TO PULL IS BETTER THAN PUSH….

PULL IS BETTER THAN PUSH....First domestic FWD. What vehicle did not invent tireless automakers! Their drawings were cars with engines at both the front and rear, with the leading front wheels and rear wheel drive and the most advanced authors with a drive to all four wheels…

 
Interestingly, one of the very first cars were three-wheeled steam tractor for transporting artillery shells with front steering and drive wheel, created in 1769 a French military engineer Nicolas-Joseph cugnot. He apparently also believed that the heavy guns are easier to pull than to push.
 
Front-wheel drive three-wheeled cart did not last long. Shattering during the test, the stone fence, the ancestor of all cars, did not leave behind any offspring, found refuge in the car Museum…
 
The first cars with internal combustion engines initially designed as front-wheel and rear-wheel drive scheme, but until 1934 in mass production were primarily the cars with rear wheel drive: experience has shown that it is both simpler and more reliable. The fact that the front wheel needed constant velocity joints – CV joints, but at that time, the technological base of the automotive industry is not allowed to organize serial production of these precision units.
After the Second world war the interest in front drive cars again increased, and among cars of a small class of those there were many. However, their triumphant let the unusually high popularity of the car “Volkswagen beetle” – cheap cars with rear wheel drive and rear-mounted power unit. The reliability and cheapness “bugs” compel the greater part of car manufacturers to release “pushing” machines.
 
However, some firms have attempted to produce CV joints different, more simple design. In particular, in the city of Eisenach (Thuringia, GDR) in 1956 was launched in the serial production of front wheel drive passenger car “Wartburg” with constant velocity joints type “double cardan”, but the reliability and durability of such mechanisms and also the smooth transfer their torque left much to be desired.
 
The five-door hatchback VAZ-2109
 
The five-door hatchback VAZ-2109 “Samara”
 
Four-door sedan VAZ-21099
 
Four-door sedan VAZ-21099
 
A real revolution in the transition to front-wheel-drive layout made Alec Issigonis – known avtokonstruktor and designer of the company British Leyland, the Creator of the world famous compact front wheel drive car “Mini”, launched into production in 1951. It was at this time considerably increased strides in the technology of production of CV joints, which significantly reduced their cost. In addition, the successful selection of the elastic material for the protective stocking of the hinge, the service life which, in General, defined as the longevity of the CV joint and car in General have almost completely solved the problem of the reliability of front-wheel drive car.
 
The first domestic car design which was used compact and durable constant velocity joints of the type “Barfield” has become a four-wheel drive VAZ-2121 “Niva”. The production of this machine began in April 1977.
 
Testing on the chassis front-wheel drive models and Russian SUV VAZ-2121 production technology and operation Shrews “Barfield” allowed Volga car to come close to release on the Vase of a new car for the domestic automotive industry type – front-wheel-drive. The first such car was the three-door hatchback VAZ-2108.
 
I must say that the release of the Volga automobile plant of front wheel drive cars became a sort of technical revolution in our country. The fact that by the beginning of 1980-ies of the domestic automotive industry has increasingly lagged behind the foreign automobile industry, and to realize that even in party and government circles of the country. XXVI (1981) party Congress the Minister of the automotive industry V. N. The poles announced the creation of the Vase with a new front-wheel drive car with a transversely mounted powertrain.
 
The layout of the front-wheel drive car VAZ-2108
 
Layout front-wheel drive car VAZ-2108 “Sputnik”
 
The design of the car VAZ-2108
 
The design of the car VAZ-2108 “Sputnik”
 
Dimensions VAZ-2108
 
Overall dimensions of the car VAZ-2108 “Sputnik”
 
The engine of VAZ-2108
 
The engine VAZ-2108 “Sputnik”

 
Steering of the car VAZ-2108
 
The steering of the car VAZ-2108 “Sputnik”:
 
1 – mounting bracket of the steering mechanism; 2 – the support of the steering mechanism; 3 – power assisted steering; 4 – gasket; 5 – the lower flange of the flexible coupling; 6 – a coupling bolt; 7 – a shaft of a steering; 8 – the upper part of the facing casing; 9 – a steering wheel Assembly with the damper; 10 – the bearing; 11 – mounting bracket steering shaft; 12 – the lower part of the facing casing; 13 – traction; 14 – outer tie rod end; 15 – a spring ring; 16 – a protective cap; 17 – a sealing ring

 
Prototypes of such a machine has received the name of VAZ-1E-1101, and the first of them was released in the fall of 1971. The work intensified when the firm has a “hardy-Spicer” has purchased the license to manufacture ball joints synchronous joint “Barfield-Rzeppa”.
 
In the design process were worked out the different layout of the car. So, striving for optimum compactness of the power unit led designers to a scheme with a transverse engine layout that remains basic on the Vase for more than four decades.
An equally important task that had to be solved in the design process of the car was the choice of the form of the body: the car was not only look fast, but have low CX – drag coefficient, the reduction of which allows to improve the economic performance of the car. On a Vase specially assembled wind tunnel. Purge the model showed that CX new car is 0.38, which was significantly less than the classic “Lada” – they have this rate was about 0,47.
 
December 31, 1978 was assembled the first prototype of the VAZ-2108. And until the beginning of 1983 was made a few hundred skilled front-wheel drive cars. The machine had many innovative solutions: transverse-engine, independent suspension of the wheels, rack and pinion steering, front disc brakes, kinematics of wheels with negative scrub radius, the high saturation of electronics as well as plastic bumpers and dashboard.
 
New car on a long tradition was demonstrated to the members of the government and the CPSU. Acquainted with this machine, and invited to practice the VAZ-2108 specialists of the company “Porsche”, which offered a lot of design changes steering and other vehicle components.
 
Front wheel drive
 
The front wheel drive:
 
1 – body outer joint; 2 – Circlip; 3 – yoke; 4 – ball; 5 – outer clamp; 6 – separator; 7 – Circlip; 8 – protective case; 9 – inner collar; 10 – a drive axle shaft; 11 – the lock inner joint; 12 – the case of the internal hinge; 13 – retaining ring housing inner joint

 
Front suspension
 
Front suspension:
 
1 – front suspension; 2 – nut; 3 – eccentric bolt; 4 – nut; 5 – a rotary fist; 6 – shaft front wheel drive; 7 – a protective cover of the hinge; 8 – outer hinge shaft; 9 – the bottom lever; 10 – ball bearing; 11 – a decorative wheel cover; 12 – hub; 13 – brake disc; 14 – a protective cover; 15 – a rotary arm; 16 – the bottom of the support Cup; 17 – spring suspension; 18 – protective cover strut; 19 – jounce bumper; 20 – upper bearing Cup; 21 – bearing upper support; 22 – the top support of a rack
 
Instruments and controls

 
Instruments and controls:
 
1 – ignition switch; 2 – switch the alarm; 3 – ignition switch wiper and washer; 4 – a socket for a radio receiver; 5 – the Central nozzles of system of ventilation and heating of salon; 6 – trip computer; 7 – instrument panel; 8 – glove box; 9 – a lateral nozzle of system of ventilation and heating; 10 – speaker; 11 – magazine shelf; 12 – switches of electric Windows; 13 – cigarette lighter plug; 14 – remote control system heating and ventilation; 15 – gear lever; 16 – brake lever; 17 ashtray; 18 – the handle of management air zaslonkoj the carburettor; 19 – pedal “gas”; 20 – a brake pedal; 21 – a coupling pedal; 22 – horn button; 23 – switch of illumination of devices; 24 – hydrocollator headlight; 25 – the switch of heating of front seats; 26 – rear fog lamp switch; 27 – fog lamp switch; 28 – the switch of heating of back glass; 29 – lever hood lock; 30 – the lever of the switch of indexes of turn and light of headlights; 31 – the switch of external illumination; a 32 – instrument

 
Instrument cluster
 
Dash:
 
1 – alarm; 2 – the index of temperature of a cooling liquid; 3 – voltmeter; 4 – fuel level indicator; 5 – econometr; 6 – speedometer

 
 
VAZ-2108
 
The car VAZ-2108
 
After a series of calculations and design estimates it was decided to choose the three-door hatchback with a sloping rear door.
 
At the same time discussed proposals for new components – radiator, carburetor, power Windows, door locks, vacuum brake booster, struts front suspension McPherson-type, etc. In the future, all these elements of the car began to produce under license.
 
The designers of the Vase intended to make a front wheel drive vehicle with universal purpose, which allow folding back of the sofa to retrieve voluminous Luggage compartment to access it through a third (rear) door.
Vase’s designers managed to give the car the rapid appearance of what has been achieved by tilting the radiator grill and the hood line, and a small lift of the lower edge of the side Windows. The unique appearance gave the car the panel of facing of a radiator with protruding element, which has a mechanism of cleaning of headlights, as well as a powerful plastic bumper with spoiler. By the way, VAZ-2108 became the first domestic car, which has front part of the body, uniting headlight units, was stamped from flexible plastic.
 
In 1981, were collected by the new prototype vehicle is a 100 series (as it was called prototypes at the company “Porsche”). And in 1983 on new prototypes of the 300 series were conducted pre-production machine testing.
 
Dimensions of the car VAZ-2109 (5-door hatchback)
 
Overall dimensions of the car VAZ-2109 (5-door hatchback)
 
VAZ-2109
 
The car VAZ-2109
 
Dimensions VAZ-21099 (4-door sedan)
 
Dimensions VAZ-21099 (4-door sedan)
 
The engine compartment of the family car
 
The engine compartment of the family car “Samara”
 
VAZ-21099
 
The car VAZ-21099
 
The first production three-door hatchback VAZ-2108 has rolled out a Vase at the end of 1984 and in early 1985 went on sale under the name “Sputnik” (export name – “Samara”). And four years later, customers were offered a five-door hatchback VAZ-2109, created on the basis of the three-door “eight”, followed on the basis of the VAZ-2109, is a four – door sedan VAZ-21099, the buyers enjoyed high demand. This car is from 1990 and differs from the five-door hatchback VAZ-21093 notchback sedan has four doors and a new grille. VAZ-21099 has three modifications.
 
By the way, the serial production of cars with various bodies on a single database was mastered by VAZ for the first time in practice of domestic car industry. The buyer in this case could choose a car with one of three engines – their working volume was 1,099 (55 HP), 1,288 liters (65 HP) and 1,499 liters (75 HP). The car could also be equipped with one of two manual transmission or four – or five-speed.
 
An interesting novelty was also the drive clutch mechanism is in contrast to the classical “Zhiguli” with hydraulic drive on front wheel drive cars the drive did tisovym – that currently comes with most cars more reliable and durable.
 
Use in car design with modern materials, including plastics, have allowed to reduce its weight 95 kg, which, combined with a reduced SKH helped to reduce fuel consumption in comparison with the VAZ-2105 18-26 percent.
 
An interesting novelty for the domestic market was a system of embedded sensors that warn the driver about malfunctions in the brake system, the pressure drop of engine oil and reduced battery life.
 
In addition, on the dashboard there is a new domestic device driver – econometr, who told the driver the most economical driving mode. But the condition of the generator, voltage regulator and lighting devices of the vehicle driver informs the system on-Board diagnosis – for this the next time maintenance of the vehicle it is connected to the diagnostic computer at the service station.
 
Technical characteristics of the car VAZ-2108
 
The number of places chel…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………5
The maximum power of the engine, HP…………………………………………………………………………..65
Maximum speed km/CH………………………………………………………………………………………..150
Working volume of engine cylinders, l……………………………………………………………………….1,289
Length, mm……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………4006
Width, mm………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1650
Height, mm………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1402
Base, mm………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………2460
Track (front/rear), mm……………………………………………………………………………….. 1390/1360
Ground clearance mm………………………………………………………………………………………………….160

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