AN-2 BIPLANE-SURVIVOR

AN-2 BIPLANE-SURVIVORThe first mention of the project landing version of the aircraft, biplane, future of the An-2 is dated 1944. Then his traces are lost and emerge a year later.
Then, the proposed biplane looked like a complete anachronism, and does not fit into the slogan “above all, beyond all, faster than all”. And although the military rejected the proposal Antonova, Vera Oleg Konstantinovich in the car, not faded. Five years later, when the country began to gradually return to civilian life, Antonov returned to his idea.

In March 1946, the Minister of aviation industry M. V. Khrunichev signed the order about allocation of the Novosibirsk branch of OKB A. S. Yakovlev, where he worked for O. K. Antonov Deputy chief designer, independent enterprise with the aim of “development of experimental work on Aeronautics and to build new teams”. The chief designer of the new OKB was assigned to the O. K. Antonov.

Before the new collective stood alone, but vital to Oleg Konstantinovich and his colleagues the task – the creation of a transport aircraft “T” with the engine ASH-62IR. While its maximum speed was to be not less than 270 km/h at an altitude of 1750 m, and a cruise of 205 km/h. Range with payload of 1000 kg to 1300 km and 2000 kg (overload) – 900 km, service ceiling – 7500 m, 65 m, landing speed 70 km/h. nine months later, the car was required to pass the state test.

The first prototype car with the engine ASH-62IR was built in 1947 under the designation of art – “Agricultural aircraft Antonov” and August 31, 1947, he piloted PN. Volodin, first took to the sky.

The aircraft differed simplicity. So, both of his wings have a rectangular shape with rounded ends and constant profile R-Is the relative thickness of 14% in their scope. Dvuhkonturniy wings covered with cloth. The top wing has automatic leading edge slats, slotted flaps and Aileron-flaps. On the lower wing only slit the flap.

An-2 transport version

An-2 transport version

The fuselage is all-metal semi-monocoque girder-stringer type. Chassis – fixed landing gear tricycle tailwheel. Antonov put a lot of effort to accelerate the development of the an-2, trying to use finished products, becoming dusty in the warehouses of the military. So, the wheels of the main landing gear borrowed from the Il-2, and the tail – from the Tu-2.

 

Factory testing of the airplane showed that his ceiling is lower and the speed is above the set value. Overall, the farm met the requirements of the, device to a truck, and in October, the aircraft had to pass on state tests in NII VVS, located in the suburbs. The region is not close, and many thought that it is better to strip the car and send it to the capital by rail. However, Volodin, confident in the aircraft, had other ideas and offered to surpass of art on their own, and at the same time to demonstrate to specialists the CAF air force and its capabilities. There were, of course, and the risk, but the confidence of the pilot convinced Antonov.

On 10 October, the plane went on his first flights, passing through Omsk, Sverdlovsk, Kazan and Arzamas. The flight to the airfield of the air force research Institute at Chkalovsky lasted three days. The tests, which began in the second half of December, after the elimination of defects and replacement of the motor, was completed in March 1948. Five months later, the car was in the air force and supply of CAF under the designation An-2. The government decree provided for the release of aircraft in passenger, ambulance, amphibious transport, and agricultural options.

Serial production of the an-2 requested the factory number 473 in Kiev. From this decision, before lifting into the air on 8 September the first production vehicles in the transport version was little more than a year. In the beginning of 1950, the plant was handed over to the customer’s head series aircraft.

Serial car designed for farmers, was designated the an-2SKH. Head instance of the aircraft with the apparatus of the sprayer and diffuser fertilizers was built in August 1950, and after testing, the experts of NII GVF recommended it for serial production.

Mass production of the an-2SKH began in 1952, when the customer handed over the first 25 cars. In its cargo hold positioned tank for chemicals and fertilizers. Under the lower wing and the fuselage – equipment for spraying. 12 aircraft from the first batch was transferred to the operational test held in the fields of Ukraine, the Northern Caucasus, Uzbekistan and Armenia.

An-2SKH gradually become the main aircraft for agriculture and was produced in large series as in the Soviet Union and in Poland (An-2P). Them and to this day can be seen above farmland in many countries.

An-2 is used for other tasks, particularly for aerial photography. For that purpose we mounted the camera and autopilot.

 

An-ZT

 

An-ZT

Antonov an-ZT:

1 – the trimmer of the rudder; 2 – automatic radio antenna; 3 – antenna coherent radio; 4 – air intake of the engine; 5 – exhaust pipe of the engine; 6 – suspension units of the flaps; 7 – step; 8 — antenna radio altimeter; 9 — wheel main landing gear; 10 — wheel of the tail support; 11 – brace stabilizer; 12 – fuel tank; 13 – engine TVD-20-01; 14 – element air-conditioning system of the cockpit; 15 – a tank for agricultural chemicals aircraft An-SSH; 16 – hinged agricultural equipment aircraft Ln-SSH; 17 – front door; 18 – the door to the cargo Bay; 19 – slat; 20 – Aileron; 21 – the flap of the upper wing; 22 – handlebar height; 23 – the stabilizer; 24 – Kiel; 25 – rudder; 26 – wheel; 27 – the pilot’s seat; 28 – intake of the engine; 29 – the exhaust pipe of the engine

Another curious variant of the An-2 was the plane multiwheel chassis. By the autumn of 1952, the car passed state tests with the recommendation to produce ten sets of the new chassis. A plane like this could be operated with sodden soil and arable land, that expanded its capabilities. But what’s good for the military, was not acceptable to the CAF. According to acting head of state of the CAF N. Zakharov, “weighting An-2 190 kg will lead to a significant reduction in commercial load of the aircraft… it is Expedient to equip the An-2 lightweight wheels balloon or Polubarinova type”. Probably, this circumstance decided the fate of the “centipede”.
The first seven years of the An-2 were built primarily in the cargo and agricultural versions, and only in December 1957, the question arose about the release of its passenger version. This industry had to start production of special removable equipment that allowed in a short time to convert the cargo of the An-2 passenger.

In 1951 he built a float version of the aircraft with reversing propeller and under the designation An-2V was launched into serial production.

An-2V passed operational testing at lake lines the Karelo-Finnish SSR and the lines Tyumen-Salekhard-Taz. Powerful mechanization of wings, combined with sufficient power allowed to operate the machine with rivers, lakes and coastal marine areas to a depth not less than metre and size of the areas 850×90 m. later, for operation of the An-2V established a minimum water depth 1.2 – 1.8 m depending on the wave height.

Floatplane An-2V

Floatplane An-2V

An-2V was used not only for transportation of goods and passengers, but also for extinguishing fires. For this purpose we used water, zalivalas in the floats.

In the autumn of 1963 O. K. Antonov turned to the CPSU Central Committee with a proposal to improve agricultural and passenger versions of An-2 and restore it to production in the USSR. The first two An-2M was converted from serial An-2 in 1964 the aircraft factory in the Moscow suburb of Dolgoprudny, on may 20, test pilot I. E. Davydov lifted him into the air. Externally, agricultural An-2M differed from its predecessor increased vertical tail surfaces. With the machine removed the second control, and assigned all the responsibilities for the piloting and piloting for one pilot.

An-2M were able to convert into passenger-transport option for local travel up to 1,500 kg of cargo or up to 11 passengers with Luggage. At the request of the buyer it could also be produced with dual controls. In this case, instead of the seat equipment mounted the copilot’s seat and additional control station with the necessary equipment.

An-2M

An-2M

By the time the An-2 flew in Aeroflot over 20 million hours processed 300 million hectares of agricultural land, transported 100 million passengers and more than 2.3 million tons of cargo and mail.

 

In the spring of 1948, the airfield has rolled out an atmospheric sounder FOR the atmosphere created on the basis of An-2, March 21, and V. A. Didenko tried it in the air. The main difference FOR from the transport version of the An-2 was a glassed-in cabin of the observer located in front of the keel. It was a beautiful view in all directions, well visible meteorological instruments, located in the air stream. The crew consisted of the pilot and experimenter. In addition to its direct purpose, the aircraft could be used in troop transport version, as in its fuselage freely housed up to 10 people.

It was expected that the engine ASH-62IR and screw AB-911-21K machine will rise to a height of 7000 m, and with the motor M-62R – 10 000 m. But since the prototype was a little heavier in comparison with calculations for half a ton, his ceiling does not exceed 5000 m. In the rest of the match FOR the job. However, mass production car has not got. The reason is simple – the customer required the atmospheric sounder, based on mass-produced machines, and the fate of art that time has not yet been solved.

In may 1950 there was a decision of the government under which it was required to establish a plane FOR the turbochargers TC-19, used on the Tu-4. A factory test car, the designation FOR TCS ended in December 1950, Launched into serial production aircraft was designated the an-6. On this machine in the early 1950s, established a world altitude record, rising by 10 293 11 m and 248 m, respectively.

In 1947, on the basis of the An-2 has developed a “Night scout and spotter for the artillery fire” (NRC). It provided for the placing of two cannons B-20, and armor power plant, pilot and Navigator. The scout from the usual An-2 has only half, the whole back part of the fuselage behind the wing Assembly was replaced by a new truss with glazed cabin mate. Tail to improve visibility of the back hemisphere made two-keel.

Since the NQF was considered a war machine, the pilot was protected from shell splinters from anti-aircraft artillery of bronta-Golovnina and armor plates. The Navigator during the flight sat next to the pilot, in a combat situation on the main workplace, is protected by bulletproof glass and armor plate covering his back. Navigator, as pilot, was placed in a chair with 5-mm armor protection.

First flight at the RNC took place in the spring of 1949, but adopted the aircraft did not arrive.

Was protivoraketnyi version of the biplane under the designation An-3. But he remained in the category of experienced.

In Poland on the basis of An-2 made a flying laboratory for testing of systems created an agricultural aircraft M-15 gas turbine engine.

 

EN-S

The idea of replacing the An-2 piston-engine turboprop, emerged in the late 1950-ies, but the obstacle was the lack of theatre capacity required. More active in this task are going to be solved in the mid-1960s, when a small engine turboprop-10, but his capacity for the future An-S (second one with this designation) is not enough. The development of small turboprop engines in those years, worked in the Omsk engine design Bureau. The situation changed in the 1970’s, when the engine TVD-10 was modified in 1430-strong HPT-20. Discussed other options of the power plant, because life demanded an-Z. moreover, by the time the country abruptly because of massive write-offs in the air force and civil aviation airplanes Il-14 with piston engines decreased and production of aviation gasoline, and the leadership of the Ministry of aviation industry defended agricultural aircraft M-15 jet.

The creation of An-S was preceded by the flight research conducted on the An-2. The first prototype of the An-Z, who inherited the best qualities of the An-2 agricultural version, fitted with the turbo-propeller engine TVD-20, took off on 13 may 1980, piloted by test pilot OKB S. A. Gorbik.

Prototype night scout-spotter NRK

Prototype night scout-spotter NRK

State tests of the An-Z began in 1981 and lasted for nearly ten years, but he remained in a single copy. 12 December 1985, test pilot OKB of V. G. Lysenko set An-S in two flights of three world records, lifting into the air cargo 2583 kg at takeoff machine weight 6200 kg. the next day the test pilot S. A. Gorbik blocked these achievements, raising the cargo 2375 kg at take-off vehicle weight 5800 kg. However, this did not affect the position of the leadership of Mapa, still dreamed of a modern agricultural aircraft with turbojet engine. Only in the spring of 1986, GosNII GA took An-S at the state trials that took place in two stages and ended in the summer of 1989 the Aircraft was thoroughly tested in the Crimea and Krasnodar region. They showed that the new aircraft is one and a half times more efficient than its predecessor. It was unexpected for the management of Minaviaprom as An-S meets all the requirements of agricultural aircraft. However, this time I found a reason to ignore the car.

The situation changed in 1993, when Omsk and Kiev aircraft manufacturers reanimated the project of An-Z. However, by the time the agricultural interest in the aircraft waned, helped by the collapse of the Soviet Union and the economic crisis in the newly formed States. Then offered a cargo version of the An-ZT, modified in accordance with the requirements of the time. It installed the engine TVD-20-01 with reverse screw. The plane, which became the base of a family, was designed to carry 1800 kg of cargo and four passengers, which in its “cabin” had two double block of chairs.

The decision on series production of the An-ZT adopted in 1997 In August of the same year revived the aircraft was demonstrated at the Moscow aerospace salon MAKS-97. The first An-ZT (RA – 62523), remade in Omsk, took to the air on 19 February 1998 it was Piloted by S. M. Zivak -test pilot named ANTK O. K. Antonov.

21 Nov 2000 airline “the polar region” has become the first operator of the An-3T. In 2002, the machine has passed the test in Antarctica.

In addition to new power plant with a titanium fire wall, substantial completion was subjected to the glider. In particular, strengthened the frames from the third to the eighth, and between the fifth and sixth frames of the fuselage appeared insert with an additional force frame 5A designed for mounting main landing gear.

A fragment of the cockpit of the Antonov An-ZT

A fragment of the cockpit of the Antonov An-ZT
 

The lantern of the cockpit of the An-ZT

The lantern of the cockpit of the An-ZT

 

EN-ZT aviation, Ministry of emergency situations

An-ZT aviation, Ministry of emergency situations

 

On the left side made the door for pilots with step and handrail, and at the opposite side between 11 and 12 frames – an emergency exit. At the same time changed the lamp and the layout of the cockpit.

Box wings have been preserved, like the An-2, but increased the top panel of the center section and bearing surfaces not already covered with percale, and synthetic fabric strength and durability superior to the natural in half to two times.

Changed the shape of the vertical tail (on the plane of the sample in 1980 kept the keel An-2) with the new rudder is larger and equipped with decompensation.

Cable runs control the machine replaced the rigid rods. There were other, smaller, not conspicuous novelties.

During the serial production was considered the replacement of the engine on the An-ZT is more economical TVD VK-1500С, but to implement the plans failed.

In ANTK of O. K. Antonova’s name also developed options transportspecific An-ZTK in the cabin which are mounted folding and hinged to the sides of the seats for ten passengers, the An-SSH for the treatment of agricultural land, and forest patrol desertdollarcasino An-SN, capable of carrying up to 12 parachutists and AH-3VIP – VIP cabin with increased comfort.

The upgrade payload An-3 compared with the An-2 was increased by 1.2, speed by 1.3, and the rate of climb is 1.8 times. Decreased noise level in the cockpit. The performance of the aircraft was increased, and at a lower cost of fuel.

Aviation register of the Interstate Aviation Committee issued on 31 August 2000 An-ZT type certificate, and 4 June and 22 November 2001, amendments to the options with skis and agriculture, respectively.

Alteration in the an-3 are exposed to the An-2 aircraft with residual life of not less than 50% in Omsk production Association “Flight”. Despite the fact that the An-ZT surrender to the customer with the newly assigned resources (20 000 flight hours), the release of EN-3 is not yet widespread. By the end of 2006 the company produced slightly more than 20 machines of this type. One reason for this is the restriction for the carriage of passengers (not more than 9 persons) in accordance with the certificate of airworthiness of the machine that is not beneficial to airlines, although in 1980 the aircraft was supposed to produce 12-seat version.

On 1 January 2004, Russian airlines were 15 An-3. The main buyers of the machine was the airline of Sakha-Yakutia, Tuva, “Avialesookhrana”, “Norilsk aviation enterprise” and “Polar airlines”.

Basic data of a family of aircraft An-2

The basic data of a family of aircraft An-2

 

Note. 1 – normal amount of fuel. 2 – from 1-th to 60-th series. 61 series- 3688 kg. 3 – taxiway weight – 5511 4 kg. – normal take-off weight. Bomb load: 200 kg – 655 km at an altitude of 4,000 m. 5 – take-off shaft power.

16 Dec 2004 the MOE received the first An-ZT (RF – 31225) for 235th separate mixed aviation squadron of the Siberian regional emergency center. Aircraft permanently stationed at an airport Emelyanovo (Krasnoyarsk).

By 2009, the plant in Omsk has passed to the customers 25 cars and in the same year, suspended their production due to the high loading of the enterprise more profitable orders – missile technology.

In February 2008 on the Taimyr Peninsula, in Evenkia, Tuva, Yakutia, Chukotka, Magadan and Amur regions were successfully used only 23 An-ZT, used primarily by the aviation Ministry and “Avialesookhrana”. Currently, ASTC O. K. Antonov continue the work on modernization of the machine.

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