IZHEVSK CLASSIC “THE MUSCOVITE” TO “PLOT”

IZHEVSK CLASSIC In the distant 1960-m to year, in accordance with the doctrine of the Association of school and life, our 10-grade “B” in full force was aimed at a large aviation plant with a mysterious name “Enterprise p/2402” where we had to master one of the working professions.
When it’s just been an hour, I wandered through the shops, eagerly soaking up the intricacies of aviation technology. Once I got in the press shop, where sheet metal was produced bulk parts – fairings, fairings, lobiki wings, etc. And suddenly near one of the presses I saw a slide of some strange parts that clearly have nothing to do with aviation aluminum halves… figurines of horses. In a nearby shop from these blanks was about the whole “horses”, and they become essential parts of children’s pedal crews.

I later learned that almost all of the domestic defense enterprises have “civil” burden. Including such difficult, as the mass production of cars assigned to the Izhevsk machine-building plant. According to experts of car industry, the initiative is the creation of giant Soviet defense industry plant for the production of small cars belonged to D. F. Ustinov, member of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee and Minister of the defense industry, at one time a Director of “Izhmash”.

A new venture focused on the production of “Moskvich-408” – in essence, another small car in the country at that time was not. First Izhevsk car rolled off the Assembly line on 12 December 1966.

At first, Izhevsk automobile plant carried out a car Assembly – body parts stamped at the Moscow plant of small cars, engines UMZ-412 made in the Ufa, and the transmission came from Moscow and Omsk. However, since 1970, the Izhevsk plant has already stamped details of bodies of their own. In 1973, the annual production of the “Muscovites” with the Izhevsk logo on the grille has reached 170 thousand.

The first car is significantly different from the 408-th “Moskvich”, is considered to be the five-door hatchback IZH-2125 “Kombi”, released in 1973. In the same year and began production of the famous “heel” – IZH-2715 van load capacity of 350 kg designed for the transport of small consignments.

However, although these cars were designed on the basis of “Moskvich”, but the design Bureau of the Izhevsk automobile plant, headed by N. And. Slesarenko, developed a lot of cars are original designs.

KB Izhevsk automobile plant was created in August 1965. When staffing managers have relied on young professionals, and they were right – soon youth team undertook the planning stage, paying particular attention to the creation of front – and all-wheel drive vehicles.

Universal IZH-21261 Fabula

Wagon IZH 21261 “Fabula”
 

Hatchback IZH-2125

Hatchback IZH-2125 “Kombi”

 

“Moskvich-408” Assembly of the Izhevsk automobile plant

 

Hatchback IZH-2126

Hatchback IZH-2126 “Ode”

 

Mini truck IZH-2715

Mini truck IZH-2715

 

Experimental four-wheel drive car IZH-14

Experimental four-wheel drive car IZH-14

 

All-wheel drive version of IZH-2126

All-wheel drive version of IZH-2126 “Ode”

 

Universal IZH-21261 Fabula

Wagon IZH 21261 “Fabula”

 

Universal IZH-21261 Fabula

Wagon IZH 21261 “Fabula”

 

Location of machinery and components in the engine compartment of the car IZH-21261

The location of mechanisms and assemblies in the engine compartment of the car IZH-21261

 

The front part of the car IZH-21261

The front part of the car IZH-21261

 

The Luggage compartment of the car IZH-21261

The Luggage compartment of the car IZH-21261

 

In the 1970-ies I happened to be in the car Museum “Izhmash”, where I drew attention to unfamiliar cars, like four-wheel drive “Niva” VAZ-2121. I explained that it is an experimental car IZH-14 was designed in KB of the Izhevsk automobile plant. The prototype was ready in 1972, when the developers of the Vase, only just started with the design of the Niva. However, the series was launched it is the “VAZ” car – a special document on the delineation of types of cars on the Izhevsk factories were ordered to produce a “Muscovites”. The situation was exacerbated by the fact that Izhevsk plant was subject not Minavtoprom, and the defense industry, which had no reason to spend money on the launch of a “civil” cars. Especially because at that time the USSR had no problems with the sale of cars, all of them — from “Zaporozhets” to “Volga” – were sold out on the day of receipt in auto shops.

Edition pickups IZH-2715 were to plant a very profitable business. The Soviet Union’s Ford trucks quickly conquered the buyers (they, of course, were state-owned enterprises) the reputation of inexpensive and reliable “work horses”, and the Izhevsk automobile plant, which became a monopolist in production of these cars, got a stable market. In the future, “heels” has successfully delivered not only in domestic market but also in Europe (Hungary and Finland), as well as in Latin America (Cuba, Nicaragua, Jamaica and Panama).

Different was the fate of IZH-2126 “the Ode”. Technical specification rigidly defines the parameters of the new machine – the 1.5-liter “moskvichki” engine and rear-wheel drive. And this at a time when VAZ, ZAZ and AZLK has developed a modern front wheel drive cars! Izhevsk designers had to undertake a number of measures to manageability, reliability and size of the salon “Ode” was not inferior to front-wheel drive cars, keeping at the same time the dignity of classic design.

So, the engine of the model “412” was upgraded and it was equipped with a new cylinder head with a modified form of inlet ports and an increased compression ratio, raised power and have significantly reduced fuel consumption. For the “Ode” has developed a new transmission with a fifth Overdrive. The width of the car brought to 1656 mm, which allowed to accommodate comfortably in the back seat three passengers. Great attention was paid to the developers and the aerodynamics of the car – as a result of a number of purges of models in wind tunnels was able to reduce frontal resistance of the machine and, consequently, the fuel consumption to 5.8 liters per 100 km at a speed of 90 km/h.

A lot of effort was put by designers for the design of the front axle with a McPherson-type suspension that provides increased smoothness, and rear axle with lever-spring suspension, in contrast to spring “moskovichevskoe”. Steering was designed quite modern mechanism with a toothed rack, which provided improved handling. The braking system included front disc brakes, the same as on the VAZ “eight”, and drum rear.

 

State tests IZH-2126 passed in 1984 (according to other sources – in 1981), after which this classic rear-wheel drive hatchback with very modern body (by the way, these days he looks even more modern than his peers – VAZ “eight” Zaporozhye “Tavria” and “Moskvich-2141”) for many years stuck at the stage of preparation for serial production.

The main reason was the economic crisis of the 1990-ies. Purchased oborudovanie for welding of bodies lying in the factory yard unzipped, and the car was collected on the bypass technology, and therefore the quality of the car at first was not good. The first car rolled off the Assembly line in 1991. In 1997, IZH-Avto, instead of the estimated 250 thousand cars were able to produce only 8 thousand cars.

The situation has improved considerably with the advent of the “IZH-Auto” the new chief designer A. K. Miller, who transferred here from the Volga automobile plant, where he worked as leading designer of the car VAZ-21081.

In 1999, the office of “IZH-Avto” came to the group of companies “JUICE”, which decided to revive the dying company. Promptly was installed previously purchased welding line of the company CCA, reorganized the work system of the enterprises – and as a result by 2003 the production of cars has increased more than eight times!

In early 2002, “AVTOVAZ” passed “IZH-Avto” production of VAZ-2106, and in August 2003, manufacture of the popular Russian buyer station wagon VAZ-2104. As a result, the issue of “VAZ” cars allowed to withdraw the plant from the crisis of loss and begin to consolidate funds for the development of new models.

Further development of the hatchback “Ode” was rear-wheel drive five-passenger car-wagon IZH 21261 “Fabula”, serial production of which was deployed in 2004. When designing this car to factory engineers used time-proven components and assemblies. The front suspension – like McPherson, rear – dependent, spring, with the guide rod and telescopic hydraulic shock absorbers of bilateral action. Transmission – mechanical, five-speed. The engine “VAZ”, a 75-strong working volume of 1.6 liters or UMPO-331. While UMPO-331 agregatirovatsya clutch and transmission IZH-2126, VAZ-2106 – clutch-VAZ-2106 and gearbox VAZ-21074 or IZH-2126. The maximum speed of “Plot” is 130 km/h and acceleration to “hundreds” – 20 seconds.

Thanks to the towering rear of the roof capacity of the Luggage compartment was increased to 1,354 m3 with folded rear seats. Besides such roof allows you to comfortably accommodate back seat passengers are tall. By the way, if you put one of the two rear seats, you can carry long items such as skis.

In 2004, IZH-Avto has acquired a license for production of cars KIA Spectra and proceeded to “screwdriver” Assembly for these cars from kits received from Korea, and in August 1995 was deployed already in full production of these vehicles. In July 2008, IZH-Avto has begun full-scale production of another Korean cars – KIA Sorento.

Well, what about cars “Ode” and “Fabula”? Alas, production of the first in 2006 had to stop due to the inability to further improve rear-wheel “classics”, and the second produced only in the cargo version. These mini-trucks are still popular among buyers as the van IZH-2717, capacity 650 kg, produced with multiple special modular bodies and pickup IZH-27171 carrying capacity 740 kg, equipped with a metal rear body with three folding sides.

 

Technical characteristics of the car IZH-21261 Fabula
Length, mm……………………………………………………………………………..4068

Width, mm…………………………………………………………………………..1660

Height, mm…………………………………………………………………………….1436

Ground clearance, mm…………………………………………………………………………….155

Base, mm…………………………………………………………………………………2470

The front track, mm………………………………………………………………….1390

Rear track, mm……………………………………………………………………..1370

Curb weight, kg…………………………………………………………..1000

Used engines…………………………..VAZ – VAZ 1.5 or to 1.6

Engine power , HP……………………………………………..68 or 74.5

Fuel tank capacity, l……………………………………………………….39

Rear suspension………………………………………………………….spring,

with telescopic shock absorbers

Front suspension…………………………….spring, like McPherson,

with telescopic shock absorbers

Fuel consumption l/100 km………………………………………………..6,8 or 9.5

Maximum speed, km/h………………………………………145 or 150

Igor EVSTRATOV

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