The history of FIAT, now numbering more than a hundred years goes back to minor at first glance, the events in 1898. It was then that the engineer Giovanni Battista Ceirano, who at that time produced bicycles with the support of the entrepreneurs and financiers of the city of Turin has launched the development of a new car with a view to its serial production at the newly created firm Ceirano. In March 1899 prototype of the new car WELLEYES designed by Aristide Faccioli, built. It was a crew with two-cylinder engine working volume of 663 cm3 and a two-speed transmission.
In the same year Ceirano firm became part of the newly organized company FIAT — Fabbrica Italians Automobili Torino (Italian Factory of cars in Turin). The first FIAT issued by the new company, was a company car Ceirano, equipped with boxer engine power 3.5 HP
The first production car company FIAT became a luxury car with a 60-horsepower four-cylinder liquid-cooled engine working volume of 10 cm3 082 transmission and brake system — a small batch of these machines was issued in 1904. And in 1907 appeared the first car with a six-cylinder engine working volume of 11 034 cm3, equipped with a novelty at that time — a pneumatic starter. The most widespread 1912 FIAT ZERO is a relatively small car with an engine cylinder capacity cm3 1846.
The outbreak of the First world war made significant changes in the production program of the company — FIAT produced military trucks, command cars, tanks, aircraft engines and even airplanes. However, the military program of FIAT is the topic of another publication. Here we only introduce readers to the history of this company regarding the establishment of passenger vehicles.
FIAT-501 — the first Italian mass car (1919)
This FIAT 500 TOPOLINO is the popular Italian car of 30 years (1936)
A worthy successor to the TOPOLINO double — chetyrehlistnyj th “people’s car” FIAT-600; in 15 years of its mass production was released 2590 thousand miniature cars
In the 80s goals every third car produced in Italy, were brand FIAT UNO. This front wheel drive hatchback, produced in three – and five-door variants, became the founder of a new style of automotive fashion of those years (1983)
The family of cars BRAVO-BRAVA-MAREA, consisting of three – and five-door hatchbacks and sedan (pictured — sedan MAREA), was preceded by a range of cars 8ТП.(1995 — 1997)
The first postwar passenger car company became FIAT-501, the design of which was developed by engineer Cavalli. This is a simple and relatively inexpensive car with four-cylinder engine working volume of 1460 cm3, which was considerable in those days the figure of 45 thousand copies! In addition to the mass of cars, FIAT is trying to produce and prestige, but so far without much success from the buyer.
Considerably more popular with a relatively small mass cars, which for many decades constituted a significant share of the production program of the company. So, in 1925, the buyers submitted a FIAT-509 — compact car with four-cylinder 20-horsepower engine working volume of 990 cm3, followed by (in 1929) was followed by the model with the index “514” with a more powerful engine working volume of 1440 cm3. A significant milestone in the creation of the mass of cars was the FIAT 508 BALILLA with four-cylinder engine working volume of 990 cm3 and a power of 25 HP Machine has enjoyed a deserved popularity among young people and produced not only in Italy, but licensed firms NSU (Germany), Walter (Czechoslovakia), SIMKA (France) under the name POLSKI-FIAT in Poland.
One of the most popular compact cars of the company became FIAT-500 TOPOLINO (little mouse), produced in large numbers from 1936 to 1948. It was a double car with a 13-horsepower four-cylinder engine working volume of 570 cm3, which, however, could reach the speed of 88 km/h. the design of the “mouse” contained a lot of progressive decisions. Independent front suspension, brake, hydraulic, transmission synchronizers — all this combined with the low price allowed the machine to use quite a steady popularity in the past 12 years. In the postwar years, was released two versions of the TOPOLINO — FIAT-and FIAT 500B-500C, and the last was produced until 1955. In 1957 the concept of the double mini car decided to continue in the new car FIAT NUOVA 500 zadorspain 13-horsepower engine cylinder capacity of 479 cm3, capable of speeds up to 85 km/h. NUOVA-500 was produced in several versions until 1972.
In 1951 leadership of the group FIAT has decided -j release a new compact model, more spacious, people! structurally obsolete prewar “mouse”. This car was the petite FIAT 600, a car with four-seater saloon, capable of speeds up to 90 km/h In popularity among the impoverished during the war the local population of “six” has surpassed its predecessor for the model years (1955-1970) sold 2 590 thousand copies of this car.
The exterior of the new FIAT STILO (2001) is a modern middle Eastern level
FIAT-600 was equipped with a inline four cylinder overhead valve engine cylinder capacity of 633 cm3, the capacity of which was 21.5 HP and is paired with a four-speed transmission. Front suspension is independent, and as its elastic element has been used a transversely mounted leaf spring. Rear suspension (independent) — trailing arms and coil springs. And in the front, and the rear suspension uses a hydraulic damper. The car was produced in several modifications, among which were cargo FIAT MULTIPLA, which became the predecessor of the modern monocab-vans.
The famous four-seater minicar FIAT-126, to continue the concept cars of especially small class, was first presented to the public at the motor show in Turin in 1972. At first the machine was equipped with located on the rear of two-cylinder air-cooled engine displacement 594 cm3, further the motor was modernized several times, and the last of his 26-strong modification of the working volume of 704 cm3 already had a cooling liquid. The machine is available up to this time the branch company in Poland under the name FIAT 126 MALUCH (translated from Polish — baby). In 1992, the production program of the group had little FIAT CINQUECENTO (in Italian — “Kaisar”), and then, in 1998, his successor, launched today, is a compact FIAT SEICENTO.
The attention that FIAT has traditionally devoted to the cars of small, does not detract from programs aimed at the production of more substantial machines. Classic car produced not only in Italy but also in several other countries, became FIAT-124 sample 1966 engine with a displacement of 1,197 cm3. This machine was the prototype of the famous “penny” VAZ-2101 “Zhiguli” and its subsequent modifications, which, apparently, will be produced in our country for many years.
Front-wheel drive five-door FIAT STILO
The three-door FIAT STILO
Front-wheel drive three-door FIAT STILO
A — independent front McPherson-type, B — semi-independent rear with associated levers
The interior of the driver’s seat
In 1969, the FIAT joined a company and Lancia Ferari, and in 1971 the company Abarth. In the same period there was a significant brand event — the release of the first front wheel drive FIAT 128 with a engine displacement of 1116 and 1290 cm3.
In 1971 the group put on the conveyor belt following the front — drive model- the two-door FIAT 127 with a transversely mounted four-cylinder 47-horsepower engine displacement of 903 cm3. The success of the new car exceeded all expectations — only for the first three years of release it sold over a million copies. A year later, the car gained rear (third) door, becoming, thus, in the hatchback. FIAT-127 has been repeatedly modernized, the concern produced sports modified, five-door hatchback and a passenger version of this car with engines of different cubic capacity, including with 45-horsepower diesel engine working volume of 1301см3. All in all, there were about 5 million cars 127-th family.
In 1980, the group has launched a new production program, the prototype of which was the FIAT PANDA is a compact front wheel drive car with a transversely mounted engine, first shown to the public at the Geneva motor show. Three years later, emerged as a front-wheel-drive FIAT UNO mass production, which demanded the greatest investment in the history of the concern 1000 billion lire. The car was produced with different engines (including a diesel) displacement from 899 to 1372 cm3, and the production of this car in addition to Italy was organized in Argentina, Brazil and Poland.
In 80-e years, FIAT has released a whole range of front-wheel drive cars, which were REGATA, TIPO and TEMPRA. And finally, in 1995, the TIPO family has changed quite promising, according to experts of concern, gamma three-door (BRAVO) and five-door (BRAVA) car, which, however, did not meet expectations — for six years, was released only 1.3 million cars.
In the summer of 2001 in the presence of a thousand journalists gathered at the Olympic stadium in Barcelona hosted the presentation of the new FIAT STILO — three-door coupe and five-door hatchback, which will replace in the production program of the concern of aging of the model BRAVO and BRAVA. It was noted that in preparation for the release of the new machines the firm has spent € 900 million, of which only 200 million went to develop the actual cars, and the rest was used for the modernization of production.
The basis of the STILO was FIAT front-drive platform Frame with flexible parameters, allowing designers on the same units to create cars with different track and wheelbase. By the way, on the same universal platform in the near future it is planned to release wagon and compaktuna. Three-door “sport” hatchback, FIAT STILO is intended for fans of active driving. Well, the five-door model is a very spacious family car. Although the wheelbase is the same on both versions, three-door STILO is 50 mm lower and 70 mm shorter.
Appearance both machines are quite middle Eastern — they can be put on a par with modern cars like PEUGEOT-307 or VOLKSWAGEN GOLF. In the salon — flat front panel with a soft lining with a semicircular instrument panel on which are grouped round two large dials (speedometer and tachometer) and two small semicircular. Glove box equipped with a cooled compartment. On the center console — a large information LCD display, it also find the audio settings and control unit ventilation. In addition to all this, cars have adaptive cruise control device, which by using radar to automatically maintain a safe distance from the car in front.
The car is equipped with the most modern communication system of the CONNECT NAV+, which allows displaying information to display information about the audio system, mobile integrated GSM phone with voice dialing, and navigation system. “Hot” button system CONNECT NAV+ allows the driver to contact the information centre in Arese, 750 operators who speak 14 languages. When a serious accident CONNECT NAV+ GPS satellites in the information center automatically sent a distress signal and place proisshestviya go to doctors, and roadside assistance.
Stilo is the representative of a new generation of cars of the European class C. Mishin is produced in three-and five-door options and has quite modern equipment: from sensors monitoring the Parking lot to remote start the engine
Both versions have the STILO adjustable in two planes to the steering wheel; under the cover of its hub is the airbag. All of these cars in standard five airbags, including side curtain air bags-curtain. Some machines will be equipped with eight (!) airbags. And yet — all the cars of this family will be equipped with rain sensors.
The driver’s seat is moderately hard, electrically adjustable in all directions and with electric heating system. Passengers with elite on the rear seats in the five-door modification, comfortable enough and spacious; the rear sofa is divided into two unequal seats which can independently from each other can change the slope of the back, emerge and move forward and backward; in backrests of front seats embedded tables, to the cabin. To get on the back of the sofa “trehdverki” a bit more complicated — you have to tilt forward the backrest of the front seat, while the actuator moves it forward. However, back in the cabin enough space, except that for a child.
The FIAT STILO is available with a whole range of petrol engines a working volume of up to 1242 2446 cm3 capacity from 80 to 170 HP and two turbodiesel displacement 1910 cm3 power 80 and 115 HP With the “small” motor is equipped with a six-speed manual gearbox and the most powerful five-cylinder — robotized gearbox type Selespeed. By the way, the car with automatic transmission has just two pedals, and the operation of the clutch and gearshifts are performed using elektrogidroprivod. Transmission can be switched with the help of the machine, and manual — lever, moving it forward and back, or buttons on the steering wheel.
In the standard equipment of the FIAT STILO traction control system composed of ARS, the brake system of the type ABC with automatic brake force distribution EBD, the mechanism of stabilization of exchange rate stability VDC sensors and electric power steering for city driving (at a speed below 70 km/h) provides the driver with minimal effort on the steering wheel, but at high speeds the power assist automatically makes the wheel more informative.
Technical characteristics of the car FIAT STILO family
Note: slash (/) separated data of the three-door (left) and five-door (right) modifications.
Suspension — traditional modern front wheel drive cars: front — coil springs, independent, type McPherson, rear — spring, semi-independent, with the associated levers.
As already mentioned, in preparation for the manufacture of family cars STILO large part of the investments has absorbed not the design of machinery and modernization of production. This is no accident — the company intends to return the old share of sales in the European market (since the mid 80-ies she fell from 14.6 to 10.9 percent), drastically improving the quality of the machines. In 2001, FIAT expects to produce more than 50 thousand FIAT STILO, and by 2003 to increase the level of production to 400 thousand cars a year, capturing up to 6.5 percent of the European market among the machines of a Golf class.
The first STILO went on sale in October 2001, the retail price of the three-door car amounted to 15 600 Euro, five-door — 22 750 euros. Ahead of the new machines is five to seven years of release.