THE THIRD REVIVAL

THE THIRD REBIRTHCar FIАТ-500 issue 2007. The legend of the Phoenix bird burns itself in old age and is reborn from the ashes in an updated form, originated in ancient times, however, it is perfectly suited famous Italian car FIАТ-500, which has recently experienced its third revival.

The history of the brand FIАТ-500 traces its origin to 1933, when Dante Giacosa, who in the future would become the great Italian designer and designer, was commissioned to design a compact folk (meaning cheap) car, which was later named FIАТ-500, nickname Тороlinо (ital. mouse) and international fame.
 
The idea for this car by that time, already fully developed in the head Giacosa, so that the design and manufacturing of the car took only about four months. And this despite the fact that in the construction of “five hundredth” was not used of parts or components which are unified with the firm produced cars, re — design had everything including the engine.
 
So expeditiously was conducted and preparation of serial production of cars — the first “five” began to roll off the production line just two years after the beginning of their development, on 15 June 1936.
When designing cars Dante Giacosa chose a classic pre-war cars scheme with a rear engine and rear wheel drive. By the way, the engine was well forward, over the axle of the front wheels, which allowed to equip the machine with an independent front suspension. Lower control arms were attached under the clutch housing, and the function of the upper levers performed transverse spring located above clutch housing.
 
FIAT 500 2007 edition
 
FIAT 500 2007 edition
 
Car FIАТ-500 issue 2007
 
Car FIАТ 500 2007
 
Patriarch
 
The Patriarch of the “five hundredth” — the “people’s car” FIАТ-500 Тороlinо release 1936
 
 
 
“Five hundredth” third — generation FIAT 500 2007 and its layout
 
Layout FIAT-500 second generation
 
Layout FIAT-500 second generation
 
The layout of the FIAT 500 second generation

 
The engine of the “five hundredth” — a four-stroke, four-cylinder, in-line, with a displacement of 0,569 L. the body of the car rested on a lightweight frame, and as the body and frame alone does not have sufficient rigidity — it was purchased only after their connection.
 
The doors “five hundredth” was opened towards the air flow that, according to modern standards, is considered unacceptable by the incomplete closing of the air flow on the go can swing the door back with all the ensuing consequences.
 
Side glass FIАТ-500 was sliding is allowed to do without Windows and, therefore, cumbersome mechanisms of the drive occupying the internal cavity of the door. The trunk was located behind the back seats (this was the trunk of a car “Moskvich-400”), and load it only from the inside. “Tire” mounted outside, in a shallow recess in the rear of the body.
 
The engine Bay is pretty free due to the unusual layout of the radiator of the cooling system — it is located behind the engine. Thus the contours of the hood are more streamlined than the machines with the classic placement of the radiator front of the engine.
 
When designing the machine Giacosa had to use the most simple and inexpensive design solutions. Thus, in the cooling system of the machine used the principle of thermosiphon circulation of the liquid, and the fuel flowed to the carburetor by gravity from the fuel tank capacity of 22 liters, installed in the upper part of the engine compartment, directly under the hood.
Production of micro-car, only nicknamed Тороlinо was launched in 1936. The volume of production of the car in a few weeks was increased to 100 cars per day! And just before the Second world war the company produced 122 thousand cars FIАТ-500.
 
During the war the plant FIАТ was severely damaged, so that the production of passenger cars had significantly reduced, however, the “five” continued to produce, albeit in limited quantities.
 
After the war, the release of the “five hundredth” he continued. However, to call the postwar FIАТ-500 people’s car, the Italians did not dare — in 1945 it was sold for 720 thousand lire, which corresponded to a three-year average earnings of the worker. In the postwar years Тороlinо repeatedly modernized, however, the attractiveness of its reduced — buyers not satisfied with a double machine with the outdated form, they needed a more modern “people’s car”.
 
Production of the “five hundredth” model 1936 was completed in 1955. All in all, with putovskogo rolled off 520 thousand of these machines. Well FIАТ, meanwhile, had begun to develop cars FIАТ-600 — and this task was again entrusted to the Dante Giacosa (by the way, after the Second world war he was appointed chief engineer of the company FIАТ, and in this position Giacosa worked for more than 25 years). The leadership of the group decided to replace in the production of the veteran Тороlinо more modern model FIАТ-600, which would be the main family car in Italy.
 
Geometric diagram of the FIAT 500 2007
 
The geometric scheme of the FIAT 500 2007
 
The new four-seater with a monocoque body was significantly different from the pre-war predecessor, it was equipped with a rear located inline four-cylinder overhead valve engine liquid cooling power of 21.5 HP and, therefore, had a completely different layout.
 
The first “six” was presented to the public on 10 March 1955 at the Geneva motor show a Year later came the version with a folding soft-top.
 
In 1957, the car had engine capacity of 24.5 HP, and in July 1960 — 29-HP engine. Production of “six” was discontinued in 1970 there were produced more than 2.5 million of these machines. And, by the way, FIAT 600 became in his time the prototype of the “humpbacked” “Zaporozhets” ZAZ-965.
 
In Italy, the car was quite popular, but a full replacement Topolino he did not. As later recalled Dante Giacosa, the FIAT 600 was still in the development stage, when he already had her designers of its team to the creation of a model intended for less wealthy buyers — a more compact, simple and cheap than “six”.
 
The new car, called FIAT-500 Nuova (Italian. — new), was put into production in the summer of 1957 and was marketed as a further development of the beloved Italian Topolino. And, of course, the beginner also got the people and its own name — Bambino (ital. — baby).
 
The technical level of the ultra-compact machine was high enough for a class of micro cars at the time. Nuova engine had a displacement 479 cm3 and 4000 rpm developed capacity of 13.5 HP At this car could accelerate to 85 km/h and consumed only 4.5 liters of gasoline per 100 kilometers. The car was carrying two adults in the front seats and two children in the back seat.
 
The new “five hundredth” had been in production for 18 years from 1957 to 1975, with its total production amounted to 3 893 294 of the car. Bambino was produced in several European countries, including in the socialist countries — Czechoslovakia and Poland.
 
After the start of serial production of the machine has been continuously improved. Already in the autumn of 1957 at the motor show in Turin was exhibited an improved modification of the car — engine power, the designers have brought to 15 HP, the machine speed has increased to 90 km/h.
 
Constantly improved and the interior Nuova — the doors instead of sliding glass appeared descending, the driver received a sunshade, headlamp switch mounted on the steering column. In the sale were simplified modification of the car.
 
The front of the cabin FIAT 500 2007
 
The front of the cabin FIAT 500 2007
 
Front panel of the car
 
The front panel of the car
 
On the basis of Nuova was produced and sporty variants of this machine So, in 1958, the audience was presented two-tone FIAT-500 Sport engine displacement 499,5 cm3 and a power of 21.5 HP, develops speed up to 95 km/h And in 1960 with Nuova “sport” a 21.5-horsepower engine under the name FIAT 500D was launched in the series.
 
Regular modernization of the “five hundredth” was held in 1968 — on the machine under the designation FIAT-500L Nuova, established a more solid bumper, a new instrument panel and wheels with radial tires.
 
The machine has been successfully sold in Italy for the domestic market were mainly models with soft folding roof. But for the Nordic countries was designed all-metal modifications. One of the latest models Nuova became FIAT-500R — version with simplified trim and 18-horsepower engine displacement 594 cm3.
 
Total production volume of Bambino all modifications amounted to about 4 million cars.
 
In Italy FIAT-500 Nuova has become a truly iconic car. By the way, it was one of those who is grateful the producers have erected a monument in Turin in front of the Directorate of FIAT on a pedestal in marble copy of the famous car.
 
* * *
 
How to write novelists — “years passed”.. In 2007, exactly a century after the start of release of the Bambino, firm FIAT has presented a supernova “five hundredth” — the subcompact car class urban-style FIAT-500 Nuova. I must say that the reincarnation of the last cars in the last decade although a very common design technique, but not always rational. However, with a supernova “five hundredth” everything was different — this car has a strong appearance, no way inferior for the expression of the exterior of the Bambino 1957, was initially positioned as a mass.
 
Accordingly, the price of a compact car in a base complete set (with the engine working volume of 1.2 l 69 HP) was set at 10 500 euros, not too expensive for the European market.
 
The result was not long in coming — all the machines are scheduled for release before the end of 2007 — and this is 60 thousand cars were bought, in addition, the firm had to release the “excess plan” 9 thousand cars to meet the increased demand for this model. And plans 2008 appeared the figure of 140 000 — quite a substantial annual production, giving hope for long life compact FIAT 500 the third generation.
 
The current FIAT 500 2007 sample arranged on a shortened platform of a classmate FIAT Panda Driver “five hundredth” feels like driving a little as in the full mid-size car. Visibility from the driver’s workplace a great in all directions, except in the interior rearview mirror annoying looming of the headrest.
 
Speaking of chairs: the shape of the front seats quite comfortable — you can go, even on long journeys and not tired enough to overcome the longest distances. The seats have the developed lateral support — almost like a sport. Rear sofa — separate (50:50), twin, get to it easy, because the side door is wide enough, and the front seats when folding them backrest is easily shifted to “slide” forward.
The machine is not quite the usual instrument panel, made in the form of one big dial — so the driver will have to get used to. In particular, the perimeter of the circle move two barely visible arrows — one of them shows speed and the second rotational speed of the crankshaft of the engine. To follow immediately after the two is not easy, especially when the driver has to leave the instruments only a cursory glance. In the Central part of the circle is the LCD display on-Board computer, which displays various information.
 
The design of the Central console is quite ergonomic. All under the hand of the driver from the key management window to the lever of a mechanical transmission. The latter, incidentally, is quite comfortable to use despite its unusually high position.
 
The capacity of the trunk is small — its size is only 185 litres, and there is no room for a spare wheel or to the “dokatki” — instead, the firm equips “five hundredth” aerosol spray sealant.
 
In Russia the “five hundredth” come with two engines — a 1.2-liter 69-horsepower and sports a 1.4 l 16-valve 100 HP, equipped with two camshafts timing in the cylinder head. The latter is easy to disperse the car to the passport a maximum speed of 182 km/h, and hundreds of easy-930-pound machine is only for 10.5 seconds.
 
Fuel tank “baby” is not too large (35 l), but at a very modest fuel consumption 1.4-liter engine (in the city and 8.2 l/100 km on the highway — 5.2 litres) the tank capacity is enough for the 426 km (in the city) and 673 km (on road). Even more economical 1.2-liter engine with the consumption of 6.4 l /100 km in the city and 4.3 l/100 km on the highway.
 
Engine compartment FIAT-500 maximum sealed
 
Hood space of the FIAT-500 is extremely compacted
 
The engine of FIAT-500
 
The engine of FIAT-500
 
Handling the FIAT-500 for quite a decent level. Thanks to its modest dimensions and small turning radius, compact little car may Park in the most inconvenient places. The maneuverability of the car, no doubt, appreciated by those who are experiencing difficulties with Parking in a small string of cars at the curb.
 
Pendant “five hundredth” above and beyond the Scheme of its classic front-wheel drive cars: front McPherson type and rear — semi-independent torsion bar suspension, almost the same as the Fiat Panda. However, it is somewhat harsh — particularly in overcoming the “speed bump” rough terrain the car visibly shakes.
 
Steering — Dualdrive electric power steering; the vehicle is stationary “donut” revolves very easily, and with increasing speed, as expected in the presence of such equipment, the steering wheel is much “heavier”. The steering column is fully adjustable in height, and on departure.
 
In the list of standard equipment FIAT-500 includes almost all known safety systems — ABS, EBD, ESP and even the restraint system downhill.
 
When you create a car active and passive safety was given almost the main focus of designers. So, in completing the “five hundredth” composed of seven airbags, including one that protects the knees of the passengers and also turn on the alarm when a sharp tap on the brake pedal. By the way, not the superfluous will mention that FIAT 500 crash test EuroNCAP awarded the maximum five stars!
 
Now about trim levels. In our country cars are delivered in two variants of equipment: Lounge with a 1.2 liter engine (69 HP) and Sport with the 1.4 liter engine (100 HP). The most complete set of “five hundredth” offers a panoramic roof, dual-zone climate control, all of these active safety system, electric Windows, leather trimmed steering wheel, sports seats option, rear spoiler, chrome exhaust pipe attachment, Immobiliser, rear view mirrors heated etc.
 
In conclusion, it should be noted that the FIAT designers have managed to develop quite a modern vehicle with the looks of the car in the style of the era 1950-ies. At the time, the same way I went to the BMW when creating expensive sports car style Mini 1960-ies. However, FIAT has chosen to produce a relatively inexpensive subcompact car with the appearance of a “people’s car”.
 
Technical characteristics of Fiat 500 1.4 Sport:
 
Wheelbase, mm………………………………………………………………….2300
Dimensions, mm………………………………………………………3546x1627x1488
Trunk volume, l………………………………………………………………..185
Curb weight, kg……………………………………………………………930
Engine capacity, cm3…………………………………………………………….1368
Max. power, HP/rpm…………………………………….100/6000
Max. torque, Nm / rpm………………………………13 ) /4250
Max. speed km/h……………………………………………………………182
Acceleration to 100 km/h, sec………………………………………………………..10,5
Fuel consumption, l/100 km:
Gorod………………………………………………………………………………..8,2
tressa……………………………………………………………………………….5,2
mixed………………………………………………………………………6,3

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