THE ONLY, BUT POWERFUL

THE ONLY ONE, BUT POWERFULIn early December 1939, the T-100 with a company other machines arrived at the front and soon participated in the fighting against the white Finns on the “Mannerheim line” in the composition of the 90th tank battalion 20th tank brigade. It experienced heavy tank, which was not adopted, not mass-produced, has just finished field tests, and the military command decided to continue the test by sending in the army to the front of the Finnish war. Your main battle tank survived the 19th of December during the break the Finnish positions when the battalion managed to break through the line of bunkers in the area of money. But here one of the vehicles hit a land mine and the T-100 had artillery and machine gun fire for a long time to cover it up by stalking the white Finns, while the crew tried to repair the damage.

 
Unfortunately, this did not happen. To evacuate the damaged car from the field also failed, she’s too stuck in the funnel from the explosion. Then the tank T-100, taking on Board through the escape hatches of their comrades, returned behind the line of fortifications.
 
Battle tank got seven hits 37-mm and 47-mm anti-tank shells from a distance of not more than 500 m. However, in his case wasn’t any holes.
 
Battlefield trials for the T-100 ended with the end of hostilities. The machine has been on the Karelian isthmus 1700 km and over 300 km of fighting, more than a dozen times it got shells in the left side, caterpillars, sloth, mask and gun in a niche of the tower, but was unable to damage the machine. Check the war ended successfully.
 
It was an exceptional case in the world tank manufacturing when the prototype of the new tank, besides, the only ones tested in combat!
 
Experimental heavy breakthrough tank T-100 was developed at the plant Experienced engineering No. 185 of them. S. M. Kirov in Leningrad. According to the original plan the car was, as the previous tank T-35, to have three towers with one 76.2 mm gun L-10 and two 45mm OBR 1934, However, during approvals and review of the project in various committees, it was decided to manufacture a two-tower tank. One of the main reasons considered the possibility of reducing the weight of the tank on seven tons due to the removal of one tower. There is evidence that this change was made under the personal direction of Stalin.
 
Tank T-100. In the small front turret with 45-mm cannon 20K. Back in the main tower - 76.2 mm gun L-10
 
Tank T-100. In the small front turret with 45-mm cannon 20K. Back in the main tower – 76.2 mm gun L-10
 
Predecessor T-100 - three-turret tank T-35. Parade in Moscow on red square, 1935.
 
Predecessor T-100 – three-turret tank T-35. Parade in Moscow on red square, 1935
 
The first prototype was ready in July 1939 and aimed at the combined factory and field testing.
 
The fact that was produced from 1933 at the Kharkov locomotive works heavy tank T-35 is already outdated. Even a giant five-turret frontal armor of the hull 20 – 50mm and tower up to 20 mm could not resist appeared in the Wehrmacht anti-tank guns: in front of the 37-mm and 47 35/36 Cancer-Cancer 181 mm(t), particularly a 47-mm Cancer 36(t).
 
After analyzing the reasons of losses of Soviet tanks in Spain, our leadership decided on the necessity of creating and adopting the red army’s new medium and heavy tanks with powerful cannon-proof armor and more powerful weapons. In addition, it was made clear that the concept of towered heavy tank like the T-35 is a dead end and the presence of a large number of towers does not give tangible benefits in combat. Giant size not only weigh down the car, reducing their maneuverability -they were too obvious a big target on the battlefield.
 
By design, the T-100 was a “dvuhmestnoe car classic layout with bunk location of weapons and cannon-proof armor”. The front is a small tower and the rear main was located on the roof of the housing one behind the other; the back – at a higher semiconic turret box.
 
The PERFORMANCE characteristics of the 76.2-mm TANK GUN L-11. 1938/39.
 
The PERFORMANCE characteristics of the 76.2-mm TANK GUN L-11. 1938/39.
 
AMMUNITION TANK GUN L-11
 
AMMUNITION TANK GUN L-11
 
PENETRATION TANK GUN L-11 ARMOR-PIERCING PROJECTILE BR-350A
 
ARMOR PIERCING TANK GUN L-11 ARMOR-PIERCING PROJECTILE BR-350A
 
 
 
The scheme of the heavy tank T-100
 
The scheme is the heavy tank T-100:
 
1 – 45 mm gun 20K; 2 – antenna of the radio station 71-TK-3; 3 – front tower; 4 – 76.2 mm gun L-11; 5 – main tower; 6 – 7.62 mm machine gun DT; 7 – gun turret; 8 – turret box; 9 – driving wheel; 10 – support roller; 11 – output gear; 12 – Luke radio operator-gunner; 13 – mask is 45-mm gun; 14 – the exit hatch on the front of the tower; 15 – the mask 76.2-mm cannon; 16 – outlet of the engine; 17 – the exit hatch of the main tower; 18 – tube hole in the side of the tower for firing of personal weapons; 19 – filler neck of the left fuel tank; 20 – observation instrument mechanic, driver; 21 – tube hole in the rear of the turret for firing personal weapons; 22 – Luke powertrain; 23 – the upper front hull plates; 24 – lower front hull plates; 25 – track

 
The body consisted of rolled armor plates connected by welding, riveting, and in some places and bolts. The thickness of such sheets – 60 mm installed to the same with rational angles, protect from 47-mm anti-tank shells on the range of fire 500 m
 
Towers – cast, conical shape, was also with the armor thickness of 60 mm. Front could turn on the horizon to 245°, the rear – had the opportunity to ring fire.
 
The crew consisted of eight people. In the front of the hull (engine control module) located the driver and right-gunner. Fighting compartment (in the center of the machine) included both towers in each were the gunner and loader, and the master was placed as commander; the corps was given a place and the equipment of the machine.
 
The aft compartment held motorostroitelnoe office. Here was installed the most powerful at that time, the 850-HP engine GAM-34-BT – carbureted four-stroke 12-cylinder V-shaped, having a cooling liquid. Originally (as AM-34) it was intended for aircraft; it was put on many types, including ANT-20 “Maxim Gorky” heavy bombers TB-4 and Antes A. Tupolev, S. Ilyushin aircraft. Then the engine was modified for torpedo boats and marine hunters, and later perfected for the tanks – with an index of BT. Fuel served as aviation gasoline; he poured in four aluminum tanks with a total volume of 1160 L.
 
Starting the engine is carried out using compressed air or an electric starter. Water radiators were cooled by a powerful fan, which sucks air through his pockets in front of the MTO, the exhaust was made through a manifold at the rear.
 
Suspension of the tank, which had a total mass of about 58 tons, had on each side eight dual road wheels with massive tires and five double support. As suspension elements for supporting rollers used leaf springs, and front of them was supplied with a buffer spring. Drive wheels with removable ring gear was located in the rear rails with screw tensioning mechanisms – ahead, and the tension of the tracks could be made directly from control module driver-mechanic. Track – melkopilchatye cycloid gear from the stamped track shoes with open toes and retaining rings.
 
The PERFORMANCE characteristics of the 45-mm TANK GUN mod. 1934
 
The PERFORMANCE characteristics of the 45-mm TANK GUN mod. 1934
 
ARMOR-piercing 45-mm GUN mod. 1934
 
ARMOR piercing 45-mm GUN mod. 1934
 
AMMO 45-mm TANK GUN mod. 1934
 
AMMUNITION 45-mm TANK GUN mod. 1934
 
The transmission was delivered to the mechanical five-speed transmission, having five forward gears and one back, three-plate main clutch, two multiplate friction clutches, two-row side of the gearbox. Brake band with lining of Ferodo.
 
In early tests on friction clutches and brakes of the machine were supplied to the pneumatic servo control with two-cylinder compressor with the capacity of 105 l/min at 1200 rpm. by means of such control made the turns and braking the tank with a significant reduction of effort for levers and pedals of the main clutch. Later, however, due to a lack of precise work it was taken.
In both towers of the T-100 was placed the main armament. In the rear was the main 76.2 mm gun L-11. 1938/39., which replaced the originally installed L-10; in a small antechamber of the tower, 45-mm tank gun mod. 1934, Two 7.62 mm DT machine-gun support was coupled. More of the same DT – on a rotating commander’s turret – used as anti-aircraft.
 
According to the idea of military specialists, the main 76.2 mm gun was intended primarily for the destruction of the long-term and earthen fortifications engage unarmored targets. On the sub 45-mm gun was assigned the task of combat armored vehicles.
 
Two-towered heavy tank T-100. The only prototype. August 1939
 
Two-towered heavy tank T-100. The only prototype. August 1939
 
Scheme of reservation of the T-100
 
Reservation scheme of the T-100
 
Heavy tank T-100 for field trials. October 1939
 
Heavy tank T-100 for field trials. October 1939
 
Heavy self-propelled guns T-100-(project on the chassis of tank T-100)
 
Heavy self-propelled guns T-100-(project on the chassis of tank T-100)
 
Gun L-11 was a modernized 1937/1939. earlier tank L-10. 1902/30., with extended up to 30 calibers threaded portion and a hardened recoil mechanisms. The initial velocity armor-piercing projectile has risen to 612 m/s At a distance of 500 m he pierced the armor thickness of 60 mm, and 1500 m – 46 mm.
 
Effective range of L-11 was equal to 3000 m, and a maximum of 12 000 m; rate of fire was 6 to 7 RDS./min. Angles vertical guidance ranged from -5° to +26°.
 
In its ammunition included armor-piercing projectiles BR-350A, used for firing at tanks and armored vehicles, and high-explosive OF-350 AND OF-350A and high-explosive f-354 – for defeat of manpower and firepower, combat artillery and for destruction of shelters and obstacles.
 
45-mm tank gun mod. 1934 was the partial modernisation of the gun 20K mod 1932 and had a good time penetration. So, when you fire up armored target with armor thickness of 28 mm could be hit with 1500 m, and 500 m – even 43-mm armor. The direct fire range was 3600 m, and a maximum range of 4200 m.
 
Main gun ammo – armor-piercing: tracer BR-240, incendiary BRZ-240, apcr BR-240СП and fragmentation O-240 and buckshot, U-240. Armor-piercing shell BR-240СП weight of 1.43 kg had a muzzle velocity of about 760 m/s.
 
Heavy self-propelled guns T-100-Y in the exposition of the Military historical Museum of armored vehicles in Kubinka
 
Heavy self-propelled guns T-100-Y in the exposition of the Military historical Museum of armored vehicles in Kubinka
 
Non-rotating cutting SAU T-100-Y purse hemispherical mask. In the cabin installed a 130-mm naval gun B-13 mod. 1929
 
Non-rotating cutting SAU T-100-Y purse hemispherical mask. In the cabin installed a 130-mm naval gun B-13 mod. 1929
 
T-100-Y. a Front plate with the armor thickness of 60 mm
 
T-100-Y. a Front plate with the armor thickness of 60 mm
 
Tank
 
Tank “Klim Voroshilov” – KV-2 in the exposition of the Central armed forces Museum in Moscow. Adopted in February 1940, when the only T-100 participated in the fighting on the Karelian isthmus
 
Ammunition of the T-100 was 120 rounds for the main gun, 393 – to 45-mm and machine-gun cartridge 4284, and 45-mm rounds housed in special metal cassettes three in each, the cartridges were placed in the discs.
 
Aimed fire from the guns could be kept with tank telescopic sights and TOD TOP, a panoramic periscopic PT, anti-aircraft anti-aircraft gun stood TZP. To monitor the combat situation, the crew used a periscopic tank devices PTK and PTCU.
 
Tank had a radio – it was occupied by short-wave radio station 71-TK-S 1939 mainly working in the frequency range 4,0…5,625 MHz, with a collapsible whip antenna with a height of 4 m. the Connection on course was provided over the phone at ranges up to 15 km, in the Parking lot – up to 30 km and in Telegraph mode up to 50 km. radiokomplekt Weight – 60 kg.
 
Internal communication was carried out by an intercom TPU-6, allows you to negotiate even in highly noisy conditions, and to connect the headsets to the radio for external communications.
 
Fire fighting equipment consisted of hand-tetrachloropyridine fire extinguishers.
 
T-100 had good mobility and maneuverability due to the relatively small average specific ground pressure is 0.68 kg/cm2.
 
Thus, the tank can overcome steep climbs to 42° and descend along the slopes of the same steepness, to move on the slopes with a roll angle up to 25°. Barrier he was a four-meter ditches, vertical wall height of up to 1.2 m, Brody a depth of 1.25 m.
 
Powerful 850-horsepower engine allows us to develop a 58-ton car road speed about 36 km/h. The fuel, amounting to 1160 l, ensured the promotion on the highway for a distance of 160 km, and on country roads – 120 km.
 
“On-site” front-line tests confirmed the operational views on the possibility of the use of tanks of this type. And in General the T-100 “justified” is built into the design of the tactical and technical requirements. In short, we got a pretty good machine that was recognized by military experts. The Commission’s report on field tests of the tank on February 22, 1940 and it is said – “meets TTH”, of course, not without recommendations for enhancements to some systems.
 
Heavy tank T-103 (project on the chassis of tank T-100)
 
Heavy tank T-103 (project on the chassis of tank T-100)
 
Heavy tank T-100-Z with a core of 152.4 mm howitzer (project on the chassis of tank T-100)
 
Heavy tank T-100-Z with a core of 152.4 mm howitzer (project on the chassis of tank T-100)
 
However, just at this time at the Kirov factory has begun mass production of the KV heavy tanks “Klim Voroshilov”, also armed with 76.2 mm gun L-11, but had a more powerful 75-m armor frontal part and the sides of the hull, the promising diesel engine, but equally important was the fact that his crew consisted only of five people. And it was decided by the same Commission it inappropriate to recommend the T-100 to adopting, as KV surpasses it for the main performance characteristics.
 
However, being a breakthrough tank, T-100 could carry heavier assault weapons. So, was developed in the same factory No. 185 drawings of the machine under the T-100. On the case of the T-100 had to install a 130-mm naval gun B-13 mod. 1929 designed For this cutting wedge-shaped with a constant thickness of the sides of 60 mm and a mask in the form of a hemisphere. However, during its creation, the contours of the cabin was changed to a more simple. In mid-March 1940 heavy self-propelled artillery unit (SAU) under the T-100 Have made their first journey and was transferred to the factory test.
 
Her body differed little from the tank, but the gun had a certain superiority. Barrel length was equal to
 
50,2 caliber. Powerful armor-piercing shell, weighing 36 kg, who had the initial velocity of 870 m/s, at a distance of 4500 m pierced the armor thickness of 40 mm cannon Rounds were separate loading; the rate was 4 RDS./min.
 
However, there SAU “crossed the road” tank KV-2, which was adopted in February 1940 Its 152-mm tank howitzer M-10T OBR 1938/40. at range 1500 m pierced the armor thickness of 72 mm at an angle of 60°.
 
Supplying the hope of ACS T-100 Have suffered the fate of a Museum exhibit. In the summer of that year it was transferred to the Military history Museum in Kubinka, where she is to this day.
 
At the beginning of 1940 on the orders of the Deputy people’s Commissar of defence of the commander of the 1st rank G. Kulik factory No. 185 was assigned to tank T-100 to install a 152.4 mm howitzer, which by mid-March, could even make a new tower. This machine with two towers was to get the new T-100-Z. Again, due to the adoption of the KV the work stopped.
 
In March 1940, the Bureau of factory No. 185 on the T-100 project was developed a new machine called the “object 103”. She had to apply not only to suppress the ground fire points, including a long-term, also used in coastal defense to conduct, if necessary, fire at enemy ships.
 
The car was designed chetyrehbalnoy. The main tower placed in the middle of the hull turret on a reinforced box, was armed with 130-mm gun B-13. Two small towers were installed in front of main, one at the roof for firing at air targets. All of them were armed with 7.62 mm machine-guns. In addition, two DT mounted in ball joints on the housing. Thus, the car was supposed to be five machine guns. While the crew was increased to 8 people.
 
There was also a version with two turret towers and a single machine gun in the bow of the hull.
 
The main tower of the “object 103”, as well as the small, circular rotation. Angles of gun elevation from -5° to +30°, but it had no turret to have a turn of 10° in both directions. The maximum range of firing is equal to 15 km. Ammunition consisted of 50 shots.
 
Armor protection as the T-100, – cannon-proof, but vehicle weight has increased to 63 T. However, the engine provided the 850-strong or even a 1000 HP diesel. Respectively, and increased fuel capacity – up to 1350 or 1550 L. movement Speed calculated is equal to 31 km/hour or 36 km/h.
 
Caterpillar could be made from the T-100 or a large width up to 880 mm, it would reduce the ground pressure to 0,597 kg/cm2.
 
However, the designers were able to create a wooden model of the “object 103” machine, which would be the “Tank 103”.
 
There was also based on the T-100 project odnoletnego heavy tank “object 0-50” with gun L-11 and two machine guns – caliber 12.7 mm DC and a 7.62 mm DT. The armor protection of hull and turret was supposed to be cannon-proof sheet with a thickness of 30 – 75 mm engine – 12-cylinder diesel V-2 500 HP the weight of the tank was reduced to 40 tons chassis – tandem with eight road wheels, wide tracks -710 mm.
 
The crew was to consist of four people, and in the fighting compartment housed three people: the left of the gun for each other the gunner and commander on the right – loader operator.
 
In short, do the T-100 proved to be successful, if much of the developed projects was associated with it.
 
TACTICAL AND TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE T-100
 
The crew cel……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..8
Weight, kg………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….58 000
The length of the body, mm………………………………………………………………………………………………………8495
Width of the body, mm……………………………………………………………………………………………………3400
Height, mm………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3430
Clearance, mm………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….525
Booking, mm:
frontal, side, karma………………………………………………………………………………………….60
Denise…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..20 – 30
krisha………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….20
Booking towers, mm:
forehead, sides, Korma………………………………………………………………………………………………………….60
roof small Basni…………………………………………………………………………………………………….20
the roof top Basni…………………………………………………………………………………………………..30
Weapons…………………………………..rifled 76.2 mm gun L-11 and 45-mm gun mod. 1934, 3 x 7.62 mm DT machine guns
Ammunition…………………………………………….76,2-mm shots – 120, 45-mm rounds – 393, cartridges 7.62 mm – 4284
Engine……………………………………………………..12-cylinder petrol GAM-34-BT, V-type four stroke liquid cooling capacity of 850 HP at 1850 rpm
Specific ground pressure, kg/cm2……………………………………………………………………………….0,68
The speed on the highway, km/C…………………………………………………………………………………………………36
The capacity of the fuel tanks, l………………………………………………………………………………………..1160
Cruising range, km:
at chosse…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….160
at proselku………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..120
Overcoming obstacles in m:
vertical stance…………………………………………………………………………………………………….1,2
the width of the pit………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….4,0
brad…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1,25
podyem…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………42 grad.
KREN……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..25 grad.
Communications……………………………………………………………………..the radio station 71-TK-W, TPU-6

 
V. TALANOV

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