Main battle tank T-90S The main drawback of T-72 tanks of all modifications, compared to other cars of the Soviet and foreign production of those years was the lack of an automated fire control system (FCS). In this regard, it was decided to conduct a deep modernization “semdesyatdvoyki.” This work took place under the theme “improving the T-72B” defined by the Council of Ministers of the USSR of June 19, 1986. The original design took place under the leadership of V. N. Venediktov, and after his 1987 retirement – under the leadership of new chief designer V. I. Potkin.


When developing the new machine, which received the designation “object 188”, focused on improving combat effectiveness with the aim to bring it to the level of the T-80U. The latter borrowed the complex weapons control 1А45 “Irtysh”, which was revised to interact with the autoloader Nizhny Tagil design received the designation 1А45Т. In January 1989, four prototypes of “object 188” was presented on state tests, during which the car a year and a half ran in the Moscow, Kemerovo and Zhambyl (Kazakhstan) regions, as well as on the ground of “Uralvagonzavod” (UVZ). The tank was tested in the maximum modes, has passed 14 thousand km (that is, a full cycle overhaul) with virtually no breakdowns and failures.

From June to September 1990, two sample vehicles underwent final testing at the end of which one of them shot at the range. On 27 March 1991 by a joint decision of the ministries of defense and defense industry tank recommended for adoption under the designation T-72BU. He was listed in the documents – “the T-72B improved”. However, to take it to service with the Soviet Army did not have time ceased to exist and the Soviet Union, and the Soviet Army. Meanwhile, given the experience of the operation “desert Storm”, UKBTM decided to increase the security of the tank due to the installation of the complex optical-electronic suppression, tshu-1 “Blind.” In the end, once again began testing. However, on 30 September 1992, the factory shop left the first “object 188” installation party, and October 5, 1992 decision of the Russian government, the tank was accepted into service with the Russian Army under the designation T-90. A month later started its mass production.


Tank T-90A on the way to Red square. Moscow, 2010

Tank T-90A on the way to Red square. Moscow, 2010

Case T-90 is identical to the T-72B. He welded, with stamped bottom. The upper front part is layered, with integrated dynamic protection. Tower – cast, in the frontal part on exchange rate angles to 35° left and right of the longitudinal axis of the tank has a combined armor.


In addition, in the frontal part of the tower mounted seven blocks of dynamic protection and container package 20 more such units are installed on the roof of the tower. Rectangular steel screens with elements built-in dynamic protection installed on side of rubber screens.

Built-in dynamic protection “Kontakt 5” designed by the Moscow Institute of Steel ensures a significant increase in cannon-proof durability of a tank. It covers more than 50% of the outer surface of the frontal part, sides of the roof and towers, and reduces the armor-piercing shaped charge warheads by 50 – 60%, and armor-piercing projectiles – 20%.

With the purpose of radiation protection of the crew the hull and turret of the machine in the areas of their jobs is covered by a lining of hydrogenous polymer with additives of lithium, boron and lead. The place of the driver is additionally covered with Nadeem of the same material.

The main armament is a 125 mm smoothbore gun 2A46M-4, adapted to work with automatic loader AZ-185 and fitted under the mechanism, eject the spent pallet. T-90 has a built-in device reconciliation of the gun to both master and thermal imaging sight. With gun paired 7.62-mm machine gun PKTM. On the commander’s turret mounted protective machine gun mount (LSD) with remote Electromechanical control. It utilizes a 12.7 mm machine gun NSVT-12,7 or 6П49 “Cord”. Ammunition T-90 consists of 42 artillery rounds, 2000 rounds for coaxial and 300 rounds of ammunition to the anti-aircraft guns.


Experimental demonstration exercises of the Moscow military district, June 29, 1993 goal. T-90 tank in position

Pilot exercises of the Moscow military district, June 29, 1993 goal. T-90 tank in position

Mounted on T-90 fire control system 1А45Т “Irtysh” the gunner ensures the maintenance of effective aimed fire day and night and the movement of the gun and coaxial machine gun, and together with the equipment of the complex guided weapons – fire managed packages. The complex 1А45Т include: automated fire control system 1А42; night sighting system Т01-К01 with sight “Buran PA” or thermal imaging complex Т01-П02Т “Agava-1”; commander’s sighting and observation system PNK-4S. In turn, the automated FCS 1А42 includes stabilizer arms 2Э42-4 “Jasmine” and ICT day 1А43 sighting system, consisting of a laser sight-rangefinder device guidance 1Г46, ballistic computer 1В528-1, switch Assembly and a set of automatic sensors of firing conditions (roll of the gun trunnion axis, wind, speed and course angle relative to the target). Sighting system automatically takes into account and introduces amendments to change the distance to the target, the aiming angles and lateral lead, on the lateral component of wind velocity, the roll angle of the gun trunnion axis, charge temperature and air, the wear of the bore and type of projectile.

It should be noted that due to problems with the production of “Agave” on the serial T-90 tanks installed sight “Buran”, “Agave” was equipped with only two prototypes.

Sighting and observation system PNK-4S commander provides machine monitoring area search and target detection, targeting and fire adjustment, effective aimed fire from the gun and coaxial machine gun in the “double”, aimed firing from ZPU air and ground targets. Part PNK-4C includes a device TKN-4S Agat “-” with stabilizer field of view vertically, a gun position sensor and control system lock.

T-90 has established a set of guided weapons (IMC) 9К119 the Reflex, similar to that used on the T-80U. IMC “Reflex” has a semiautomatic control system with teleroentgenogram missiles in the laser beam. The complex provides 9К119 shooting at stationary and moving at speeds up to 70 km/h targets at ranges of 100 – 5000 m at speed to 30 km/h. This compares favorably with the IMC 9К120 installed on T-72B, allowing shooting missiles only with short stops. In addition, 9К119 admits shooting and using a thermal imager.


Main battle tank T-90A


Main battle tank T-90A

Main battle tank T-90A:

1 – 125-mm smoothbore gun 2A46M-5; 2 illuminator OTSHU-1-7 complex optical-electronic suppression “Blind”; 3 – 12.7 mm machine gun 6П49 Cord; 4 – launcher system 902В “Cloud”; 5 – capacitive wind sensor TWO-BS; 6 – box and air intake pipe, OPVT; 7 – a tank of fuel; 8 – beam self-recovery winch; 9 – exhaust manifold; 10 – rubber side screen; 11 – section side mounted dynamic protection; 12 – blocks mounted dynamic protection; 13 – blocks of integrated dynamic protection “Contact-5”; 14 – self-entrenching device; 15 – accurate each of the head detection of laser radiation, tshu-1-11; 16-the us head of the sight-rangefinder/homing device 1Г46; 17 – us head night sight “Buran-M”; 18 – Luke gunner; 19 – rough each of the head detection of laser radiation, tshu-1-1; 20 – flap for discharge of pallets; 21 – Luke commander

Shot ЗУБК20 complex “Reflex” consists of a guided missile 9М119М and propelling device. Rocket 9М119М consists of a control module, the main engine, the warhead, the tail section and the pallet. Rudders are automatically after the departure of the missile from the gun barrel.

Complex tshu-1-7 “Blind-1” 3 – 4 times reduces the probability of targeted contact with the tank ATGM with semi-automatic guidance system, and also creates interference with the control systems of the enemy weapons with laser targeting and a laser rangefinder. The complex consists of the station opto-electronic suppression (soep), the system setting screens (SDR) and system management. SOEP consists of two illuminators OTSHU-1-7, installed in front of the tower and emitting a coded IR signal that prevents accurate targeting of anti-tank guided missile of the enemy. GPA registers the laser irradiation tank of the enemy, determines the direction of the radiation source, selects one of the twelve grenade launchers mounted on the tower for aerosol screen-laying, gives an electrical signal proportional to the angle to which you want to turn the turret with grenade launchers, and generates a command to shoot grenades, forming an aerosol veil on the removal of 55 m from the tank. This provides protection from antitank ammunition of the enemy with laser guidance.

GPA applied launcher system 902В “Cloud”, from which is possible shooting aerosol grenades ЗД17, but smoke grenades ЗД6.

T-90 and T-72B equipped with system of protection against Napalm “Soda”, PPO ЗЭЦ1Э-1 “Rime”, the built-in hardware self-entrenching, etc., the System PPO 2-fold action involves four cylinder with extinguishing a mixture of “freon” 13B1 and 114B2. In MTO the tank has a 10 optical and 5 temperature sensors.

The tank is equipped with 12-cylinder multi-fuel V-shaped diesel engine, liquid-cooled IN-84МС power of 840 HP at 2000 Rev/min On the exhaust manifolds of the engine installed bellows, mixing exhaust gases with atmospheric air, which improves the operating temperature of the collector. Capacity of internal fuel tanks – 705 L.

Power transmission and running gear remained almost unchanged compared with T-72B. Track rollers T-90 10 mm wider than its predecessor. The movement of the tank at night carried
using night device driver TVN-5.

The tank is fitted with a VHF radio station R-163-50U, R-163-up. The dialogue between crew members and landing provides equipment intercom and switching R-174.

On the basis of the instructions of the State military-industrial Commission of the USSR dated April 4, 1991 in KB Uralvagonzavod began designing the commander’s version of T-90 received in the experimental development of the name “object 188К”.

This tank was equipped with additional radio R-163-50K, tank navigation equipment TNA-4-3 and auxiliary power unit AB-1-П28. After completion of the tests on the basis of the order of the Minister of defence, dated 3 June 1994, “object 188К” adopted by the Russian Army under the designation T-90K.




The first production T-90 received in different training centers. The first tank regiment (94) was armed with them in the 21st Taganrog red banner order of Suvorov motorized rifle division (Siberian military district). In the mid 1990-ies T-90 received the 5th guards don tank division, stationed in Buryatia. In 1996, the Russian Army has officially opted for T-90 tank as promising to equip the armored forces. In this case, however, the number of issued T-90 was a small: to mid-1998 in the army there were about 120 units. With regard to production, the time for the Russian Army it is completely stopped.

Almost simultaneously with the creation of the T-90 in UKBTM has been developing its export variant of T-90S. In accordance with the decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 24 December 1992, was authorized to supply T-90S for export. Since March 1997, various modifications of the combat machines have become integral part of numerous military exhibitions in Russia and abroad. In 1998 began negotiations for the supply of T-90S tanks to India and the sale of licenses for their production. The adoption of the Indian government’s decision on the purchase of Russian tanks was preceded by extensive tests conducted by Indian experts.

On 17 may 1999, three prototypes of the T-90S were sent to India. These tanks differed from other components depending on the customer’s wishes. In particular they have established different variants of MSA thermal imaging sight “Noktyurn” and “Essa”, could be accommodated and the system is “Blind”. Finally, two cars had a cast turret, and the third welded. Sending tanks to India was overshadowed by a tragic event – may 13, 1999 at his workplace died chief designer UKBTM V. I. Potkin. The Minister of defence of India in memory of him suggested the name used tanks T-90S “Vladimir”. The tests took place in the Thar desert – terrain, rough terrain dunes with a height of 20 – 30 m. the Daytime temperature reached 54°C. under these conditions, each tank was about 2 thousand kilometers without serious problems. During the firings, conducted in India, T-90S struck 80% of the targets, and at ranges up to 3 thousand meters After testing all three cars returned to Uralvagonzavod, where they passed the bulkhead and fault detection. The final line under the results of the tests are summarized in the August 1999 Branaire artillery testing ground of the Nizhny Tagil metal testing Institute, when the Indian experts assessed the armor protection of the tank. Then began the negotiation process on the terms of the contract signed on 15 February 2001 for the supply of T-90S and the transfer of the license for their production. It was about 310 tanks, 124 of which had to manufacture in Russia, and 186 in India, from the Russian Assembly kits. In accordance with the contract, the Indian side has also transferred the technology of production of tanks (without the right of re-export of cars produced in “third countries”) with associated design documentation, ammunition, training AIDS, and has been training specialists of the factory in Avadi. The total contract value exceeded $ 800 million.

T-90S tanks of the Indian contract include multi-fuel diesel V-92С2 1000 HP in addition, they is lighting “Blinds” placed additional elements of dynamic protection, and the grenade system “Cloud” is set at an angle of 45°, not 15° as in the presence of complex “Blind”. To use complex PNK-4S in the active mode is missing lighting OTSHU-1-7 complex “Blind” on the commander’s turret mounted IR illuminator OU-ZGKW. A characteristic feature of T-90 tanks to the Indian army is the enhanced anti-nuclear protection: a layer of antineutrinos nadboy approximately two times thicker than in the Russian samples.

In India, T-90S was named “Bhishma”. To date, the contract 2001 fully implemented. All the cars that were manufactured in Russia, shipped to the customer. At the factory in Avadi deployed licensed production.


30 Nov 2007 he signed a new contract, which was supposed to supply 347 T-90S. Of these, 124 have to be shipped fully assembled, and 223 in the form of kits for Assembly at the factory in Avadi. Shipment of the first 24 tanks on a new contract took place in 2008.

Development plans of the land forces India to 2020 provides for the equipping of tanks T-90S “Bishma” 21 the regiment. It is planned to adopt 1657 T-90S tanks.

After tests in India in 1999 a sample of the T-90S with welded turret has undergone some improvement. In particular, instead of the left drawer of ZIP on the tower mounted air conditioning. In this form the tank is sent to the exhibition OSA-2000 in Malaysia, and then he took part in the tender for the purchase of tanks for the armed forces of this country. The tender T-90C tank participated in the trials, in the summer of 2000. However, in the course of preliminary negotiations, it became clear that the contract with Malaysia is unlikely. To be independent in armaments from one state, the Malaysian government preferred to buy Russian MiG-29, and the contract for the supply of tanks to give Poland.

Again, the T-90 was ordered for the Russian Army only for 2004 -14 units! To “Uralvagonzavod”, the question arose: what, in fact, need tanks to the customer. The tank of the sample of 1992 is clearly out of date, and releasing it was physically impossible due to the lack of entire industries. At the same time, after 1992 the army is nothing else for service not accepted. The result is clarification of technical specifications began to take shape, the shape of the upgraded tank. It is based put design tanks export to India. Work on “object 188А1” was conducted in UKBTM under the leadership of chief designer V. B. Domnina.

The fire control system of the modernized tank were built around a warm television of the gunner’s sight “Essa” French-Belarusian production and modernized pricelinemortgage complex commander Т01-K04 “Agat-Mr”. In the MSA applied and advanced ballistic computer 1В216М. The firepower of the tank increased due to the installation of the advanced gun 2A46M-5 high performance internal and external ballistics. The machine was installed the upgraded complex opto-electronic warfare “Blind”, and as the power plant was already proven in India diesel 92С2 1000 HP


Tower of T-90 in close-up. Above the barrel of the gun receiving set head detection of laser radiation, and on the right from gun - right illuminator system optical-electronic suppression

Tower T-90 in close-up. Above the barrel of the gun receiving set head detection of laser radiation, and on the right from gun – right illuminator system optical-electronic suppression “Blind-1”

Despite the difficulties with the development of serial production of modernized tanks, the whole army ordered a batch of 14 units were commissioned in early 2005. In the same year, the “object 188А1” was adopted by the Russian Army under the designation of T-90A. In 2005 Uralvagonzavod produced another 18 cars. By this time the plant was able to complete the debugging process and restore cooperative relations. This allowed in 2006 to fulfill the state defense order in the number of battalion sets vehicles – 31 unit. The same was made in the following year, and in 2008-m and 2009-m factory shop left on 62 combat vehicle. Thus, from 2004 to 2009 year collected 30 T-90A with the sighting complex “Buran-M” and 180 with the complex “Essa”. In addition, was made commander two T-90K with alloy towers and complex “Buran-M” and six T-90АК with welded towers and a complex of “Essa”.

In the composition type of the 2nd guards Taman motorized rifle division and then the 5th infantry brigade of tanks T-90A took part in military parades on red square in Moscow may 9, 2008 and 2011.

The following countries, the military drew attention to the T-90S were Algeria and Libya. 28 Jan 2004 the capabilities of the Russian technology was demonstrated to representatives of Libya, on 24 and 25 March of the same year -the delegations of Algeria. Based on the T-90S sample 1999 UKBTM it modified under the requirements of the new customer. Was selected the original version of the machine with the installation of air-conditioning system, and improved system of detecting laser radiation. This option has received factory designation “object 188СА” (“A” for Algeria) and army – T-90СА. The prototype was produced in may 2005, and at the end of that year he stood the test in Algeria. In January 2006, a contract was signed to supply armored vehicles in Algeria. According to him, the Russian side, by 2008, put in Algeria 185 T-90СА. There is evidence that Algeria is negotiating about purchasing additional tanks of this type.

It should be noted that the Libyan military from purchasing T-90S declined due to higher cost compared to T-72. For a similar reason, from purchasing T-90S refused Peru and Venezuela.

In August of 2009 10 T-90S supplied to Turkmenistan.

Simultaneously with Algeria and Libya’s interest in T-90S showed Saudi Arabia. Comparative trials with Russian tanks was carried out in the Arabian desert in 2006 and in may 2008 signed a contract to supply 150 cars. In 2009, the contract for the 41 car was signed with Cyprus. Information of varying degrees of reliability include negotiations, statements of intent or interest to purchase T-90S with Iran, Yemen, South Korea, Lebanon, Morocco and Syria.

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