m. Power plant: two diesel engines with a capacity of 4900 HP, one auxiliary diesel engine power 425 HP two electric motors with a power of 2200 HP Speed surface/submarine (project) -17/9 uz, real 16/7,5 ties. Armament: six 533-mm torpedo tubes (four in the nose and two aft, 16 torpedoes), one 120-mm gun, two 13.2-mm machine gun, four mines. The crew of 77 people. In 1928 – 1929 built four units: “Balilla”, “Domenico Millelire”, “Antonio Sciesa” and “Enrico LTTE”. “Skeeza” is damaged by aircraft and beached on the shore in early September 1942, and later blown up by the crew. The other three excluded from the lists of the fleet: LTTE in April 1943, the other two two years before

 
Even the Italian engineers did not stop on blind copying. On the contrary, sometimes their projects were too advanced. As an example, can serve as the first “fascist” large type submarine “Balilla”. They were originally intended for “big things”: it was assumed that based in the ports of the Italian possessions in Africa, including in the Red sea, these boats can get out through the “window” of the Straits of Bab-El-Mandeb and Gibraltar into the open ocean, Indian or Atlantic, respectively. And to make it an “new order” in the shipping industry. Which required very long range (still very questionable deployment of this kind could not provide all needs) and decent speed on the surface, as well as a large supply of torpedoes and quite powerful artillery weapons. That the designers tried to provide.
 
On the basis of captured “German” “U-120”, they have created drawings extremely durable double casing of the boat surface with a displacement a little less than a thousand tons, had six torpedo tubes, and 120-mm gun (albeit short) and a few heavy machine guns. In addition, for all weapons there was a fair amount of ammunition for each of the four nasal apparatus had three sets of torpedo (one of them in the tubes and two spare). A pair of feed devices used only two torpedoes, and guns in a special cellar was kept, as many as 150 missiles, plus 6000 rounds for 13.2-mm machine guns. These weapons are not exhaustive: submarines could also lay mines, although very little, just four pieces. However, “on paper” “Balilla” looked very impressive. Especially if the fate of a “chip” as a small diesel for more power (425 HP), which, however, allowed to either travel at speeds up to seven knots, providing more than decent range of 13,000 miles, or charge batteries. Powerful diesel engines were included in the case if you need to catch a merchant ship or leave not very bright “hunter”: surface speed was expected to reach 17.5 knots.
 
However, as is often the case, attempts to fill a liter bottle with two liters of useful liquid lead exclusively to the pouring thereof. Overloaded with weapons, the first large submarine “from the Duce” was not sufficiently stable. And stated high speed was not achieved. And additional diesel in the subsequent types was not established: on the one hand, it proved insufficiently reliable as an engine for long “economic” campaigns, and took up precious space inside the pressure hull, which, as usual in underwater vehicles and it was in short supply. However, what strength to the hull enough – amazing for Italian ships, which are often accused of “too light construction.” “Balilla” and her sisters had full-time immersion depth 100 m – very, very well for the 1920-ies. Remember the “ocean” of the British, who in practice did not venture to plunge so deeply. But fans of the records from the Apennines risked: “Millelire” to the test without any problems and leaks to 135-meter depth.
 
In war the first ocean-going submarines of Italy in the far “trips” never came. They had to operate in the Mediterranean sea, where long and a few clumsy boats were “not busy”. The first year they were used quite actively, and “Tosi” managed to sink the British submarine “rainbow”, by interesting coincidence, also ocean type, too, “wandered” for a limited theater of war. But this success proved to be the only one. And in 1941, the first couple, “Balilla” and “Millelire”, put on a funny and expelled from the Navy, although the need for submarines at that time were sharp enough. The other pair is adapted for the support service: they were carrying important cargo for desperately needed troops of Rommel. There “Skeeza” and laid down his life: attacked by American aircraft, boat chose to jump ashore at Tobruk. Two months later, when the British troops had finally to lead into disrepair, that this “prize” (let’s face it, is highly questionable) does not fall into the hands of the enemy. And after six months, the last unit, “Enrico LTTE”, made up a story, going to suck with the subsequent cutting of the metal.
 
But let us return to the starting point, the end of 1920-ies. A year later, after a series of four “Ballin” were laid one big submarine, the author of which was immortal Bernardes. Tactical and technical data on the instructions were the same, but the approach to their implementation differed considerably. First, the designer used favorite them polutoraspalnoy scheme, which had a favourable impact on the stability. Second, the composition and quantity of weapons was extended further. Torpedo eight, and the same 120-mm gun complement now two paired 13.2-mm machine gun. But the main innovation was the attempt to introduce its own “underwater” hydroaviation, for the first time in the Italian Navy. Hangar for small aircraft located in the pretty “swollen” side of the superstructure. But, curiously, he remained empty! Of the aircraft for landing on the boat to create then failed, and one year after the entry of boats into operation, the hangar was dismantled. Formed some reserve the “top” of the weight, which allowed for artillery. Caliber guns remained the same 120-mm, but instead of “Shorty” has established quite powerful for submarines long-barreled (barrel length of 45 calibers) the gun.
 
With arms now everything seems to be settled, but the performance problems remained. “The Ettore Fieramosca” was sinking very slowly even for a large submarine and under water, acted like a cow on ice, hard-maneuvering and constantly “falling” into the depths. Driving performance also did not Shine: the stated surface speed of 19 knots could not be reached, however, and 9-node underwater, and the range was less than half that of “baller”. Oddly enough, all this has a positive effect on the fate of “lame”: it has safely passed the whole war, actually taking part in the hostilities in the beginning. Then there was a major accident: explosion of gases in the battery pits, and then cancelled “underwater aircraft carrier” stood immobilized. So the “Fieramosca” quietly endured the capitulation of Italy, the war with former allies, and only at the end of the Second world war, in 1946, went to be scrapped.
 
Almost at the same time, when the first “fascist” ocean boat, was created and implemented and the first post-war project of medium submarines. Developed by Cavallini in conjunction with a team of engineers “Tozi”, he also represented the German development of “standard” boats. And also not without innovation, involving primarily, as in the case of “ocean” units, in rugged case. And, accordingly, the large depth of immersion: head “Mameli” (a total for the project was built four submarine) managed to dive to the test by nearly 120 m.
 
However, more skoromniy compared to the “older friends” looked like weapons. Although average and also had six torpedo tubes, but the stock had only four nasal. 120-mm gun was too heavy – had to limit 102-graph paper. But this relief was obviously not enough. 800-ton boat just came out overloaded and not stable. On the surface, in fresh weather, had to choose the right course relative to the wave.
 
It’s pretty annoying commanders, and soon after the entry into operation of submarines equipped with additional modelkami-Boule on the sides. Stability actually increased, but fell down, especially the surface, which was less than two node. If we talk about cruising range, she has remained very modest, only 3,500 miles at a very moderate speed to eight knots. The same can be said about the under water range: 65 miles at a snail’s four nodes. Nevertheless, service first “average” was more active than the first ocean. They are regularly used for combat duties, replacing in 1942, the engines more powerful. Now the motors of the company “Tosi” are allowed to develop required according to the original project (and quite decent, even in mid-1940-ies) 17 knots. However, the “new clothes” were able to acquire only three units: “pier Capponi” did not live up to modernization, started at the bottom by a torpedo from the British submarine “Rorqual”. The rest have served their 20 years, going to be scrapped in 1948.
 
Submarine
 
Submarine “Goffredo Mameli”, Italy, 1928
 
Built at the shipyard company “Tosi”. Type of construction – single -. Displacement overwater/ underwater – 810/995 t Dimensions: length – 64,6 m, width – 6.51 m, draught – 4.3 m Depth – up to 120 m. Power plant: two diesel engines with a capacity of 3000 HP and two electric motors with a capacity of 1100 HP Speed surface/submarine (project) – 17,25/7,75 bonds, real – 15/7,2 uz. Armament: six 450mm torpedo tubes (four in the nose and two in the stern, 10 torpedoes), one 102 mm gun, two 13.2-mm machine gun. The crew of 49 people. In 1928 – 1929 built four units: “Goffredo Mameli”, “pier Capponi, Giovanni da Procida” and “Tito Speri”. “Cap-pony” sunk in March 1941, and the rest upgraded in 1942 with the installation of new diesel engines (speed on the surface – 17 bonds.), excluded from the lists in 1948

 
Submarine
 
Submarine “the Fratelli Bandiera”, Italy, 1930
 
Built at the shipyard of the company Type of structure is double-hulled. Displacement overwater/underwater – 940/1150 t Dimensions: length – 69,8 m, a width of 7.22 m, maximum draught of 5.18 m. the immersion Depth up to 100 m. Power plant: two diesel engines with a capacity of 3000 HP and two electric motors with a power of 1300 HP Speed surface/submarine (project) – 17,5/9 uz, the actual after installation of the Boule -15/8 ties. Armament: eight 533-mm torpedo tubes (four in the nose and four in the aft, 12 torpedoes), one 102 mm gun, two 13.2-mm machine gun. The crew of 51 people. In the 1930s built four units: “the Fratelli Bandiera”, “Santorre di Santarosa”, “Ciro Menotti” and “Luciano Manara”. “Santarosa” sunk the team in January 1943, the rest were sent to reserve in late 1942 and scrapped in 1948

 
As in the case of ocean boats, the average was also ordered to two designers. In parallel with the “product” of Cavallini, according to the same technical specification created your project and Bernardes. Of course, single-hulled, but with external tanks.
 
To them quickly, almost immediately after the entry into operation were added the same nedelki-Buli, because of different “authors” and the size of the disease by the Italian submarines of the first generation had all the same symptoms: too little lateral stability. Not surprising: heavy gun and machine guns is quite extensive and high superstructure, sharp lines designed to achieve high speed that highly promoted. By the way, the units of the type “Pisani” still managed to achieve project 17 knots when moving on the surface, but as the boats from the “Tozi”, she fell on the same two nodes after installation of the Boule. In General, the more “noble” contours of boat hulls Bernardis in conjunction with increased fuel did the trick. Under the same mechanisms range surface speed increased by more than a third (5,000 miles), and the underwater even more dramatically (by 50%). However, the military fate of all four units of the type “Pisani” were of little interest: they are considered “too slow and old” to use and upgrade and sent in on the joke in April 1942. This demonstrates once again the extreme relativity “primary” characteristics of submarines: like “Mameli” were no younger and before installing the new diesels have the same speed at a much shorter range. But they were left in the ranks, and Pisani, dismissed. However, some service continued, but on maloprotochnyh roles: “Bausan” turned into a floating fuel tank, and “Dienas” used in traditional “retirees” of the role of the station for charging younger “relatives”. The rest are just passed to a breaker.
 
And Bernardes continued to enhance their project by submitting in 1927, a new version of the “Pisani”, which a year later laid four units. The growth of displacement to 925 t on the surface has decided to increase the fuel capacity and range. Has increased slightly and arms by adding a pair of torpedo tubes in the stern. The rest of “the Brothers Bandiera” (“the Fratelli Bandiera”), in honor of the sons of the Austrian Admiral of Italian origin, Francesco, Attilio and Emilio Bandiera, called the parent submarine. (The patriots of Italy in 1844 went AWOL from the Austrian Navy, he joined an unsuccessful uprising in the Apennines, and was executed the same year). New boats differed little from their predecessors, moreover, have adopted their “disease”, first of all, the lack of stability. Had and to apply the already tested “medicine” -the installation of the Buli with the corresponding adverse consequences in the form of speed reduction. Desire Bernardica to improve contours for maximum speed on the surface in the end led to the opposite effect: a pointed fore end sought to penetrate the wave, which for low submarines are meant to dig into the water column. Had to redo the design of the bow, increasing its buoyancy. And in the course of the war, given the experience of fighting got rid of the vast superstructure, replacing it in 1942 on the smaller cabin type German boats. However, “brothers and company” it didn’t help: in the same year they finally demoted to the training, except “Santa Rosa”, which continued to work for all. It to work, because after the first year of the war, all units of this type were used as transports to deliver the necessary and important forces in North Africa. There “Santarosa” and ended his days. 19 Jan 1943, she ran aground at the entrance to Tripoli, where the next day it finished off with a torpedo dedicated to the British boat. To assure the Italians still blew the already mutilated body. The rest of the unit survived the war at the wall and was excluded from the lists of the fleet in the same day, the 1st of February 1948.
 
Practically on the same project with very small changes two years later was laid four units, usually allocated in a separate type of “Skualo”. They took over from their predecessors design, diesel engines and electric motors, weapons and most of the equipment. Of course, with the same disadvantages in respect of stability, which were eliminated by the same methods. And with the same story with the replacement of the cutting, which did not pass all units. Fate treated this cruelly four: the war managed to survive with only one head “Skualo”. “Tricko” went to the bottom after being hit by a torpedo from the British “Upholder” in March 1942, the “Delfino” sank a year later as a result of the accident, about a native of Taranto, and “chopped off” two months earlier was forced to rise to the surface for the last execution of the British destroyer “Pakenham”. However, the crew managed to sink the boat before the British tried to seize her.
 
So, step by step, stumbling on the same stones, Italian submarine fleet, however, “went to the people”. It is easy to see how ambition played its negative role: attempt to order and implement clearly too “advanced” driving characteristics lead to an unacceptable decrease of stability, additional three-dimensional works on installation of the Boule and, as a consequences, the deterioration of these characteristics. However, it is impossible not to mention a very decent strength buildings, good contours, and the quality of construction. The Italians are adamant about getting a rather ambiguous the characteristic of “people who know how to build ships, but do not know how to fight them”.
 
V. KOFMAN

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