At the end of the Second world war the allies: USA, Britain, France and the Soviet Union tried to demonstrate their peaceful intentions. The United States, to acquire nuclear weapons, was calm for his country and selflessly indulged postwar liberated Europe. But it was only some two years and a friendly handshake between the leaders of the three superpowers – Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin ended. At the same time stopped, and the US monopoly on nuclear weapons.
And after the Soviet Union built copy of b-29 bomber – the Tu-4, the Americans ceased to feel secure. Began 50-year cold war. In conditions of constant military threat, both opposing sides rapidly developed means of air attack and defense. Until 1960, the only threat to the American continent a carrier of nuclear weapons were bombers, and the best remedy was a fighter-interceptors, the presence of a search radar on them is considered mandatory. In creating the first models of aircraft that took part such well-known American firms like Curtiss (Curtiss), Northrop (Northrop), Douglas (Douglas) and Lockheed. Units built interceptors to be placed along the Soviet borders in Europe, Japan and Alaska.
Interceptor firms Curtiss XF-87 Bichok (Blackhawk) is considered the first American jet fighter, equipped with radar. The USAF ordered more than 80 of these machines, but their large size and considerable takeoff weight has forced the military to lean towards the purchase of more sophisticated aircraft XF-89 “Scorpion” (Scorpion) Northrop.
Eternal rival air force – US Navy – also has not remained aloof from the passions interceptors or aircraft company Douglas – “Skinit” (Skyknight).
The high cost of the “Scorpions” did not have the military to their mass production, and began the search for cheaper machines capable of covering the sky, not only over Americans, but over the heads of their allies. In 1948, this aircraft was designed and built by Lockheed. The design of put perfectly familiar to the pilots of an educational-training T-ZZA (previously known as TP-80C). T-ZZA made its first flight on 22 March 1948 and almost immediately he was launched into serial production. Total built 798 aircraft for the air force. At its base produced single reconnaissance aircraft RT-ZZ and the training of TV-2 and Т2V , with a redesigned cabin and a brake parachute for the training of pilots of deck aircraft. The location of the air intakes, allowing to install in the bow of the radar, and is almost ready technological equipment for the construction of a larger series decided the case in favor of the company Lockheed. In December 1948, the air force has placed an order for 110 interceptors under the designation F-94A.
Fighter-interceptor F-94B in flight
Fighter-interceptor F-94B in the Parking lot
Using for the flight test of the design of the modernized T-33, for testing radar, engine and equipment – F-80, the company abandoned the construction of a prototype. The entire testing program took place on the first pre-production airplane, the YF-94, which was collected in just three months and one week using 75% of the parts mass-produced T-33A with serial number 48-356.
The aircraft was fitted with the engine J33-A-33 centrifugal compressor with a nominal thrust of 2090 kg. the Advantage of this motor compared to the J33-A-35 T-33, was the presence of the afterburner. The latter gave an additional increase of speed and climb rate. All output device to J33-A-33 (exhaust pipe, afterburning chamber and the nozzle) was developed by the firm Solar. Firm “Jones Makvill” (Jons McWill) has developed a special synthetic felt “thermoflex” for the insulation design of the tail section of the glider. When you turn on the afterburner and that time traditional water injection in the compressor the engine thrust reached 2720 kg. Testing the power plant was held in April 1949 in Westinghouse, one of the F-80.
In the nose of the glider was placed radar sight of the firm’s Sperry A-1C weighing 425 kg. This device had a scanning antenna, which is watched in a certain sector in the front hemisphere. When the field of view of the antenna hit a target on the screen of a cathode-ray tube in the cockpit displayed the mark. The closer the fighter to the target intensity of the reflected signal was increased and after it reaches a certain value, the radar AN/APG-33 is switched to the mode of radar rangefinder. His signals came in on-Board computing device making the necessary amendments and includes a weapon when approaching to the range of fire. The first series of riflescopes A-1A and A-1B did not have any of the above functions, a scanning antenna and occupied much less space on Board. During the testing station found four-engine b-29 (read Tu-4) at a distance of 16 452 meters. Switching radar range finder was at a distance of 1100 meters from the target.
Summing up the results of an enumeration of the main differences of T-ZZA from F-94, we can say that the new aircraft from the middle part of the fuselage, wing and empennage. The bow section became a “snub-nosed” or more long, and the diameter of the tip of the tail increased. The total length of the airframe is made up 12.23 m (vs 11,87 m T-ZZA). Take-off weight of the machine increased from 6570 kg, the T-33 to 5850 kg. Respectively and increased the wing loading, amounting to 341 kg/m2 vs. 299 kg/m2.
16 April 1949, test pilot for the Lockheed company William lever (LeVier William Top) taxied on the runway of the airport van news in California and made its first flight on the interceptor, the F-94. The aircraft received the name Starfire – “Fire star”. In the air the car behaved perfectly. After landing, Tony said: “…the Impression that flew the T-33…”. But you cannot say that the trial went smoothly. The trouble began during the second flight at a height of 6100 m when the pilot turned on the afterburner. The car shuddered as inept at pulling away by car and increase the speed of flight was not followed. With aircraft maintenance reported the spontaneous shutdown of the afterburner. The following flight history with afterburner again, the lever has made several attempts to turn on the afterburners and they all failed. Experts search for cause. Engineers have researched afterburner and an exhaust pipe connecting it to the engine, which sharp-tongued specialists was nicknamed the “steel devil”. And came to the conclusion that all the “guilty” ignition system and the combustion mode in the afterburner. After appropriate modifications have finally managed to achieve stable operation of the engine in all modes and altitudes.
Refer to drawing F-94:
1 Kil; 2 – intake cooling system of the engine; 3 – operational sunroof; 4 – the canopy in the closed position; 5 – canopy canopy; 6 – the Radome of the radar; 7 – machine-gun ports; 8 – air inlet; 9 – terminal wing-mounted external fuel tank; 10 – fold the channel outlet boundary layer; 11 – fuel filler cap wing fuel tank; 12 – Aileron; 13 – Elevator; 14 – trimmer of the Elevator; 15 – the stabilizer; 16 – a hatch compartment weapons; 17 – ejection seat; 18-control rod canopy; 19 – the canopy in the open position; 20 – rudder; 21 – trimmer of the rudder; 22 – nozzle engine; 23 – flap landing gear; 24 – fold niche of cleaning the wheels of the main stand; 25 – fold niche cleaning-front; 26 – front; 27 – wheel of the a-pillar; 28 – LDPE; 29 – an air intake duct; a 30 – slot allotment boundary layer; 31 – fuselage brake pads; 32 trimmer Aileron; 33 – brake landing flap; 34 – maintenance hatch motor; 35 – dvuhsvetny; 36 – taxiway lights; a 37 – headrest; 38 – harness belt system; a 39 – foot pegs; 40 – stick ejection
Series production began in late 1949. The first production of “Starfire” was solemnly handed over to the air force in January 1950. In June of the same year made cars made up the first combat squadron 319 FAWS all-weather interceptors. The maximum speed of the production aircraft was 975 km/h and climb rate of 28 m/s -data is very decent for the time. The only drawback of the machine – a small amount of fuel on Board, only 2450 liters, given the extravagance of the afterburner combat range was only 480 km. With such characteristics, the combat use of the aircraft took place in the following scenario. After receiving the order, the pilot took off and turned on the afterburner, gaining altitude, spending for this surgery for about five minutes. Within 15 minutes he was looking for and grabbed a goal, and another 10 to 15 minutes left on his return journey and landing. Use in flight, additional fuel tanks became a necessity. Lockheed has provided the possibility of suspension at the ends of the wing tanks of different capacities – from 570 up to 624 liters of kerosene. For optimum performance the range has reached 1730 km.
For the decision of tasks of air defense of the US aircraft was a good fit and air force, at the expense of appropriations for the fiscal year 1949/50, ordered another 132 F-94, so the total number of ordered “starfire” reached 242 pieces. It is interesting to note that fighter the “sabre” was ordered in all 150 cars, F-84 – 120, a F-89 Scorpion – only 60. Of the 242 aircraft F-94 100 cars had the designation F-94B – second modification.
Work on the creation of a second modification of the F-94 was completed in September 1950. The only purpose of the modification was to increase the flight range up to 2250 km due to the suspension of the huge fuel tanks with a capacity of 873 liters each. At the same time changed the composition of the onboard equipment, to include automatic landing system ILS, which included the famous “zero indicator” of the company Sperry. A null pointer was actually the forerunner to navigation and planning instruments, its main purpose is facilitating navigation by radio beacons and improved accuracy of recovery of the aircraft on the glide path. Externally, the device resembled a modern NPP, only information about the course was displayed on a separate indicator. First advanced F-94B began to enter the air defense (Air Defense Command) in 1951. The first of them received 57 squadron of interceptors stationed in Keflavík. Serial production of the F-94A and F-94B was completed in January 1952.
The next step in improving “Starfire” became modification, formerly known as the F-97A, or Lockheed model L-188, but later renamed to F-94C. The first flight of a new modification was made on January 19, 1950, the cabin was Tony lever and the radar operator Glenn Fulkerson (Glenn Fulkerson).
F-94C is significantly different from its predecessors. Its more durable design to withstand overload up to 13D. It was installed a new engine with an axial compressor J48-P-5 firms Pratt & Whitney (Pratt & Whitney) (licensed motor Tau “TEI”), a British company rolls-Royce (Rolls-Royce) thrust in afterburner 3780 kg. To reduce the drag of 3% was reduced relative profile thickness of the wing and pointed nose cone of the radar. Horizontal tail the tail gave a sweep to compensate for the phenomenon of the compressibility of air at high speeds. In the on-Board equipment included the automatic control system and a new radar AN/APG-40 with a capacity of 250 kW, also a member of the weapons system of the company Hughes (Hughes) – E-5. The weight of the entire system – 545 kg.
Keeping pace with the times, American designers have pulled off small arms and replaced him with rockets FFAR (Folding-Fin Aircraft Rockets) caliber 70 mm. After launch, the rocket accelerated to a speed of 880 m/s, its devastating effect upon hitting the target, similar to the action of an artillery shell of caliber of 75 mm. Maximum takeoff weight “Starfire” reached 7258 kg, while the specific load on the wing -560 kg/m2. To reduce the landing distance in the rear mounted brake parachute.
The convergence of the F-94C with the goal was with the help of ground radar stations before the moment of target acquisition radar, at a distance of about 40 km from the target. To practice applied towed aircraft b-45 Tornado cloth fabric size 13,7×2,7 m. To ensure the radar visibility of the “target” on the panel were sewn metal disks. During firing of 1954, which were held in the desert of Arizona, there were 27% of hits in the target.
The first production F-94C was adopted 437 FIS (squadron of fighter-interceptors) in 1951 year. When in the Arsenal of the U.S. air force there were missiles Falcon GAR-I (old designation F-98), they are installed on all fighter-interceptors of the United States, including “starfire”, further increasing the efficiency of the aircraft. Modification armed with guided missiles, called the DF-it’s 84c, except for UR “Falcon” (Falcon), they can be suspended and unguided rockets “Jeanie” (Genies) with a nuclear warhead.
In the process of evolution interceptor “Starfire” was an interesting attempt to convert it into a strike aircraft with long-range F-94D. The car was created specifically for the Korean war, when the loss of attack aircraft increased dramatically, and speed “Starfire” could be a tough nut to crack for the MiG-15. In the bow of the F-94D instead of the radar set 20-mm cannon with plenty of ammunition. Instead of an engine J48-P-5 a more powerful J48-P-8. In 1951 he built two prototypes with the factory rooms 51-5500 and 51-5501. The flight tests took place in Massachusetts. In the mass production of shock “Starfire” was never launched.
July 26, 1952, one of the “old-fyrow” participated in the hunt for UFOs. An unidentified flying object was discovered by air defense radar in 22 hours 30 minutes over Washington. From Andrews air force base raised the duty interceptor F-94. Having become acquainted with the object, the pilot reported to the base that is watching something sparkling like a diamond. After some time the UFO passed over the National airport and disappeared.
When the situation on the Korean Peninsula began to deteriorate, released F-94B began to be dispatched to Japan on the base, Itazuke for the arms of the local parts of the defense. So “Starfire” came on the international scene.
When the fighting began, the main night fighter-interceptor, the Americans had an old F-82 “twin Mustang”, he is quite satisfied with the command, but only as long as the sky is not the MiG-15. Now the front needed a new machine at this time, and remembered the F-94B, standing in Japan. The first two “starfire” flew out of the Country of the rising sun at an air base in Suwon in December 1951. The aircraft became part of the 68th all weather fighter squadron (FAWS), an armed “twin Mustangs”, and were in the area of the conflict until March 1952. 22 Mar 1952 year, the air defense system reinforced by a squadron of F-94 – the unit (319 FIS) previously was based in the United States on the basis of the Mac Cord.
“Starfairy” began to make sorties to intercept enemy aircraft crossing the 38th parallel. Previously to fly over the border of the U.S. pilots were forbidden. According to air force commander General Vandenberg (Hoyt S. Vandenberg), who visited with on the Korean Peninsula in November 1952, this strict ban prevented the interceptor to reach its full combat potential. At his insistence, the ban was removed, and the F-94 began to invade the airspace of North Korea. The first sorties over the 38th parallel brought a lot of trouble – the Americans lost one F-94. He probably faced (literally) in the air with the MiG-15 at an altitude of 10 000 meters. The pilot and operator, “Starfire” ejected. In March – April 1953 F-94 was used to escort b-29 bombers. The interceptor flew ahead of the bomber formation and examined their radar airspace in search of the enemy. According to American data, for all ten sorties on escort there was not a single air combat.
First victory flying the F-94B was won by American pilot captain Ben Fithian (Benjamin L. Fithian) and radar operator Lieutenant Sam Lyons (Sem R. Lyons) during the night of 31 January 1953. That night in the air were the F-80 “Shuting Old.” Here is how his famous departure Ben Fithian: “the Night was clear and quiet. My radar operator and I were in an anxious mood, as from the earth we informed on the activities of North Korean aircraft. However, it was especially important to pilots from the 8th fighter wing, flying F-80. The F-80 was generally very dependent on the night of help from the ground, especially during takeoff and landing, but to give them a night flight lasted no more than 15 minutes. Our plane was flying almost due North, course 30, on the territory of North Korea. We have already decided to return when the radar has detected an aerial target over the island of Sado. The control center ranged in opinion: it is our aircraft and the enemy. We were also tormented by this question. But the F-94B continued to come closer, we already passed the island. 80 km from the island’s purpose was far below us, and had to start the reduction from the height of 7600 m. the distance to the target constantly decreased. The plane was flying at an altitude of 1520 m. the Operator reported that the distance of 9 km and determined its speed – 230 – 240 km/h Constantly decreasing, the aircraft approached the target at 7 km Altitude was already 365 m, but had to decline further. Finally, at a height of 182 m, the aircraft left the range of fire. Although the mark was clear and big, it was very difficult to keep the target in sight, as the speed difference was very large. From a distance of 120 meters I opened fire… the Results just did not see, quickly slipped of the enemy. Making a u-turn, we with the operator determined that the target disappeared from our radar screens. It later became known that the plane was shot down, and it appeared to be a North Korean La-9 Soviet production…”.
In these memoirs are well marked in all the difficulties which faced the crew of “Starfire” in the fight against air targets. As a rule, the main enemy were slow-moving aircraft Po-2, Yak-9 or Yak-18. To bring down such an aircraft on a high-speed interceptor is extremely difficult and sometimes such interception ended tragically. So, in 23 hours 30 minutes 3 may 1953 pilot F-94 Lieutenant Wilcox Stanton (Stanton G. Wilcox) and radar operator Lieutenant Irwin Goldberg (Irwin L. Goldberg), did not consider large difference in speed between the plane and the Korean Po-2 and literally ran into the enemy, which flew with a speed of 177 km/h. the Fourth of may Americans in similar circumstances have lost another “Starfire” and his crew. This time the pilots were overdone, slowing down your plane lost speed and crashed into the ground.
Six days later, on may 10, the Americans won another aerial victory. Early in the morning (in 4 hours 25 minutes local time) captain John Phillips (John R. Phillips) and radar operator captain bill ATTO (Billy J. Atto) found a single MiG-15. They managed unnoticed to close with the enemy and knock him off.
The last victory in this war on account of the pilot F-94, Lieutenant Colonel Mack Hale (Mchale) and radar operator captain Sam Hoster (Sam Hoster). In 22 hours 45 minutes 7 Jun 1953 in river Yala they shot down another MiG-15. At the same time he was the last plane shot down in Korea by night.
According to American data, in the course of the war, the air force lost only one F-94, accidentally rammed a MiG-15. According to the Soviet side, on account of our pilots – 12 “starfire”, and only one shot down in the night and another F-94 was shot down Chinese pilots. Such a big difference in the amount that can be explained only by the assumption that hiding data on the losses of b-29 bombers, the Americans were forced to hide and shot down “starfire” that accompanied them.
And at the end of the story some statistics: during the war the F-94B performed 4694 sorties and shot down 8 aircraft: 1 – La-9, 4 – On-2 and 3 – the MiG-15.
Design all-metal aircraft, the F-94 and T-33 are the same: a wing, a chassis, and the middle part of the fuselage.
The fuselage is semi-monocoque. Under it is fixed the brake pads. In the bow, the detachable part of the fuselage is oxygen and electronic equipment. Scanning radar antenna closed curved fairing of the PCB. Under the radio equipment on the F-94A and F-94B placed four machine gun M-3 12.7 mm ammunition 300 rounds per gun. In the middle part of the fuselage is pressurized cockpit, and behind it is the fuselage fuel tank. The chairs of the pilot and the radar operator – ejection.
Wing design douglasiana, it has a laminar profile NACA. In the control system the ailerons – hydraulic boosters. On the left Aileron installed trimmer. Between the Aileron and trimmer flaps are electrically powered. Wingtip fuel tanks are discharged.
THE NUMBER OF AIRCRAFT PRODUCED F-94 (FOR MODIFICATIONS)
Landing gear – tricycle with a nose wheel. Brakes are only on the main wheels. The mechanism of the landing gear is hydraulic.
Fighter-interceptor F-94C “Starfire” is armed with 24 NUR FFAR located in the bow around the Radome of the radar. The rockets are in the four stores, six missiles each. Before firing the launcher closed doors. In addition, 24 missiles are placed in two containers on the consoles of the wing. From the wing of NUR containers are produced in one gulp for 0.25 seconds. In flight the nose of the container closed by fairings made of fiberglass, which are destroyed at start-up. The speed of the aircraft is reduced between 7 and 15 km/h Instead of the wing containers with NUR can be installed in containers with machine guns.
A. CHECHIN, N. Food reserve was
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