DEFENDER AIR BORDERS

DEFENDER AIR BORDERSDuring the war in Korea was shot down by an American fighter jet F-86 “sabre”. After studying Soviet specialists captured machine, the Soviet government in the beginning of 1953, decided on the reproduction of this aircraft. To copy it created a small design Bureau OKB-1 headed by Vladimir Kondratyev. Together with the ongoing work of OKB-1, led the development of future vehicles, including supersonic fighter with a molecular engine. Given the relevance of the topic and the declared characteristics, the proposal considered by the scientific and technical Council of the Ministry of aviation industry (map), where it received a negative opinion, and against the head of the design Bureau and of the works conducted by the team, was made, in the language of the time, and draw conclusions.

 
In may 1953, the chief designer of OKB-1, has appointed Pavel Osipovich Sukhoi. After studying the state of Affairs at OKB-1 Pavel Osipovich has prepared proposals for two supersonic fighters. In August 1953, with the support of management of map P. O. Sukhoi made the issuance of the decision on the development of these machines. In the fall of 1953 year, OKB-1 received a production base — the aviation plant No. 51, which in the last years of his life created by his machine N.N. Polikarpov (1892 — 1944), and in 1944 — 1952 years led the development of cruise missiles V. N. Chelomey. Shortly after the relocation, the design Bureau of P. O. Sukhoi became known as an experienced plant # 51 map.
 
The fighters that are set by government decree, had much in common: both as the power plant used engine chief designer A. M. Lyulka AL-7F thrust of the vehicle 10; the airborne equipment and weapons were almost identical, each wing area was 34 m2. The difference lies in the purpose and planer machines. The fighter with the index “S” was fitted with a swept wing, and with the index “T” — triangular. Each of the two new aircraft were developed in two variants: the first variant is a front-line fighter s-1 with a movable Central cone, sight ASP-5H with DME “Grad”, three 30-mm guns OKB-16, which was supposed to present on state tests in March 1953 , his second option— interceptor-3 with a modified bow of the fuselage under the radar sight “Diamond” and two 30-mm guns — in may of 1955. a front-line fighter, the T-1 sight ASP-5H and DME “Grad”, three 30-mm guns with the deadline for the submission to the state tests in October 1955, the second instance with the modified fore part of the under the radar sight “Diamond” and two 30-mm guns — in December 1955.
 
In the further development of the frontline fighter, the C-1 became the beginning of testing in the C-2, which created the fighter-bomber su-7B, the development of p-3 was brought to the consideration of the layout in September 1954 and in January 1955 the development of the car has officially closed.
 
In the fall of 1954, the design Bureau issued a combined preliminary design of two versions of the fighter with a triangular wing. The results of the review and conceptual design review has recognized expedient further development of both versions of the fighter.
 
The preparation of working drawings for a front-line fighter, the T-1 was completed in December 1954, the year started construction of the first prototype in November. At the same time was built the glider ran. To reduce the time of issuance of documentation contributed to the high degree of unification of all four options “sverkhzvukovom”.
 
The documentation for interceptor T-3 completed only in the spring of 1955; this was due to priority work on T-1, defined by the customer. During the detailed design of the T-3 in the power circuit of the fuselage entered the spars turned it into a semi-monocoque. To ensure the specified performance requirements range increased fuel capacity 340 kg due to the introduction of the third fuselage tank.
 
The eighth of March, 1955 on the ground of the 6th research Institute of the air force in ahtubinsk the MiG-17P was hit by a guided missile K-5 class “air — air” bomber Tu-4. With aircraft maintenance Il-28 was recorded by a direct hit of a product on target. Although rocket had a very modest performance, air force leadership decided to take the MiG-17 PFU rocket K-5 on Board. All forward-looking interceptors were also intended to arm guided missiles.
 
In December 1954, in the tactical and technical requirements (TTT) interceptor T-3 changed the armament: 30-mm guns were replaced by guided missiles K-6 (chief designer P. D. Grushin) or K-7 (chief designer I. I. Toropov). In may 1955 map guide changed the priorities of construction of prototypes: the factory No. 51 was focused on the construction of T-3 with the backlog in front-line fighter T-1, which was curtailed by the end of 1955. Improved airframe of the T-3 at the end of the year transferred to statisticaly, while the construction of a flying machine was delayed because of the unavailability of the AL-7F engine, lack of a radar station “Almaz” and sighting and computing device, PVU-67. Instead of the missing equipment set up recording equipment (ACA) and centering loads. The first prototype was prepared for tests at the end of April 1956. After ground testing at FRI may 26, test pilot V. N. Mahalin first tore the machine from the runway. Until September 28, 1956, he performed on T-3 31 flight. During a test flight September 1, on the plane Makhalina stopped the engine, only the fifth attempt he managed to run AL-7F and safely complete the flight.
 
Fighter-interceptor su-9
 
Fighter-interceptor su-9
 
Fighter-interceptor su-9:
 
1—speed brake; 2—cooling air intake the engine compartment; 3 — fitting fastening of the rear fuselage; 4—bypass; 5—movable part of the lamp; 6—anti-surge sash; 7—rod LDPE; 8—cone of the radio waves of the inlet; 9—front reception, dual band (I and II bands) antenna of a radar transponder SOD-57 METERS; 10—front antenna SRZO-2M (III band); 11 — 600-litre external fuel tank; 12—the tail-Board air navigation light; 13—rudder; 14—aerial SOD-57M; 15—antenna radio RSIU-4V; 16—cylinder cleaning (release) the front landing gear; 17—a shimmy damper; 18—strut; 19—wheel CT-51 (570×140 mm); 20—wheel KT-89 (800×200 mm); 21 —spring strut; 22—cylinder cleaning (release) the main bearing; 23—left panel of the dashboard; 24—dot sight CRP; 25—indicator sight TSD-30T; 26 indicator guidance system “Lazur”; 27—remote control TSD-30T; 28—right panel of the dashboard; 29—upper signal Board; 30, the lower signal Board; 31 —Central panel; 32—flap wheel; 33—cover the outside compartment of the radio equipment; 34—antenna РС30-2M; 35—manhole covers of the compartments of the filters of the SOD-57M; 36—cover for control of SOD-57M; 37 hatch cover of the compartment of the transceiver SOD-57M; 38 hatch cover compartment filters SOD-57M; 39—hind each of the dual band (I and II bands) antenna of a radar transponder SOD-57 METERS; 40 antenna СР30-2M; 41 —rear antenna СР30-2M (III band); 42 — side connector terminal networks; 43 — fold compartment nose landing gear; 44—pin antenna ASM-1 system “Lazur”; 45—cover front compartment radio equipment; 46—visor lights; 47—non-directional antenna of the radio compass ark-5; A 48—antenna radio compass ark-5; 49 – all-moving stabilizer; 50—anti-flatter goods; 51—static electricity discharger; 52—flaps; 53—Aileron; 54—emergency PVD; 55—fold compartment of the braking parachute; 56—missile “air—air” R-2-US; 57—cover shot-method of AX-5; 58—flare gun and flares; 59 antenna radio marker MRP-56; 60—beamed holder DB-3-59Ф; 61 —landing light LFS-45; 62—trigger AAP-19; 63—fold chassis; 64—flap racks; 65—trigger AAP-20
 
In October ended the online prototype of the engine installed on T-3. Testing continued until 8 March 1957, after receiving the new AL-7F. The second phase of the factory tests were carried out on a modified T-3: the plane was equipped with radar “Almaz-3” SSP-3, the rsiu-4V, a system of national recognition MLRS and a new sliding part of the lantern. In the trials at this stage was also the LII pilots Vladimir Ilyushin and V. M. Pronyakin, and flew the plane — L. G. Kaliman, A. A. Koznov and M. L. Cocks. In total until the end of 1957 T-3 performed about 80 missions. The test results showed that the reliability of the power plant was as the plane-2.
 
Maximum takeoff weight T-3 compared to plan, increased from 9500 to 11 100 kg. Engine AL-7F had low reliability, the maximum thrust was less than TTT, and the specific fuel consumption is higher. Therefore, the range and duration of flight of the fighter was below the required. Satisfactory cross-drilled brake pads, cable harness control the ailerons and stabilizer.
 
During factory test T-3 were obtained ceiling of 18 km, but it was not enough for reliable protection of air borders of the country. The development of the T-3 coincided with a period of intensified intelligence activities of NATO and the invasion of Soviet airspace high-rise automatic drifting balloons (ADA) and reconnaissance aircraft with trazodonetrazodone. The peak activity of ADA flight over Soviet territory was in January — February 1956, when there were up to three thousand HELL. Due to the limited capabilities of fighter jets and anti-aircraft artillery in rare cases, Soviet air defense shot down a balloon, flying at altitudes up to 30 km. The patience of the Soviet leadership was overwhelmed with the flying high-altitude spy planes: from 4 to 9 July 1956 five times NATO aircraft with impunity passed over Soviet territory on the following routes: Grodno — Minsk — Vilnius — Kaunas — Kaliningrad; Brest — Pinsk — Baranovichi — Kaunas — Kaliningrad. 4 July 1956 scout 11-2, taking off from Wiesbaden air base in Germany, flying over Moscow, and Leningrad, and returned to their base. At this time, was preparing a Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on the awarding of a large group of workers in the aviation industry for achievements in the Russian aircraft industry, which because of those events annulled. And in August, 1956 issued a decree of the government, which required aviation design Bureau in the shortest possible time to raise the ceiling of fighter and 21 km from the Ceiling were allowed to increase the relief planes by removing nonessential equipment and parts of weapons, forcing the engines and the extra liquid boosters. In particular, to increase the height of the T-3 it was envisaged to establish a forced engine AL-7F-1 with an increased diameter of the afterburner.
 
The documentation on the modified aft fuselage T-3 for the new engine finished in December 1956 at the same time the results of production tests was to reduce the area of the ailerons. Modified documentation passed on Novosibirsk aircraft factory No. 153 of them. V. P. Chkalov, who was ordered in 1957, year manufactured 30 serial fighters. In case of delay in testing missiles K-7L and engine AL-7F-1, the first 15 cars could be rented from cannon armament and the AL-7F engine. To do this, by order of the Secretary developed documentation and a cannon version of the T-3. To accelerate testing of the engine AL-7F-1 several prototypes of the T-3 turned into a flying laboratory on the plane, with the factory code PT-95 brought the basic version AL-7F-1. On the second flying laboratory with the factory code T-39 worked out a water injection in the engine AL-7F-1 to enhance traction. To increase the height of the March by order of the Minister in 1957, envisaged the equipment of the aircraft, T-3 additional accelerator SM-50 rocket engine.
 
The developers of flying lab with the factory code T-43 with the engine AL-7F-1 and booster CM-50 is expected to significantly increase the speed of the aircraft, and unregulated air intake no longer fit for flight in the whole range of speeds and altitudes. By this time in TSAGI already enough well studied features of the round air intake device with a movable Central cone and recommended it to supersonic aircraft. Therefore, the prototype T-43 was equipped with a new air intake, different from the first prototypes With 2 sharp edges input sides. Cone had two fixed positions: up to the speed corresponding to the number M = 1,35, he was in the retracted position, then moved forward, changing the input area of the air intake device and the position of the oblique jumps, relative to the entrance of the intake, reducing the loss of total pressure in the air flow coming into the engine.
 
Revision of the aircraft T-43 had finished in the summer of 1957. Made by plant suspension device of the accelerator passed bench and static testing, but the lack of engines have delayed the beginning of flight tests. The engine for the T-43 the design Bureau of P. O. Sukhoi received only in autumn, and 10 October, the test pilot V. S. Ilyushin performed the first flight of the aircraft. In the third flight in late October, the Ilyushin lifted a new car to a height of 21.5 km and a few days later he drove the T-43 to a speed of 2200 km/h (M = 2,06), by order of the Minister of aviation industry were thanked.
The problem is about the installation plane of the accelerator for OKB Sukhoi has lost relevance. Now the aircraft needed to equip the guided missiles. This work was developed in three directions: the first is a refinement of the radar Diamond to accommodate it under the Central cone of the air intake T-43, the second — the development of a new type of air intake device that takes into account the size of the radar, the third — radar selection, appropriate for the size of the antenna for placement inside an existing cone T-43.
 
For the first direction has created a modification of the T-47, staffed its missiles K-7 and radar “Diamond” with two antennas, placed under one cone.
 
In the first half of 1958 he had completed 33 of the flight, which determined the flight characteristics of the aircraft and chose one of four options of the cone. In the summer, creating missiles K-7 has been minimized and further work continued with radar “eagle” (chief designer G. M. kunyavskii) and missiles K-8 (chief designer M. Bisnovat). The result was a fighter-interceptor su-11. Equipment T-3 lateral sector intakes was one of the options of placing a large radar antenna in the nose of the fuselage. Plane isentropic air intakes that provides high efficiency, OKB developed in 1958 under the factory code T-49, the construction of this machine was completed in the fall of 1959. On it in January, 1960’s test pilot A. A. Koznov performed several flights confirmed the design characteristics of the inlet. In the spring of 1960, during a flight accident, the aircraft was damaged, and further work on the machine stopped.
 
Work in the third direction was the shortest way to the goal. In the OKB-1 of the defense industry involved in the creation of anti-aircraft missile systems and radar for anti-ship missiles, this time under the leadership of chief designer A. A. Kolosova has developed a small radar TSD-30, which for its size came to be installed on the aircraft. In addition, in November 1957, was adopted by the aviation complex composed of MiG-19PM and missile RS-2-U (factory code K-5M) and ground systems guidance and control “Air-1”. Therefore, in the April 1958 ruling, the government asked two aviation complex based on the T-3: first — T-3-51 included radar TSD-30 and missile RS-2-US, second, T-3-8M — radar “eagle” and a rocket-8M.
 
Work under both complexes were conducted in parallel, but as the weapons system with a missile RS-2-US was tested better and was mass-produced, the work in this direction was carried out more intensively. For fine-tuning complex T-3-51 on the experimental plant # 51 modified five interceptor with factory codes T-43-2/3/4/5/6, manufactured at the plant № 153 of them.In.P.Chkalov. In preparation for testing at the pilot plant have produced three new nasal part of the fuselage to accommodate TSD-30 and radio “Lazur” modified wing for the installation of launchers of rockets and the engine management system, worked out the details for the installation of new stations, equipped with control and recording equipment (ACA).
 
On may 15 began to conduct production flight tests, during which the simulated radar TSD-30 and the communication line is “azure”, the specified high-altitude performance, held their first missile tests, assessing the probability of a stop of engines. In August, the complex of the intercept presented to the state tests.
 
Because identified during the acceptance of machinery faults to fix them all fall, and only 8 December 1958 were able to start flights under the program of state tests, performed by test pilots OKB S. V. Ilyushin, A. A. Koznov, L. G. Kaliman, H. M. Krylov and E. S. Solovyov and air force Institute — G. T. Beregovoy, N. And.Korovushkin, L. N. Fadeev, B. M. Andrianov, V. G. hoarder and S. A. Mikoyan. During the tests, was lost T-43-6. 19 June 1959, when the control of the overflight of the aircraft after the modifications have cut the connection of the CP with the pilot. To clarify the reasons for searches sent a team of specialists, who discovered a crater at the crash site of the plane that crashed into the ground at a steep angle. In return the crashed machine was allocated the serial plane received after revision in August 1959, the factory code T-3-11. When performing tests on the stage of the main constructor, completed in June 1959, and in preparation for the second phase on the aircraft T-43-1/2/3/4/5/6 and 11 fulfilled 842 flight. In preparation for the second stage of the tests modified serial T-3, which increased the capacity of the fuel system on a 720 L. wing instead of the weapons bays organized additional fuel pressurized compartment and installed a removable fuel tank between the fuselage frames No. 14 and 21. The aircraft assigned factory code T-43-12.
 
Flight characteristics of the su-9 and su-9U
 
Performance characteristics of su-9 and su-9U
 
In October started the flight under the program of the second testing phase: the test run TTT and combat use. The missile RS-2-modified for use with the higher altitude compared to the MiG-19PM aircraft. Rocket introduced a two-position switch “And” which allows you to apply it on the su-9 and MiG-19PM (switch position changed signal radio control unit — made altitude correction efforts on the management bodies of the rocket depending on media type); made stronger the attachment to the air triggering unit (APU), radio controlled fuses AR-45M replaced by a new AR-45M2 (RV-2-US), later used a more reliable PB-2-USM and RV-9. manned rocket new tracers OTI-30-1. All of this enabled the interceptor T-3 to hit with a probability of 0.7 to 0.9 and air targets flying at speeds from 800 to 1600 km/h at altitudes from 5 to 20 km. due to the lack of tall targets the testing of the missile was carried out on the aircraft target, the MiG-15РУМ.
 
The second stage of state tests was completed in April 1960, and October 15 complex T-3-51 was officially accepted into service, the aircraft was assigned the designation su-9, sight radar TSD-30T — RP-9U, and the missile received the designation of RS-2-US.
 
But even before the official adoption of the aircraft into service to its serial production began aircraft factory No. 153. In Siberia, su-9 was produced in 1958 to 1962. In mid-1959 to the production su-9 was connected located next to the pilot plant № 51 serial factory No. 30 “Znamya Truda” in Moscow. Only two companies built 1049 cars, 50 two su-9U.
 
Improvement of the aircraft continued after taking it into service over a twenty year period of production. Some improvements have eliminated the shortcomings revealed during operation in line units, while others were carried out in connection with the entering into service of new weapon systems and changing operating conditions. In February — March 1961 on the program of measures on elimination of deficiencies identified on the state tests of the su-9, the pilots of the A. A. Koznov, V. S. Seregin, and A. N. Fadeev flew the serial su-9 No. 0805, equipped with an automatic radio compass ark-10, more fully satisfied the requirements of the air force.
 
In the late 1960-ies all the su-9 was equipped with “black boxes” — the automatic check-flight parameters SARPP-12. The aircraft has replaced the LDPE-5 LDPE more perfect unified-18, with less error in the measurement of static pressure.
 
After adopting Soviet fighters in the early 1960-ies of the R-3C with a heat seeker installed on two machines owned by OKB P. O. Sukhoi, conducted its flight tests with launchers placed on the ends of the wing panels. But the su-9 in combat units in 1969, we already have the R-55 (product 67) with thermal homing head. The first launches of the R-55 is developed on the basis of RS-2-US under the leadership of N. T.Picota, with the su-9 was also completed in early 1961.
 
For use of the su-9 with a mixed armament of two R-55 and two RS-2-US was necessary to modify the radar RP-9U, which received the designation RP-9УК.
 
In NII VVS in different years experienced su-9 with 250-kg bombs cannon and unified container UPK-23-250, installed external fuel tanks instead of the ventral. According to the results of bomb armament in the air force Institute made recommendations to combat units, but due to a significant reduction of flight range without ventral tanks use UPK-23-250 was acknowledged unreasonable. In the first quarter of 1964, a group of five su-7B and three production su-9 with a wheeled chassis and underwent tests basing on unpaved airfields, the results of which for the combatant pilots developed specific recommendations.
 
Simultaneously with the development of aviation complex of interception T-3-51 government decree provided for the establishment of a training-combat fighter At-43. The development of this modification, the design Bureau of P. O. Sukhoi started in the spring of 1959. Design and engineering of the machines were done through the year. To accommodate the second crew member the fuselage is extended forward from the frame No. 14 to 600 mm. overall In a pressurized cabin of a pupil placed in front of the instructor. The design of the lamp was changed: it consisted of two stationary canopy reclining back-up parts, a rear fixed part of the frame that separates the front part from tipping back. When it changed the system of opening and closing of the lamp and it is equipped with a locking mechanism reset. Due to the increase of the volume of the cabin was subjected to modification air conditioning system, include air-to-water radiator. The equipment in both cabins was consistent with the single plane. The number of missiles on the suspension was reduced to two, leaving only the external APU-20. In contrast to the production su-9 (serial No. 0308) the cabin is At-43 highlighted in red.
 
In the autumn of 1960 at the pilot plant was modified to At-43 production aircraft su-9, manufactured by factory No. 30. Takeoff weight of the aircraft by 630 kg. amount of fuel in the pilot car because of the placement of ACA in the wing tanks has decreased to 360 l. the Aircraft was transported to LII, where pilot E. K. Kukushev 25 January 1961 performed on its first flight. In early may, the car was presented on state tests, but during a flight in Akhtubinsk has once again failed engine AL-7F-1-100, to replace which are only a month and a half. Leading test pilots from the air force Institute V. M. Andreev and I. the Foresters were able to start its flights on hospitali-Yam U-43 in September, and completed in December 1961, after 83 flights.
 
The act on the results it was noted that the training elements of the takeoff and landing prototype aircraft At-43 due to poor visibility from the rear cockpit is almost impossible. OKB Sukhoi modified light aircraft. To improve visibility increased the width of the left fixed glass in the frame of the lamp between the pilot and instructor; he shifted closer to the axis of the plane of the shelf guide rails of the ejection seat in the forward cabin; cut off the protruding parts on the ejection seat first pilot, on a frame hinged portion of the front cabin removed cross jumper; removed from view instructor details of the equipment located on the dashboard in front of the cabin and obscuring the view in front; in the rear cockpit the upper part of the dashboard shifted to the right by 60 mm.
 
Modified U-43 flew on March 23, test pilot E. K. Kukushev, and on 12 April 1962 the car was presented to the control tests, which were performed in the second half of April. In addition to Lieutenant Colonel V. M. Andreev and major I. I. Lesnikova, during the control tests, the aircraft flew military pilots S. A. Mikoyan and V. G. Ivanov, N. P.Zakharov, V. S. Kotlov, G. T. Beregovoy, A. A. Manucharov, P. F. Cabrales and inspector-pilot of the air defense Colonel Yaroslavl. According to the results of tests of the su-9U recommended for training of flight personnel combat units. At the same time, in the act it was noted that the prototype of the machine presented for testing without the required autopilot AP-28Ж and three-band damper DZK-110, therefore, the parameters of stability and controllability of the aircraft was not determined fully. All production su-9U produced plant № 30.
 
Su-9 was outstanding for its time, even during state tests of the T-43-16 in the fall of 1958 began to prepare for the implementation of record of the flight. July 14, 1959, test pilot V. S. Ilyushin has set on this machine, as stated in official documents as the T-431, an absolute world altitude record, reaching a dynamic ceiling, is 28 852 m. 28 may of the following year, a military test pilot of the B. M. Andrianov on the production su-9, serial No. 0405, set a world record for level flight speed of 2092 km/h in a 100 km In the documents sent for registration in the FAI, the plane was called T-405. In September 1962 on a lightweight T-431 with the engine AL-7F-2, which had a thrust in afterburner, increased by 12 percent, V. S. Ilyushin performed the level flight at a height of 21 170 m, and AA We passed the 500-km closed route with an average speed of 2337 km/h.
 
The development of the line aircraft parts was difficult and was accompanied by a high accident rate. This can be explained by the fact that the majority of pilots mastered the difficult in piloting the su-9 after flexible subsonic MiG-17.
 
First in air defense began development of the su-9 in the summer of 1959 fighter wing, located in Domodedovo, a suburb of Novosibirsk. For the development of new technology in the regiment arrived, the group of experienced instructors from the training center of air defense in the Gorky region, with the task in a short time to master the new aircraft. A month later the regiment “released the” six front-line pilots and had three more. Development of the aircraft was constrained by the lack of Sparky. The regiment in Tolmachevo to the development of the su-9 began in Krasnovodsk, Karshi, Lake, Stryj, Baranovichi and Kelp-Avre. The first new technique was mastered by the management team of the fighter regiments which were organized packageline the training regiment. By the middle of 1960-ies of the su-9 was armed with about three dozen regiments of air defense fighter aircraft. Operation as the shortcomings of the aircraft is eliminated and for 20 years he guarded air borders of the Fatherland. In 1981, the last fighter air defense regiments, equipped with su-9, has received more modern aircraft.
N. JAY

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