CONVEYOR FRONT EDGE

THE CONVEYOR OF THE FRONT EDGECame to the end of the Second world war, however, to stop the developing course of the military “machine” was not easy. The fighting was over, however, the industry is yesterday’s allies continued to produce military equipment and to create new types of weapons. One of the reasons for this were civil and national-liberation war in East and South-East Asia, generously sponsored by on the one hand the United States of America, and on the other by the Soviet Union. While testing a testing ground for the warring parties supply of military equipment were Korea and Vietnam.

The first battles showed that the advanced part is sorely lacking a versatile lightweight all-wheel drive all-terrain vehicle capable of transporting the wounded and bring ammunition. Of course, armed belligerents was the famous Willys SUV and GAZ-69 that could perform these tasks, however, all-terrain vehicles were too large overall dimensions and mass, and the permeability of them left much to be desired.
 
In 1954 the Main automotive Directorate of the Ministry of defense of the USSR instructed the automotive industry to create a specialized combat vehicle – light all-terrain vehicle-amphibious vehicle with high ground clearance designed for the transport of wounded and ammunition. Everything the machine had to withstand the landing by a parachute system from aircraft without special platforms.
Of course, the idea of creating such a Transporter appeared out of nowhere. At the very beginning of 1950-ies a similar order was received by the famous American automobile company Willys and began developing the vehicle to the front edge. And in 1956, a mini-Rover, called the M274 Mechanical Mule (eng. mechanical mule), entered service with the us army.
 
The conveyor of the front edge of the LUAZ-967
 
Conveyor front edge of the LUAZ-967
 
Compact army jeep-amphibious vehicle LUAZ-967
 
Compact army jeep-amphibious vehicle LUAZ-967
 
In 1956 the American firm Willis has developed a compact military vehicle, called the M274 Mechanical Mule (eng. mechanical mule)
 
In 1956 the American firm Willis has developed a compact military vehicle, called the M274 Mechanical Mule (eng. mechanical mule)
 
Kraka (from the German Kraftkarren - working truck), the multipurpose folding car-Transporter of the airborne troops of the Bundeswehr, developed by the German firm Zweirad Union
 
Kraka (from the German Kraftkarren – working truck), the multipurpose folding car-Transporter of the airborne troops of the Bundeswehr, developed by the German firm Zweirad Union
 
The conveyor of the front edge of the LUAZ-967
 
The conveyor of the front edge of the LUAZ-967
 
Conveyor front edge of the LUAZ-967
 
Evacuation on TPK LUAZ-967
 
Evacuation on TPK LUAZ-967 “wounded” soldier
 
To control the mini Rover you can and lay
 
To control the mini Rover you can and lay
 
All-wheel-drive vehicle was a light platform on four wheels, equipped with a single seat for the driver. The steering column could recline, allowing the driver to control the car lying or even following him on foot. 25 HP air-cooled engine start cord and all electrical equipment of the machine consisted of a single magneto.
 
A similar machine was developed in West Germany for the army of the Bundeswehr – it was a multi-purpose foldable car company Zweirad Union, intended primarily for airborne troops. The Rover was named Kraka (from the German Kraftkarren – working truck). The Rover was equipped with an air-cooled engine power 26 HP Capacity of the German SUV – 860 kg with a curb weight of 750 kg.
 
The development of a compact domestic vehicle was entrusted to US – Scientific research automobile and automotive engines Institute head appointed head of passenger car division B. M. Fitterman, who at the time an active part in the creation of the ZIS-150 and led the creation of the first Soviet three-axle armoured personnel carrier BTR-152В. I must say that these works had been carried out without departing from the… prison. However, one of the famous designers at that time were not sat – sat for the design office!
 
Pardoned B. M. Fitterman in February of 1956 and immediately enlisted in the US to the position of head of the passenger car division. To start the designer sent in the Irbit motorcycle factory, where he planned the release of the vehicle code TPK-conveyor front edge.
 
In the terms of reference for TPK stipulated the use of double-cylinder motor air cooling of the motorcycle M-72, the presence of all-wheel drive transmission and the possibility of overcoming water obstacles by swimming.
Preliminary design drawing showed that the rear position of the engine, inherent in foreign transporters, it is less advantageous as the weight distribution, and cooling conditions of the power unit. That is why Fitterman it was decided on the placement of the engine in the front.
 
The prototype car, called US-049, was ready in 1958. The car had a fiberglass case with reinforced self-supporting basis, independent suspension trailing arms and torsion bars, as well as a steady drive on the front and rear axles. Test track amfibian showed that strength stekloplastikov body is deficient in military terms and power 22-horsepower motorcycle engine MD-65 is clearly not enough for a full-fledged SUV.
 
The second prototype of the TBM, dubbed US-049А, was developed in conjunction with designers of Zaporozhye automobile building plant. The layout of the machine, in essence, remained the same, including a front-engine, the use of the wheeled gear, and independent torsion-lever suspension. However, from a motorcycle engine designers refused-27-horsepower (later engine power was increased to 30 HP to 37 HP) four-cylinder V-engine air-cooling for the second prototype TPK (as well as in parallel to preparing for serial production of “Zaporozhets”), had to release Melitopol machine building plant on the basis of the motor compact car VMW-600.
 
General view and main dimensions of TPK LUAZ-967
 
General view and main dimensions of TPK LUAZ-967
 
Controls TPK
 
The driver of the WPK
 
Controls TPK
 
Controls TPK:
 
1 – button choke control carburetor; 2 – button actuator control of air flow units; 3 – control handle air pump starting device; 4 – control lamp of the fan; 5 – the switch of the fan and spiral “Arctic”; 6 – a control lamp of inclusion of a spiral “Arctic”; 7 – control lamp of inclusion of a winch; 8 – wheel; 9 – mirror; 10 – toggle switch control wiper / washer; 11 – instrument panel; 12 – horn button; 13 – the switch of turn indicator; 14 – button of the Central switch of light; 15 – button throttle control of the carburettor; 16 – switch winch and pump Weir; 17 – electrical socket; 18 – the ignition switch and the starter switch; 19 – foot pedal throttle control of the carburettor (throttle); 20 – lever differential lock rear axle; 21 – brake pedal; 22 – a gear shift lever; 23 – the lever of inclusion of a reducer of the rear bridge and the underdrive; 24 – foot pedal linkage mechanism; 25 – the lever of the Parking brake; 26 – foot dimmer switch

 
The flap control and measuring instruments
 
The flap control and measuring instruments
 
The flap control and measuring instruments:
 
1 – oil pressure indicator; 2 – indicator lamp; 3 – a speedometer; 4 – warning lamp for brake fluid level; 5 – ammeter; 6 – the gauge of fuel in the tank. 7 – the index of temperature of oil; 8 – signal lamp pump Weir

 
Under the hood TPK was located
 
Under the hood of the WPK was a “Zaporozhye” four-cylinder V-shaped air cooled motor
 
Unlike the first fiberglass prototype, the body of the second it was decided to make steel, waterproof, with inlaid frame. In the transmission got rid of the center differential, but instead, make a rear axle disconnect. Stiff enough plate forged torsion bars replaced them the suspension has withstood the impact in landing the machine on a parachute system without a special platform. Afloat machine developed a speed of three kilometers per hour, and a special propeller for this was not provided – the propeller effect of the wheels was enough.
 
Place the driver was located in the middle of the cars behind him, with his back to the direction of movement, was the seat of the medic, and the right and left of the crew, you could install two stretchers with the wounded or to seat two passengers. The backrests of all seats folded flush with the floor, allowing you to free up space for cargo.
 
Curb vehicle weight was 950 kg, gross – 1350 kg. Height with raised front glass – 1600 mm, ground Clearance – 285 mm Engine MeMZ-967А, it has 37 HP Clutch single disc, dry. Transmission four-speed with an additional reduction gear with synchronizers on all forward gears. When driving on the highway with a disconnected rear axle machine speed reached 75 km/h, the rear axle connected to difficult areas. To increase the clearance in the design was used by the wheel motors. The increased permeability of the WPK contributed to the reduction gearing and differential lock rear axle.
When launching or exiting the water to use light metal ladders in the stowed position they were fixed on the sides of the hull of the vehicle. In the front of the machine housed a winch with a cable length of 100 m, developed its force of 150 kgf. Wonder what use such a low power winch for self-recovery is not recommended – the task assigned to it, was to evacuate the wounded from the front edge of the zone of fire influence of the enemy, to TPK on special trays.
 
In 1961, after the completion of the testing of amphibious all-terrain vehicle US-049А was recommended for serial production in Lutsk mechanical plant (in 1967 the company received the name LUAZ – Lutsk automobile plant). Well, IR-bitscope motorcycle plant, which was supposed to deploy the release of TPK, it was decided profile do not change.
 
The first production prototypes of the WPK was released in 1965 in Zaporizhia automobile plant under the name ZAZ 967. In 1969 began mass production of the vehicle at Lutsk automobile plant, and in the same year the machine was put into service.
 
Almost simultaneously with military Transporter developed civil version-LUAZ-969. Its chassis is almost entirely based on the nodes TPK – its equipped with the same independent torsion bar suspension, same axles with onboard reducers, the same on the front, “Zaporozhye” motor.
 
The layout of the conveyor LUAZ-967
 
The layout of the conveyor LUAZ-967
 
The conveyor LUAZ-967 was a good swim - in motion brought it's own wheels
 
Conveyor LUAZ-967 was a good swim – in motion brought it’s own wheels
 
The main task of the WPK - the evacuation of the wounded from the zone of fire influence of the enemy
 
The main task of the WPK – the evacuation of the wounded from the zone of fire influence of the enemy
 
ЛуА3-969M - civil modification TPK
 
ЛуА3-969M – civil modification TPK
 
The development of a civilian jeep was first conducted in the US, and then at the Zaporozhye automobile plant under the leadership of B. M. Fitterman. That he belonged to the original solution suspension ZAZ-969, based on the combination of extremely compact independent torsion suspension increases ground clearance reduction gears.
 
Located the front of power unit, in addition to the engine part gear box and main gear, was initially based on the V-shaped four-cylinder 23-horsepower engine MeMZ-966, the same, which was equipped with a “humpbacked” “Zaporozhets”, and later received the motors 27, 30 and 37 HP
 
Transmission is rigidly connected with the rear axle tube, inside which held the drive shaft of the main transmission. The connection, if necessary, rear axle reduction gearing and a locking rear differential was carried out by the driver. Paonessa body structure will significantly lighten the car, which also favored the patency of the vehicle.
 
Torque transmission on the rear axle was carried out using u-joints (from the wheel gear) and the moving crackers (from the differential). All wheel suspension – independent, torsion bar.
 
Stroke when you swing the rear wheels up to 100 mm, however, for vehicle-ATV this is quite enough.
 
Compact car enjoyed considerable demand in rural areas – it cost a little more expensive than “Zaporozhets”, and cross left behind as the Niva and the GAZ-69.
 
Technical characteristics of the conveyor of the front edge Lu AZ-967
 
Dimensions, mm:
 
-length…………………………………………..3682
 
-width………………………………………..1712
 
height (without awning)………………………..1600
 
Base, mm………………………………………….1800
 
Front/rear wheel track, mm……….. 1325/1320
 
Ground clearance, mm……………………..285
 
Turning radius, m……………………………….5
 
Weight, kg:
 
in running order………………950
 
complete………………………………………….1350
 
Load capacity, kg……………………….320
 
Weight of towed trailer, kg……….300
 
The number of seats…………………………………………..3
 
Engine:
 
-type……………………………………MeMZ-967А
 
number of cylinders……………………….4
 
working volume, l…………………………1,197
 
power, HP…………………………………..37
 
Amount of gear……………………………..4
 
Fuel tank capacity, l………………..34
 
Maximum speed, km/h:
 
on the highway………………………………………….75
 
afloat……………………………………….3 -4
 
Control fuel consumption
 
at a speed of 40 km/h, l/100 km……………10

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