ARMORED VEHICLES OF THE U.S. ARMY

ARMORED VEHICLES OF THE U.S. ARMYThe history of American wheeled armored vehicles rather unusual and in many ways instructive. Geopolitical position of the country protected it from land invasions. At the same time industrial level of the United States allowed to master the production of any military equipment.

 
At the beginning of the twentieth century, there have been many conflicts related to the redistribution of colonial possessions; the era of extensive seizure of unoccupied territories was also completed. Now the acquisition of new lands and markets was associated with local conflicts. The Russo-Japanese and Boer war demonstrated the high vulnerability of manpower and on the impact gun and machine-gun fire. The infantry needed protection, which was the armor.
 
In Europe in large numbers began to make the first armored, Austro – Daimler, Sharron-Nakashidze, Schneider, Bianchi, and others. American designers from overseas watched with interest for the search of possible solutions. Realize your ideas in metal of the chances they have had a bit: the us Congress was primarily worried about the development of the fleet, considering it the best remedy against any invasion. However, this policy was rather short-sighted: in the history of no examples where the development of one of the armed forces at the expense of others was justified.
 
Therefore a completely natural consequence was the horror of the average American in 1916, when America swept the news that Mexican rebels led by Pancho Villa on the armored vehicles advancing on the town of Columbus in new Mexico. The fright was largely false: the industrial and military power of Mexico was unlikely to seriously threaten the United States. However, in the United States has dramatically increased the rate of production of military vehicles and armored vehicles. Another incentive for this development was the participation of the American corps in the operations in Europe.
 
Davidson-Cadillac Armored Sagas.
 
Davidson-Cadillac Armored SAG.
 
Armored vehicle, the King Armored Car. 1915, composed of the 1st armored car battalion, U.S. army machine served in Haiti and Santo Domingo from 1919 to 1927.
 
The King armored car Armored Car mod. 1915, composed of the 1st armored car battalion, U.S. army machine served in Haiti and Santo Domingo from 1919 to 1927
 
Armored White Dodge mod. 1916 at Arsenal Rock island. Illinois, USA
 
Armored White Dodge mod. 1916 at Arsenal Rock island. Illinois, USA
 
In the early 1930s in his book “Tanks”, the famous Austrian expert on armored vehicles Fritz Heigl about the situation in the American bruneomitina spoke as follows: “If in the United States, a country Henry Ford and General motors – the modernization of the army not kept pace with conveyor system for automobile production, the reason is not the shortage of appropriate engineering personnel, but rather insufficient economic interest in the production of military vehicles”. It is impossible not to agree. However, in the 1930s, interest appeared.
 
During these years, the cavalry was almost the main native troops in the U.S. army: 15 regiments of cavalry, there were in armed forces, 18 regiments in the national guard and the 24th regiment in reserve. In accordance with the plans of command of the armed forces all these parts were supposed to be reformed into mechanized. 1933 experiments in this direction began in the 1st cavalry regiment, stationed in Fort Knox.
 
Note that, clearly trailing in the production of armored vehicles from Europe during the First world war, the Second world war the United States became one of the leading manufacturers of wheeled armored vehicles in the world.
 
In 1915, thirty cadets of the Northwestern military Academy, located in highland Park, Illinois, under the leadership of Colonel Royal P. Davidson was a series of military vehicles, including armored vehicles. They were created by the simple installation of the hulls on the chassis of commercial vehicles Cadillac with the wheel formula 4×2. The crew, called the Davidson-Cadillac 1915 Armored SAG consisted of three people. Over the driver’s head for a better overview was made of the dome. In the middle of the hull housed the gun Browning М1895, covered with 5-mm armored shields. It served two people. The sides of the hull had slits for firing personal weapons.
 
All made by the cadets of the armored cars drove in one unit -“the motorcade of Colonel Davidson”. It included reconnaissance vehicle for visual and instrumental exploration, two cars for telecommunication, mobile field kitchen with electric stove, ambulance, x-ray machine and operating table, car anti-aircraft gun, quartermaster car.
 
In June of the same year, “pillar of Davidson” went on a long run from Illinois to San Francisco, where was held the Panama Pacific international exhibition.
 
It sounds unusual, but mileage took place on American roads: the era of motorization in the United States in those years had not yet begun. The machine was not empty: they were used to transport the so-called Bells of Freedom (one of the relics of the American struggle for independence). The first “military convoy” was widely documented in the press and gained great fame. After the exhibition the cars were sent by train to the Academy in highland Park.
 
In General, the armored car, Davidson-Cadillac showed good performance, although mass-produce.
 
At the same time, the firm Armored Motor Car Company was built armored car called the King Armored Car. Until the end of 1916, he was tested in the army and the marine corps. Suspension it had the wheel formula 4×2 with dual rear wheels. Main characteristics King Dodge meet requirements of military orders and it was not followed. Perhaps the rejection of serial production of the machine due to their high cost, amounting to $ 10,000 for each unit. This, however, did not prevent the use of multiple machines in the composition of the marine corps in Haiti for several years after the end of the First world war.
 
The following year he released the armored vehicle, known as the King Armored Car Model E. Retaining the design of previous machines, engineers have tried to improve security by installing front and rear armor plates at large angles of inclination, and also made some changes to the design of the armored car. Changes were and arms – now it housed the Lewis machine gun in the turret, which had a sloping top plate.
 
However, the official history speaks only of combat units, in service with the National guard, but there’s a photograph in a French newspaper, where the Mack armored car depicted in the picture, taken on the Russian front. In Russia such machines could be only a part of the British armored division in the Locker-Lampson.
 
However, this is not the only mystery associated with Mack Armored Car: still preserved the already cannon modification of the armored car. And located the gun in the sponson, not the usual carriages on the roof. For the American armored sponsons uncharacteristic, it’s probably an English modification of the machine.
 
Truck chassis Jeffery Quad was one of the few relatively successful four-wheel-drive chassis of the First world war. Firm Thomas B. Jeffery Company was developed in 1913 by order of the military Department of the USA. On this chassis were produced 2-ton BES-bonnet truck Quad, designed by the son of the owner of the company Charles Jeffrey.
 
Jeffery Armored Car
 
Jeffery Armored Car
 
Jeffery Armored Car
 
Four-wheel drive army truck Jeffery Quad, which served as the basic model for armored cars
 
All-wheel-drive army truck Jeffery Quad, which served as the basic model for armored vehicles
 
In 1917, the engineers of the company on its own initiative, has developed the option of booking the Quad. The body of the machine was high enough that would make him a good target on the battlefield, but the crew of four people had his body of extra living space. The car put petrol Buda engine power 32 HP
 
Armament consisted of four 7.62-mm machine guns, Benet-Mercier, was placed on the sides of the building and two towers. Additionally, in stacking, there were two more machine guns.
 
American army is not interested in development because the military Commission did not like the large mass of the machine and its low running data. But still, a few armored cars were produced in 1918 by the British request and sent to India.
 
Note that the parameters equal in the car on this same chassis was released in Russia on the project of captain In the fuse.
 
At the end of the war a long time a large interest in the wheeled armoured vehicle US army is not particularly interested, considering them suitable only for near-field exploration. Only in 1931 engineers of the company James Cunningham Sonsand started looking chassis on which it was possible to create a more modern, at that time, heavy booking. Having considered many options, they have a basis for a three-axle truck chassis with the wheel formula 6×4 due to its high capacity. There was more space for the crew and also to install more powerful weapons and the placement of ammunition. So, the armament consisted of three machine guns: one 12.7-mm Colt-Browning М1921 2000 thousand rounds of ammunition and two 7.62-mm machine guns Browning М1919 with 3750 rounds.
 
The chassis consisted of three axes, two of which the rear was leading and had dual wheels.
 
The first two prototype armored car, which received the army designation of T4, went to trial in the same year. The machine made a favorable impression, and the military command ordered 10 units (according to others -20), later named M1 Dodge. The construction was carried out on the Rock Island Arsenal in Illinois and was completed in 1934 All adopted vehicles were at the disposal of the 1st cavalry regiment of the US army, where he actively operated until the end of the 1930s.
 
T4 Armored Car
 
T4 Armored Car
 
T7 Armored Car
 
T7 Armored Car
 
Light armored car T7 Armored Sagas. The prototype is built on the chassis of commercial vehicle in 1930.
 
Light armored car T7 Armored Sagas. The prototype is built on the chassis of commercial vehicle in 1930
 
The first major series of armored vehicles, consisting of several dozen units, was produced in 1935, It was a light reconnaissance armored car M1 Scout Sagas, the main purpose of which was in military intelligence and communication.
 
The designers of the company, Indiana Motor Division (a division of the White Motor Company) used the chassis of the private commercial car White, wheel formula 4×2, but some parts were developed from scratch.
 
The body of the armored car was assembled from rolled armor plates with a thickness of 6.35 to 12.7 mm and had a rather angular shape. The machine was equipped with 6-cylinder petrol engine Hercules JXC. Suspension, compared to the original design, has been upgraded – now the drive was carried out on all wheels, size of tyres which were 8,25×20 inches.
 
Armament comprised one 12.7-mm machine gun Colt-Browning М1921 front-mounted on the starboard side, and two 7.62-mm machine gun Browning М1919 firms that were on both sides, closer to the rear of the hull.
 
Sea trials were generally successful, the car could reach a maximum speed of 80 km/h.
 
The car of army evaluation Committee, and after construction on the Rock Island Arsenal three pre-production samples (numbers USA W-60205, USA W-60214 and USA W-60273), in 1935 the armored car was accepted for serial production under the designation M1 Scout Sagas. Most of the 73 vehicles produced were sent to the cavalry units, particularly the 1st cavalry division. Armored vehicles M1 were used only in the U.S., mainly for testing interactions of various arms and of training crews.
 
In 1938, the same company White Motor Company received the task to design a armored vehicle for reconnaissance, transporting soldiers, and towing light guns. The first prototype of this machine was presented at the end of the year and was named T7.
 
The armored car had an open body, welded from armor plates mounted in the chassis frame. A front plate of the hood 12 mm thick placed at an angle, the side armor is 7.62 mm, feed – 6.35 mm. At the sides of front doors installed to speed up disembarkation of the crew. Engine – 6-cylinder Hercules gasoline liquid-cooled 110 HP, wheel diagram with drive to all four wheels. Suspension drum in front of the radiator helped to overcome the oncoming obstacles. In the back could accommodate six infantrymen, ammunition, radio. Thus, the crew could walk up to eight people.
 
On the sides of the hull strengthened metallic rail on which you can move the machine guns of 12.7 mm and 7.62 mm.
 
In 1941, after some modifications T7 was adopted under a new designation МЗА1 Scout Sagas. In the same year began the serial production of armored vehicles in various modifications. One of them (index МЗА1Е1) petrol engine was replaced by diesel firm Buda, on the other (index МЗА1Е2) significantly increased the booking, the third (index МЗА1ЕЗ) – mounted 37-mm gun. Produced also commanding an armored vehicle with reinforced armor boards.
 
Armored МЗА1
 
Armored МЗА1:
 
1 – feed machine gun 7.62 mm Browning М1919А4; 2 – hinged top exit door; 3 – movable machine gun-turret M22; 4 – machine gun 12.7 mm Browning М2НВ; 5 – folding front armor plates; 6 – a spare can of gasoline; 7 – folding wall brancepeth; 8 – buffer spring-loaded drum; 9 – the front commander’s door; 10 – armored body; 11 – lateral viewing slot; 12 – breezelink peepholes bronelista; 13 – antenna; 14 – front of the radio antenna; 15 – slatted grille; 16 – layered bus 240-508; 17 – additional side machine gun 7.62 mm Browning М1919А4; 18 – rail-bus; 19 – towing device

 
For the protection of aviation, and the fire from the high houses on the armored car МЗА1Е2 Scout SAG installed a roof made of light armor. For firing of the machine guns was provided for folding shields
 
For the protection of aviation, and the fire from the high houses on the armored car МЗА1Е2 Scout SAG installed a roof made of light armor. For firing of the machine guns was provided for folding shields
 
Armored cars have adopted the reconnaissance battalions and cavalry squadrons of armored and infantry divisions. They were also used as a tractor anti-tank guns, ambulance and staff vehicles.
 
They were first used in battle in the Philippines in December 1941 – February 1942, during the period of serial production from 1941 to 1944 there were 20 918 units, 3034 of them were supplied to the USSR under lend-lease.
 
A powerful impetus to increase production of armored cars was ordered by the British purchasing Commission arrived in the U.S. in the second half of 1940, among others, the British introduced the tactical and technical requirements necessary medium and heavy armored cars. These machines are interested in American and military leadership. In particular, they showed the headquarters of the armored forces (Armored Force Board) and Anti-tank command (Tank Destroyer Command).
 
In July 1941, the weapons Department said the requirements for armored medium class all-wheel drive, armed with 37 mm gun in a rotating turret. From the variety of machines was selected two projects: T17 – Ford Motor company and Т17Е1 company Chevrolet.
 
Made by March 1942 the first prototype of the T17 was a very good machine at a thickness of reservations from about 17.8 to 50.8 mm (more powerful than most of the American tanks of the period).
 
The layout of the T17 was more like a tank. In the front was the office, in the middle is the fighting compartment in the stern of the hull mounted gasoline 8-cylinder engine Ford with a capacity of 90 HP Chassis had the drive to all six wheels with independent suspension.
 
The armament of the armored car also was not inferior to the tank. The tower in the twin installation the M24 has placed a 37-mm gun and 7.62-mm machine gun. To monitor the battlefield and conduct aimed fire in the turret mounted periscope and telescopic devices, in the bow of the armored vehicles had two periscope surveillance device used by the driver and his assistant. The crew consisted of four people.
 
The British purchasing Commission issued an order for the construction 2260 machines, giving them the name “the average armored car Deerhound”, and in July the total number was brought up to 3750 units, and this without waiting for the appearance of the prototype. In order to standardize the T17 with the remaining military vehicles, serial vehicles began to install engines Hercules JXD 110 HP
 
Ordering firm Ford performed a truly accelerated pace, passing from the conveyor 250 by January 1943 some of them were immediately sent to North Africa, where the British Expeditionary force was completed with the defeat of the Italo-German troops. However, the results of combat use disappointed the British, and the rest of the car remained in the United States.
 
The Americans also were not happy. T17 does not fit some of the requirements put forward by the American army, and as a result, dismantling a 37-mm gun, they were handed over to the military police. Finally, the project T17 was closed in February 1944,
 
Replaced the T17 armored car came Т17Е1, designed by designer E. McPherson from the company Chevrolet Motor Division, part of General Motors Corp. In March 1942 the first prototype was handed over for trials at the Aberdeen proving ground. Then there was factory tested brand on the ground in Michigan. In June of the same year the army received the armored car into service under the symbol M6. However, in the US this machine was received. Only a few units from 3844 issued from October 1942 to April 1944 remained for testing, the rest were sent to England, where they got the name Staghound (“Staghound”, “Hound”).
 
Armored car M6 Staghound is the heaviest of all involved in the Second world war. Its combat weight of 13.9 tons By weapons and the mobility of the match light tanks Stuard (Stuart) and inferior to him only at the time of booking.
 
The crew was five people: the driver, assistant driver (he is the shooter of course a machine gun), gunner, loader and commander (also a radioman).
 
M6 Staghound
 
M6 Staghound
 
Armament – 37 mm gun M6, stabilized in the vertical plane, three 7.62-mm machine gun Browning М1919А4 – paired with a gun, and anti-aircraft course and a 2-inch smoke launcher on the turret roof; there were also 11,43 mm submachine gun Thompson.
 
In the rear of the hull were two 6-cylinder carbureted inline engine Chevrolet/GMC 270 liquid cooled power 194 BHP Transmission semi-automatic Hydramatic, which included two four-speed gearbox, guitar and dual.
 
The latter allows you to disable the drive of the front axle, and also provided the movement of the armored car with one engine. In addition to the 340-litre fuel tank on the sides of the machine are additionally attached to two cylindrical tank with a capacity of 90 liters each. The car had independent suspension on semi-elliptic leaf springs and hydraulic shock absorbers.
 
Through the use of electro-hydraulic power steering Saginaw 580-DH-3, as well as hydraulic brakes Bendix-Hydrovac vacuum amplifier control almost 14-ton war machine was not heavier than a passenger car. All machines installed English radio station No. 19.
 
Basic modification of the armored car M6 (Т17Е1) in the British army received index Mk I. These machines were manufactured 2844 units.
 
In addition to the linear armored cars with 37 mm guns, the British almost immediately showed interest in the machines fire support. So there was the option Т17ЕЗ, representing a standard M6 hull mounted open top turret with the 75 mm howitzer from the American SAU M8.
 
Armored car M8 Grayhound on the background of the arc de Triomphe in Paris. Military censorship on the negative side of the picture erased the car number and the number of the army units
 
Armored car M8 Grayhound on the background of the arc de Triomphe in Paris. Military censorship on the negative side of the picture erased the car number and the number of army units
 
M8 Grayhound
 
M8 Grayhound
 
Of the cars the British rearmed the 76-mm tank howitzer of their own production. To make room for the ammunition they eliminated a machine gun course, and the crew ruled out a driver’s assistant. In addition, from the tower withdrew a smoke grenade, and alternatively on the right side of the tower were placed two 4-inch mortice to fire smoke fans. Armored, armed with 76-mm howitzers, was named Staghound Mk II.
 
A number of machines Mk I rearmed the tower from the tank Crusader III with 75mm gun and coaxial 7.92-mm machine gun BESA. In this way the combat weight had risen to 15 T. This modification of the index had MK III.
 
In contrast to the modifications of the Mk II and Mk III, which were converted from the Mk I version of the Staghound AA (Т17Е2) commercially available. It was a self-propelled anti-aircraft guns. Open top welded turret Fraser-Nash was placed two heavy machine gun Browning M2.
 
These machines early editions of vertical and horizontal aiming of the armament carried by the hydraulic actuator and the armored cars of late releases – electric. The speed of the horizontal guidance – 8,47 s, the rate of installation of 600 RDS./ min. Ammunition consisted of 2610 cartridges (six curb tape for 435 rounds in each). A machine gun course in this version was absent. In its place was the radio station.
 
The number of crew members was reduced to three: the driver and loader (also radio operator) were in the corps, and the commander-gunner – in the tower.
 
Manufactured 1000 units of the Staghound AA.
 
British troops began to armored cars Staghound in the spring of 1943 baptism of fire armored vehicles received in Italy, where he gained a good reputation for exceptional reliability, ease of operation and maintenance, good armament and booking.
 
In addition to English troops, machines of this type have been in new Zealand, Indian and canadian units who fought in Italy, and also in reconnaissance and cavalry regiments of the 2nd army corps of the Polish armed forces in the West.
 
After the allied landings in Normandy. M6 was in service with British and canadian troops of the 1st Polish armored division (about 250 armored vehicles of this type) and the 1st separate tank brigade of the Belgian.
 
After the Second world war, these machines have served in the armed forces of great Britain, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Italy, Switzerland. In Latin America they consisted of the armies of Nicaragua, Honduras and Cuba. In the middle East was used by the armed forces of Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Israel. In Africa they were used in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), Sudan and South Africa. These served as armored vehicles in India and Australia.
 
The design of the light armored car M8 was launched in July 1941, when the US Department of arms issued the specification for the construction of armored vehicles of the new generation.
 
The first step was the T17 armored car series, some time later, in early 1942, there was a light three-axle armored car T22, established the firm of Ford Motor Company and had the wheel formula 6×6. This machine is much like Т17Е2 both externally in layout and armament. As an alternative, the firm suggested that the army biaxial modification Т22Е1 with the wheel formula 4×4.
 
T22 car in the middle of the same year was modified and presented in the form of a new prototype Т22Е2. Unlike early models it was a modified control section, added more armored sponsons, and installed a new cast tower with an improved overview. Welded housing armored car was assembled from rolled armor plates with thickness of 9.5-16 mm. Chassis had six wheels with suspension on the leaf semi-elliptic leaf springs and hydraulic shock absorbers. In the transmission stood four-speed transmission with dual high transmission; brake – hydraulic with vacuum booster.
 
The combat weight of the machine was 7809 kg.
 
In the fore part of the hull was located the office, where the two drivers. Behind them was located in the fighting compartment, and the aft was 6-cylinder petrol engine Hercules JXD 110 HP On the fighting compartment was open top cast tower, in which the right side was placed the commander of the machine, the left – the gunner. Armament consisted of a 37 mm M6 gun and a 7.62 mm machine gun Colt-Browning in the paired setting М23А1, and also placed in the rear of the turret is a 12.7 mm machine gun М2НВ. Targeting guns was carried out by M70D telescopic sight.
 
After small improvements Т22Е2 armored vehicle was adopted by the us army under the designation Light Armored Car M8 (brand designation Ford GAK-M8) to which he later added the name “Greyhound” (“Greyhound”, “Greyhound”).
 
Ordering on the M8 turned out great, even for such large firms as Ford Motor. Originally intended to build 5000 vehicles, utilizing for this company in Chicago and Kansas city, but later, considering the orders placed on other firms, the total number M8 brought to 8460. In addition, for the supply of components and assemblies have attracted numerous other firms. So, Miller Printing Company has supplied bracket for mounting 37-mm cannon Warner Gear Division – gear, Hercules Motor Co. – motors, etc.
 
The first copies of the M8 were assembled at the plant of the company Ford in the spring of 1943 and in the summer these armored cars were shipped to Europe. In April 1944 the volume of cars produced of this type totaled 8523 units.
 
In 1943, on the basis of the M8 began to produce armored personnel carrier M20 Armored Utility SAG, which became the command-staff vehicles. The tower was removed, and over the open fighting compartment in the turret mounted heavy machine gun М2НВ. The combat weight of the machine was kg. 7105 Crew from two to six people.
 
M8 Greyhound armored car proved very successful and continued to remain in service for a long time after the war. Since 1945 the M8 began to actively export to other countries. So, these machines appeared on the arms of Austria, Bolivia, Brazil, Venezuela, Italy, Cambodia, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Paraguay, France, Germany, Sweden and Yugoslavia.
 
Firm Yellow Truck & Coach Co., creating your armored car T18, decided to bring the project to the idea of “wheeled tank”. In order to be able to perform the requested reservation, to set the arms, and to increase performance, designers of the company adopted the option with four axles and all eight driving wheels.
 
Case T18 was somewhat narrowed, but his booking has made 25,4 – 50,8 mm. Weapons T18 standardized machines of the same class: in the small tower placed a 37-mm gun and 7.62-mm machine gun.
 
The first prototype T18 went to trial in late 1941, but was clearly worse than the equivalent of heavy armored vehicles, including kzt17, which it is inferior in handling characteristics. The firm was advised to finalize the project that led to the emergence of variants Т18Е1 (6×6) and Т18Е2 (with the wheel formula 8×8). If the first of them only as thumbnails, then Т18Е2 received support from the military.
 
Heavy Armored Car T18E2
 
Heavy Armored Car T18E2
 
Improved model of heavy armored car had upgraded suspension with individual suspension on all eight wheels, and a new turret, which mounted a 57-mm rapid-firing gun.
 
Т18Е2 tests were successful, and February 3, 1942, the army received an order for the release of 2500 vehicles of this type, and in the following March – have brought their number up to 2800. The production plan Т18Е2 in 1942 was to develop in the following way: June 5, July 10, August 15, September 50, October 100, November – December 200 and -250 (a total of 630 cars).
 
In may of that year, interest in Т18Е2 showed the British purchasing Commission, which also expressed a desire to purchase a batch of these machines.
 
However, due to technical difficulties, by December 1942, managed to collect only 30 armored vehicles, which were not adopted neither American nor British armies.
 
Based on the successful M8 armored car firm Ford Motor created two auxiliary armored vehicles, called Personal Cargo Carrier T20 and Armored Utility SAG T26. The first was an armored vehicle to transport personnel and military cargo, the second was a command post vehicle. Structurally, both options are not different from the M8, with the exception of the dismantled towers on the site which is installed an open annular M49 turret with 12.7 mm machine gun. Inside were mounted benches for the landing.
 
The results of tests in early 1943 the army high command came to the conclusion that the functions of APC and command-staff vehicle is able to perform one T20, and T26 variant refused.
 
In April of the same year T20 was adopted under the designation Armored Utility Car M10, but as served in the army tank destroyer with the same index, the designation was changed to M20 (production name Ford GAK-M20). Production machines differed from the prototype only the upgraded turret М66 with the elevation from -20° to +85°.
 
M20 usually the crew consisted of two people (the driver and his assistant), but depending on the tasks it could be increased to six. For the weapons of the crew of the command-staff vehicle along the body fit up to five rifles M1A1 Garand ammunition 100 rounds per gun and one from 59.9-mm antitank grenade launcher with ammunition М9А1 of six grenades М6АЗ. Furthermore, provided racks to accommodate three M1A1 anti-tank mines and four smoke grenades M1 or M2 and fifteen hand grenades (fragmentation, Mk six.ll, six and three WP smoke rifle М9А1). Communication equipment the M20 consisted of a radio SCR-506 (modified) fed from the on-Board network voltage of 12 V.
 
M20 armored vehicles appeared on the Western front in 1944 and was used extensively by the American army. Total production volume of M20 armored cars in the period from July 1944 to April 1945 amounted to 3791 unit.
 
M20 Armored Utility Car
 
M20 Armored Utility Car
 
The average armored car M38 Armored SAG was created in the end of the war by the specialists of Chevrolet, which took the M8 Greyhound. All-wheel drive three-axis machine was designed to operate in adverse road conditions. According to its characteristics and composition of weapons and it roughly corresponded to the armored car Staghound M6.
 
Tower M38 was fitted with a 37 mm anti-tank gun М24А1 (M6) with semi-automatic vertical wedge gate. Pointing guns in the vertical plane was hand-made, drive. In the composition of the ammunition consisted of 93 shots, including armor-piercing M74 with an initial velocity of 883 m/s, M63 high explosive with a muzzle velocity 792 m/s and fragmentation M2. Artillery rounds attached to the inner walls of the turret and the fighting compartment with spring clips.
 
The prototype was tested on in 1945, earned a very commendable military, but due to the end of the war M38 commercially unreleased.
 
The average intelligence of the M38 Wolfhound armored car. The tower was placed a 37-mm anti-tank gun М24А1. 1945.
 
The average intelligence of the M38 Wolfhound armored car. The tower was placed a 37-mm anti-tank gun М24А1. 1945
 
In the beginning of the Second world war, bruneomitina in the United States was in a deplorable condition. Strategic doctrine, claiming that the United States is a country overseas: until the case comes to ground operations in the country will have time to complete the mobilization of the army and to start serial production of any armored vehicles – played with the U.S. military a cruel joke. A quick surrender of the Philippines was largely due to the scant number of American armored vehicles.
 
However, during the war, the situation changed radically. Having the necessary production capacity, raw materials, the Americans were able to create many outstanding examples of armored vehicles.
 
If she was popular and durable? It turns out that in the late 1970s, the army of Africa was 448 M6 Staghound armored cars, in 2004 – 8 cars M8 Grayhound continued to serve in the army of Paraguay, in the Dominican Republic МЗА1 Scout SAG was used in the army at the end of the 1990s, This suggests that U.S. armored vehicles, developed during the war years, was quite perfect.
 
МЗА1 for the international rally of antique military equipment. In tilt the upper part of the door visible ring rail to move the machine gun. The cable wound on the drum to overcome obstacles, looks original, but on the battle photographs such use front roller not found
 
МЗА1 for the international rally of antique military equipment. In tilt the upper part of the door visible ring rail to move the machine gun. The cable wound on the drum to overcome obstacles, looks original, but on the battle photographs such use front roller not found
 
Restored M20 Armored Utility Car at the rally of antique cars. The car meticulously restored license plates, stars and features tire pressure
 
Rebuilt M20 Armored Utility Car at the rally of antique cars. The car meticulously restored license plates, stars and features tire pressure

 
Armored Т17Е1 (M6 Staghound Mk I) at the international gathering of antique military vehicles
 
Armored Т17Е1 (M6 Staghound Mk I) at the international gathering of antique military vehicles
 
After the end of the Vietnam war, army armored vehicles have undergone radical reform. Since 1976, he developed a fighting machine “Dragoon” with the wheel formula 4×4. Its amphibious base created by a family, including, for example, armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles. The latter was armed with a turret with 25-mm gun “Oerlikon” and even a 90-mm “Koke-rill”. Success in the army used four-wheeled armored car V-150 “Commando”, released in 1971 and had a double tower with a 20-mm cannon. From 1985 to 1995 for the U.S. army, was released 700 armored cars, a Ranger with welded 7-mm armor hull.
 
Interest was the project treesny armoured wheeled vehicle V-300 “Commando” company “Cadillac”, although the losers, however, the competition now known firm of LAV, but commercially produced for export. Its a model V-300A1 armed with a tower of the tank “Stingray” with the 105 mm gun and were intended to deal with heavy armored vehicles and even tanks.
 
Tactical and technical characteristics of the armored car Jeffery Dodge mod. 1917
 
Combat weight, kg
dry……………………………………………5357
curb………………………………..5750
full………………………………………….6300
Crew…………………………………..4 – 5
Length, mm……………………………………….5486
Width, mm……………………………………1930
Height, mm……………………………………..2438
Ground clearance, mm……………………………………..406
Track, mm……………………………………….1778
Wheelbase, mm……………………………3150
Wheel formula…………………………..4×4
Reservations mm……………………..3,8 – 5,1
Weapons…….four 7.62-mm machine gun the Benet-Mercier
Engine ……………4-Buda cylinder, carbureted, power 32 HP, the volume of 4.87 l
Transmission……..4 speed forward, 1 – backward
Maximum speed, km/h……………..32
Fuel tank, l……………………………….76
Reserve, km ………………………………….240
Overcoming obstacles in m fording depth ………………………………..0,4
 
Tactical and technical characteristics of the T4 armored car Armored SAG mod. 1931
 
Combat weight, kg
dry……………………………………………4465
full………………………………………….4646
Crew…………………………………………4
Length, mm……………………………………….4572
Width, mm……………………………………1829
Height, mm……………………………………..2108
Ground clearance, mm……………………………………..199
Wheelbase, mm……………………………3140
Track, mm……………………………………….1518
Wheel formula……………………………6×4
Reservations mm………………….6,35 – 9,53
Weapons………………………one 12.7 mm
Colt-Browning M1921, two 7.62-mm machine gun Browning M1919
Ammunition…….cartridges 12,7 mm-2000, cartridges 7.62 mm – 3750
Engine………………………8-cylinder
Cunningham V8 gasoline liquid cooling 133 HP
Transmission……..4 speed forward, 1 – backward
Maximum speed, km/h……………..88
Fuel tank, l………………………………114
Reserve, km…………………………………..400
Overcoming obstacles in m fording depth……………………………….0,53
 
The performance characteristics of armored МЗА1 Dodge mod. 1941
 
Combat weight, kg……………………………..5620
Crew………………………………….2 + 6
Length, mm……………………………………….5626
Width, mm……………………………………2032
Height, mm…………………………………….1994
Ground clearance, mm……………………………………..400
Track, mm……………………………………….1657
Wheel formula………………………….4×4
Reservations mm
the forehead of the body…………………………………….13
Board and food……………………………………6
Weapons………………………one 12.7 mm
gun М2НВ, one or two 7.62-mm machine gun Browning 1919А4
Ammunition………cartridges 12,7 mm – 750,
cartridges 7.62 mm – 8000
Engine……………………..6-cylinder
gasoline Hercules JXD liquid-cooled 110 HP
Suspension………………………….suspension
on the leaf springs
Maximum speed, km/h……………..81
Reserve, km ………………………………….400
Overcoming obstacles in m
the height of the wall…………………………………0,3
the width of the pit……………………………………0,45
fording depth ………………………………..0,7
 
Tactical and technical characteristics of the M6 Staghound armored car 1942.
 
Combat weight, kg……………………………13 900
Crew…………………………………………2
Length, mm ………………………………………5480
Width, mm……………………………………2790
Height, mm……………………………………..2360
Ground clearance, mm……………………………………..340
Track, mm ………………………………………2260
Wheel formula……………………………4×4
Engine………………..two carburetor
Chevrolet/GMC 270 liquid cooling capacity of 97 HP each
Transmission……..semi-automatic
Hydramatic, 4 speeds forward, 1 – backward
Weapons………………..37-mm gun M6,
three 7.62-mm machine gun Browning М1919А4, 2-inch grenade launcher
Ammunition…………………shots – 103,
cartridges 7.62 mm – 5250, smoke grenades – 14
Maximum speed, km/h…………….88
Fuel tank, l…………………..340 + 2×90
Reserve, km ………………………………….800
Overcoming obstacles in m
the height of the wall……………………………….0,53
fording depth…………………………………0,8
 
Tactical and technical characteristics of the armored car M8 Greyhound
 
Combat weight, kg……………………………..7809
Crew………………………………………..4
Length, mm……………………………………….5003
Width, mm……………………………………2540
Height, mm…………………………………….2335
Ground clearance, mm……………………………………..285
Track, mm……………………………………….1930
Wheel formula……………………………6 x 6
Reservations mm
the forehead of the body…………………………………….16
Board and food…………………………………9,5
tower……………………………………….19 – 22
Weapons………………..37-mm gun M6,
12.7 mm machine gun М2НВ, 7.62-mm machine gun Browning 1919А2
Ammunition…………………..shots – 80,
12.7 mm ammo-420 rounds of 7.62 mm – 1575
Engine ……………………..6-cylinder
gasoline Hercules JXD liquid-cooled 110 HP at 3,800 rpm, working volume 5,242 l
Transmission …………………….4-speed
transmission, 4 speed forward, 1 – back, dual, dual differential
Brake…………………………hydraulic
with vacuum booster
Suspension……………………..suspension
semi-elliptic leaf springs, hydraulic shock absorbers, tyres 9,00×20
Maximum speed, km/h……………..88
Fuel tank, l………………………………204
Reserve, km…………………………………..400
Overcoming obstacles in m
the height of the wall……………………………….0,61
fording depth……………………………….0,81
Radio……………………………SCR-506
 
Tactical and technical characteristics of the armored car M20 Armored Utility SAG mod. 1944
 
Weight, kg
dry……………………………………………6576
full………………………………………….7937
Crew…………………………………………3
Length, mm……………………………………….5003
Width, mm……………………………………2540
Height, mm……………………………………..2311
Wheel formula……………………………6×6
Weapons………12,7-mm machine gun М2НВ
Bronirovanie, mm………………………6,35 – 19
Engine………………………6-cylinder
Hercules JXD gasoline in-line liquid cooling capacity of 86 HP
Transmission……5 speeds forward, 1 – backward
Maximum speed, km/h……………..87
Reserve, km…………………………………..483
Overcoming obstacles
the height of the wall……………………………….0,61
fording depth……………………………….1,22
Radio……………………………SCR-506
or -508, -510, -608

 
L. KASHCHEEV

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