“SHARK”, AND NOT SHOWING TEETH

Reconnaissance-torpedo bomber Blackburn Shark. In 1933 the air Ministry of great Britain has issued a document S. 15/33, which stipulates the requirements for a new scout-spotter-torpedo with a symbol T. S. R. (Torpedo-Spotter-Reconnaissance). According to these requirements, the aircraft had to operate from the decks of aircraft carriers, catapult ships and land-based airfields. This umieralnosci achieved by interchangeable wheel or float landing gear.

 
In the competition for the order involved the British company Fairey, Gloster and Blackburn. Fairey designed the plane TSR II, which is in the process of development has become the famous SWORDFISH torpedo bomber. Firm Gloster presented their project—TSR.38, and Blackburn put the biplane In-6. After comparative evaluation of the projects, the Navy chose two of the most promising ones, from companies such as Fairey and Blackburn.
 
The prototype At-6 was built over the summer of 1933. It established the Tiger IV engine maximum power of 700 HP His first flight of the aircraft was made on August 24 in the cockpit was test pilot A. Blake. After a successful flight the plane, however, returned to the factory for installation of the annular hood to the star of the cylinders of the engine. The next flight took place only on 26 November.
 
In early 1934 V-6 was sent to Gosport, where it was reloaded on Board the aircraft carrier “Garages” for flight from the deck. During the tests on the fuselage instead of index In-6 has caused the registration number К4295. The first impression of the flight data of the aircraft was satisfactory. The car was publicly demonstrated at the exhibition of the Royal air force at Hendon on 30 June 1934, and in August, the firm Blackburn received an order to build a small series of 16 aircraft. In October, the car was given an official name I SHARK (Shark). Its main difference from the prototype was increased the engine hood, which covers a manifold of exhaust pipes.
 
The machine is installed on the floats 10 September 1934 it was transferred to the plant. The redesign of the chassis ended in November. The floats mounted on the fastening Assembly of the main chassis under the bottom wing, the shape and number of struts has been modified; the design of the chassis included the ability of the suspension to the torpedo on the ventral node.
 
Interestingly, the floats were mounted with rubber shock absorption that allows you to demirovici their small fluctuations. On each float there was a water wheel with pneumatic control system. In addition, for the SHARK I have installed a new hood similar to the hood of the production aircraft.
 
The first flight from the water surface took place on the river Humber in April — may 1935. After you have moved the aircraft to the base of seaplanes in Felixstowe for sea trials, conducted by Lieutenant Bradbury. Sailing and flying qualities “Sharks” are quite satisfied with the military, and the car in this version was put into production. Clean the float modifications to release was not planned, but if necessary on all production vehicles, it was possible to set the floats.
 
The first batch of 16 aircraft registration number with К4349 for К4364 was used primarily to test aircraft and weapons — torpedoes, bombs on ten hardpoints with a total weight up to 800 kg and 7.7-mm machine gun.
 
The first production SHARK I enrolled in 820 squadron on Board the carrier “Corages” in November 1934. Delivery throughout the party ended in July 1935. In the operation of machinery revealed many of the problems associated with the reliability of the power plant. The air Ministry demanded to replace the Tiger engine company, Armstrong Siddeley motors to more powerful and reliable.
 
A new modification was named SHARK I. One of the last production aircraft was returned to the factory for installation of the modified engine Tiger power 760 HP Remaining 15 machines operated until 1938 and was gradually lost when tested the ship’s catapult to fly unmanned.
 
When creating SHARK II design used as a basis К4295 and one of the series of SHARK I. in this machine not only set the new engines, but additionally strengthened the tail part of the fuselage. Not really hoping for an improved Tiger, the engineers decided to try also the Pegasus III engine capacity of 800 HP
 
The air force ordered three modified aircraft (registration numbers К4880—К4882), the latter of which was equipped with a motor of Pegasus III. Comparative tests showed the approximate equality of the characteristics of the aircraft with different engines, but the choice was still in favor of the car with the engine in the Tiger.
 
A new order for the SHARK II was 123 cars. On the part of the production aircraft were the only float chassis for use on ships equipped with catapults.
 
The plane number К4882 engine III Pegasus soon returned to the factory for completion under the new requirements of the air force. The designers required to make the cockpit closed and install on the machine all-metal three-bladed propeller is two-bladed wooden one.
 
In early 1937, the air force has ordered 95 aircraft, giving them the name SHARK III. Later came an additional order for 50 such machines. New modification motor Tiger has fallen short of expectations. Unreliability of the power plant is constantly threatened pilots by accident and sometimes led to tragedies. For example,
 
February 15, 1937 not far from Alexandria, the pilot reported a decrease in oil pressure. Then the motor jammed and the plane crashed. The crew was killed.
 
Replacement engines Tiger on Pegasus are unable to save the situation, and the torpedo began to withdraw from combat units in the so-called “second line”. The attention of the military switched to the more modern SWORDFISH. Aircraft SHARK was transferred to the ejection part, with their hull numbers were varied from 400 to 700. in addition to the 820 squadron, which was based on the aircraft carrier “Corages”, “shark” was used in 822 squadron (the aircraft carrier “Furies”) and in the 810th squadron.
 
With the outbreak of war the British fleet urgently began to collect the remaining cars and bring them to the newly created unit. The new squadrons were assigned numbers, starting with 750-th. The squadron under the number 750 was established in may of 1939, aircraft SHARK II.
 
Together with the squadrons 751 and 752 is a division engaged in training of pilots, observers, and 755-757 I-I squadron was the basis of the school of gunners. Pilots of torpedo bombers were trained on the aircraft SHARK SHARK II and III. Some vehicles were used as towing targets. Thus, the “sharks” were the main training aircraft of naval aviation of the UK.
 
Reconnaissance-torpedo bomber BLACKBURN SHARK
 
Reconnaissance-torpedo bomber BLACKBURN SHARK
 
Reconnaissance-torpedo bomber BLACKBURN SHARK:
 
1 — three-blade steel propeller with a constant pitch; 2— hood Pegasus-III; 3—removable operating panel, 4—course 7.7 mm Vickers machine gun; 5 — canopy cockpit; 6 — sliding part of the cockpit canopy; 7 — 7.7 mm machine gun Vickers K; 8 — the radio antenna; 9 — the stabilizer struts; 10 pegs; 11 — hatch access to the cartridge box; 12 — the lower struts of the wing; 13 — front float; 14 — oil cooler; 15 — node mounting of the float; 16 — float; 17 — the wheel of the float; 18 — wheel roll-out carts; 19— roll-out cart; 20 — hinge of the rudder; 21 — position light; 22 — trimmer of the rudder; 23 — the rudder; 24 — headrest pilot’s seat; 25 — front wing; 26 — brace the upper wing; 27 — hood Tiger VI; 28 — two-bladed wooden propeller with a constant pitch; 29 — flame retardant pipe extension of the exhaust pipe of the engine; 30 — external fuel tank; 31 — redan float; 32 — steel tension band outboard fuel tank; 33 — the cockpit canopy in the closed position; 34 — mooring earrings; 35 — slats; 36 — ANO; 37 — Aileron lower wing; 38 — hatches access to the fuselage fuel tanks; 39 — stabilizer; 40 — handlebar height; 41 —trimmer of the Elevator; 42 — rod trimmer of the Elevator; 43 Kil; 44 — ropes of the rudder; 45 sites installation, roll-out truck; a 46 — aircraft torpedo; 47 — Pitot tube; 48 — the root rib is the top of the console; 49 — center section of the upper wing; 50 — wing bomb racks; 51 — brace floats; 52 — ribs; 53 root rib of the lower console; 54 — disc, 55 — strap handle install disk; 56— a stabilizing vane; 57 — hillsoboro; 58 rocking of the rudder; 59 — a niche cleaning gun; 60— Aileron of the upper wing; 61 — the right console wing in the folded position

 
In combat the torpedo SHARK participated only sporadically, and then only in the beginning of the war. During the evacuation of British troops from Dunkirk three SHARK III dropped flares to facilitate the search for the periscopes of German submarines.
 
In 1939, about two dozen sharks was sent to the far East in the 4 th United unit based in Sélibaby. The crew of the SHARK II at number К5621 received 22 January 1942 orders to fly to the bombing of the Japanese troops. Four 115-kg bombs under the wings SHARK II, accompanied by a pair of fighters had gone on a mission. Successfully bombed, the crew of “Shark” noticed in the air the Japanese fighters, but they did not pay attention to the biplane, and all the British planes returned safely to base. It was the only case of the use of SHARK airplane as a bomber.
 
In addition to the UK, “sharks” was in service of Portugal and Canada.
 
In 1934, in Portugal, has announced an international tender for the supply of bombers for naval aviation. In March 1935, of multiple planes represented firms from Germany, USA, Italy and the UK, chose the SHARK. Portugal has ordered six aircraft on floats. To adapt to local conditions the British had to redo them engines, as in Portugal, used gasoline “77”, and in the UK “87”. Besides, set a new radio station, and on three planes removed the hardpoints for torpedoes, instead they hung additional fuel tanks with a capacity of 720 liters. In 1936 ordered aircraft was dismantled, Packed in crates and the sea brought to the base in the vicinity of Lisbon. In Portugal, the “sharks” operated for about two years.
 
In 1936, seven torpedo float was purchased in Canada. The aircraft was sent to Trenton, on the shore of lake Ontario, with a “Shark” float chassis was replaced by a ski. In the late 30-ies of Canada acquired the license to manufacture these aircraft. Almost all components were produced in canadian factories. Structurally, the canadian SHARK did not differ from English, only instead of a gun, “Vickers” was installed “Browning”. During the war, seaplanes were involved in patrolling the coastal waters, repeatedly attacked enemy submarines. In 1944 they were withdrawn from service.
 
Design description
 
Seaplane SHARK was a double triple all-metal single-engine reconnaissance torpedo bomber, made by the scheme biplane.
 
The fuselage had advanced for its time, a semi-monocoque design and was divided into three watertight parts (compartments): the front (bow), Central and caudal. This provided additional buoyancy during a forced landing on the water and allowed the crew to safely exit the plane. The fuselage skin and his power set made of durable aluminum with corrosion-resistant coating.
 
In the front part of the fuselage on a steel Motorama installed engine. Immediately behind the engine housed the fuel units and oil systems, closed quick-release panels, which simplified their operation. In front of the crew cabin is equipped with two main fuel tank.
 
The Central section of the fuselage was occupied by the cabin crew. All crew members were located in tandem (one after another). In a first modification of the cockpit was completely open, only the pilot was defended by a small wind visor. On later versions of the SHARK III the cockpit is partially closed the transparent canopy (cabin arrow remained open) and installed a heating system.
 
Instrumentation has allowed flying in both simple and difficult weather conditions. In the cockpit the radio operator-observer housed the power station and equipment for photo reconnaissance. The survey was carried out through a special window in the floor of the cab. In the cockpit of the arrow on the pin was mounted 7.7 mm machine gun “Vickers”. In the tail of the fuselage is attached to the fin and stabilizer with Elevator. In the tail section was located and rescue equipment crew.
 
The wings of the aircraft were biplane form a box, wherein the span of the lower wing was much smaller. Both wings had the same two-spar all-metal construction. The spars were made of stainless steel. Ribs were made of light aluminium alloy. Plating — plain. Wing sock in the later versions had dural lining.
 
The upper and lower wings were joined together with three reinforced shaped N-shaped racks without braces. Braces were placed only between the struts connecting the upper wing and the fuselage. This design proved to be strong enough to allow the wing even in the folded position to withstand the bomb load.
 
Both the upper and lower wings technologically divided into three sections: Central (the center), right and left console. Last, if necessary, can be folded back along the fuselage. First firm Blackburn for folding wing used a pneumatic system, and it greatly simplifies the work of technical staff.
 
Half span of the consoles of the upper wing leading edge held the slats, which increased the stability of the aircraft on takeoff and landing. Across the span upper and lower wings, the ailerons were located. Control ailerons hard. On consoles, the lower wing was set at five standard bomb racks. On one of the stands right console is attached to the Pitot tube (Pitot).
 
The tail design was similar to the wing. Power set an all-metal, linen lining. The keel is weakly expressed. The rudder is larger. The trimmer of the rudder plate and could be rejected only on the ground. Serial canadian version of the aircraft, the trimmer did controlled from the cab. The stabilizer is supported by the N-shaped strut. Both sections of the Elevator were equipped with controllable trim tabs. Wiring of Elevator control and directions of the flexible cable from the control stick and pedals.
 
 
The power plant of the aircraft SHARK I and II consisted of a radial air-cooled engine Tiger Tiger IV or VI of the company Armstrong Siddeley motors with a capacity of respectively 700 and 760 HP On SHARK III used a more powerful engine Pegasus III of Bristol with a capacity of 800 HP Engines Tiger was equipped with two-bladed propellers constant pitch, a Pegasus is a three-blade metal propellers. Fuel was housed in two main fuselage fuel tanks with a total capacity of 722 litres per SHARK I and 770 liters SHARK II and III. These modifications were installed and additional reserve tank capacity of 90 liters. The Portuguese aircraft provided for the installation of additional ventral fuel tank with a capacity of 720 liters.
 
Landing the device consisted of two floats all-metal construction, divided into four sealed sections. On each float there was a rudder that is controlled from the cockpit pedals. To impart greater rigidity floats on top of them naklevyvaniya additional spars.
 
On all aircraft chassis replacement was performed. If necessary, you can install floats or wheels. For attaching the floats to the fuselage were used, the additional struts, are connected between a cross bar.
 
Armament consisted of two 7.7 mm machine guns, “Vickers”: term in the right upper part of the fuselage with ammunition 1000 rounds and defensive in the cockpit of the arrow. Full bomb load was 800 kg. per ten wing bomb racks could accommodate 60-kg bombs, and in the Central ventral node — aircraft torpedo.
 
Flight performance torpedo bomber BLACKBURN SHARK
 
Wing span, m………………………………………………………………. 14,02
The scale in folded position, m……………………………………..4,57
Length, m:
on wheels…………………………………………………………………….. 11,43
on floats………………………………………………………………… 11,70
Height, m:
on wheels……………………………………………………………………….3,68
on floats…………………………………………………………………..4,34
Wing area, m2…………………………….. ………………………………45,43
The empty weight of the SHARK I and II, kg;
on wheels……………………………………………………………………… 1833
on floats…………………………………………………………………. 2088
The empty weight of the SHARK III, kg;
on wheels……………………………………………………………………… 1788
on floats……………………………………………………………….2042,5
Flight speed wheel version SHARK I and II, km/h;
at sea level…………………………………………………………………240
ferry…………………………………………………………………… 189
Airspeed float option SHARK III, km/h:
maximum, at an altitude of 1680 m………………………………………230
ferry…………………………………………………………………… 180
The rate of climb, m/s………………………………………………………..3,7
Ceiling, m……………………………………………………………………….. 4650
Range, km;
normal……………………………………………………………………..1110
the maximum (from the PTB)……………………………………………………. 1835

 
N. Food reserve was, A. CHECHIN, Kharkov

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