April 23, 1968 carrier rocket 11А511 was launched into orbit a new spacecraft 7K-OK, called the “Union”. The ship was piloted by pilot-cosmonaut, hero of the Soviet Union Vladimir Komarov. During the flight revealed a lot of failures due to the imperfections of design, what was the reason for the reduction program. On April 24th, during the descent from orbit, the crash occurred — refused recovery system of the lander. He was broken from hitting the ground, and an astronaut, unfortunately, died. It was the first victim of manned spaceflight.

So began the tragic fate of the new spacecraft.


In the further hard work of developers and testers spacecraft and its booster has improved and was brought to a high degree of reliability. Created a new modification of the spacecraft is a “Union T” and “Soyuz TM” and missiles-wear-for them— “Soyuz” and “Soyuz-2”. They were intended for manned flight programs long-term orbital stations “Salyut” and “Mir” and the Soviet-American program “Soyuz-Apollo”, which was the first flight of the international crew. Currently, the spacecraft and the launch vehicle are designed to provide the international space station.
The proposed drawings of the carrier rocket “Soyuz-2”, which may 18, 1991 launched into orbit the spacecraft “Soyuz TM-12”, flying to the space station “Mir”. Part of the international crew consisted of two cosmonauts of the USSR Anatoly Arcebarsky Sergei Krikalev and Helen Sharman English. This rocket served as Alexander Left the prototype for the creation in the laboratory of rocket and space modeling of the Moscow city Palace of children’s (youthful) creativity of her models up and helped him to become the champion of Russia, Europe and the world.
The story of the launch vehicle (LV) “Soyuz” started in 1960, when the OKB-1 under the leadership of chief designer of rocket-space systems S. P. Korolev began developing a four-stage PH, later dubbed “Lightning”. This booster was to solve a wide range of issues: from the launching of interplanetary stations to output in low earth orbit telecommunication satellites. Its three-stage version, received index 11А57, intended for a conclusion to a circumterraneous orbit heavy reconnaissance satellites, ships “Zenit-4”.
Base for PH 11А57 became famous Royal “seven”. Newly developed powerful 3-stage — rocket block (RB) And had a diameter of 2.66 m and a length of the body 6,745 m. the Basis for it was the design and the engine of the 2nd stage Intercontinental ballistic missile R-9. Its four-chamber liquid rocket engine (LRE) RD-0110 open schemes with a thrust of 30 tons used liquid oxygen and kerosene, as both the lower level and had a specific impulse of 330 s. the Engine was designed by Voronezh KB under the leadership of chief designer S. A. Kosberg.
Block And consisted of a spherical tank, the instrument compartment of the oxidizer tank and the tail section. Its design features made it possible to appreciably reduce the weight. The engine without a traditional load frame was attached to the bottom of the oxidizer tank and the rear compartment was detachable. Flight control was carried out four steering nozzles, through which the produced exhaust gas from the turbopump Assembly LRE. The separation of the 2nd and 3rd steps occurred in a “hot circuit” (that is, when the engine 2 nd stage), and after 5— 10 were dropped and the tail section of the unit And is divided into three sections. Three stage media is allowed to output in low-earth orbit a payload of up to 5.9 t With it launched the first multi-seat ships-satellites “rising” and “Voskhod-2”. In flight the latest, in March 1965, cosmonaut Alexei Leonov, the world’s first stepped into space.
In March 1963, the OKB-1 completed the preliminary design of complex assemblies and maneuvering in orbit, one of whose objectives— manned flight to the moon. The complex consisted of: the spacecraft 7K, refueled in orbit space rocket 9K and the tanker is tanker 11 K. To launch them into orbit would be established on the basis of PH 11А57 new media 11А511. In the future scheme of the complex has been repeatedly modified and eventually transformed into modern, consisting of the orbital station, manned (Soyuz) and transport (“Progress”) ships.
Manned spacecraft 7K-OK consisted of three parts. Household was located in the front compartment (BO) from the docking node and the transition manhole. For him the descent module (SA), which served as the cabin of astronauts. Hereinafter, a service compartment, which housed the control units, fuel tanks, and corrective propulsion system of the ship is designed to modify the flight trajectory, landing and braking on the descent to the ground. The starting mass of the spacecraft ranged from 6.46 to 6.56 t
The booster 11А511 (compared to 11А57) increased to 6.5 t weight payload and changed the system of emergency rescue. To do this, the rocket was launched with an inclination of 51.5 degrees to the equator’s plane, used light weight to 150 kg, the telemetry system and carried out individual selection of motors for Central units with the specific impulse of not less than 252 with the ground and 315 in the void. Revision of the media was minimal — changed docking station 3rd stage (the block) with a payload and shape of the head fairing (TH).
Booster 11А511 consisted of a package of missile units, the 1st and 2nd steps, 3rd stage (block s) And spacecraft 7K-OK, closed the active portion of the payload fairing, on top of which a propulsion system of emergency rescue system (PS SAS). Length PH was 49,913 m, starting weight — 309 T. the Magnitude of the aerodynamic rudders — 10,412 M.
SAS was intended to rescue the crew during launch CC orbit. On the first leg of the flight, from the moment you start to reset and do a SAS, provided for withdrawal from the emergency missiles detachable head unit (OGE). It includes DU CAC and the upper part of the fairing, inside of which is placed to escape the part of the ship (BO and CA). The fairing mounted four lattice stabilizer, drop down to the office of the OGB. Bringing the SAS into action when the PH is at the Launch complex, produced on command from the control run, as in flight — automatically. In the first section, SAS operates as follows: when the command is separated from the instrument SA-Agra-hatne compartment and the upper portion of the dynamic cone reveals the locks of consoles lattice stabilizer which provides aerodynamic stabilization of the flight, and then fires the main engine DU CAC, which leads CCL to a safe distance (about 1 km). There s is separated from the OGB, and shall be enforced its parachute system.
Do SAS is a combination of the three rocket engines solid fuel (solid propellant): main engine, motor slip, which leads do a SAS from the launch vehicle at the time of separation from the fairing, and the engine of the declination, intended for the disposal of DU CAC in the direction of flight RN.
Flight tests of the Soyuz spacecraft, began November 28, 1966 the Program was completed by the end of 1971, During this period, there were 19 launches (one of which was unsuccessful). According to tradition, the name of the ship was transferred to the booster.
The carrier rocket
The carrier rocket “Soyuz-2” with the spacecraft “Soyuz TM-12”:
1 —propulsion system of emergency rescue system; 2—heat shield; 3 — lattice stabilizer; 4 — adapter; 5 — fuel tank unit And; 6,24 — antenna; 7 — oxidizer tank of the unit And; 8 — reset the rear compartment of the unit And; 9 — the farm-adapter; 10 — instrument compartment unit L; 11 — oxidizer tank of the unit L; 12 — bracket; 13 — power cone; 14 — oxidizer tank of the side block; 15 — fuel tank of unit A; 16 — fuel tank side of the block; 17 — key bars; 18 — the rear compartment of the unit L; 19—the rear compartment side of unit; 20 — the aerodynamic handlebar; 21 — RD-108; 22 — RD-107; 23 — engine RD-0110; XVI — riveted joint (rivet with countersunk head); XVII— riveted joint (rivet with a hemispherical head); XVIII— seam spot welding; XIX — weld
Coloration and markings fairing and do a SAS white. The caudal compartments of rocket blocks — orange. Corps missile units and aerodynamic control surfaces — ball.
In the second half of 1969 in connection with the deployment of works on creation of long-term orbital station DOS-7K (later named Salyut) began the development of the transport ship “Soyuz”, the designation 7K-So His starting weight was increased to 6.7 t for Unmanned launches this variant of the vehicle was conducted. The stage of flight tests, combined with the start of operation of the ship in the DOS “Salyut”. The first flight took place on April 23-25, 1971 (spacecraft “Soyuz-10”), the Second flight took place 6-30 July of the same year (the spacecraft “Soyuz-11” crew: cosmonauts Georgi Dobrovolsky, Vladislav Volkov and Viktor Patsayev). During the descent, at the time of the separation, happened depressurization of the ship, which caused the death of the crew. The disaster has required making a number of changes to the structure of the ship, primarily in the rescue of the astronauts (flight suits with life support system). This reduced the crew to two people and has increased the starting mass of the spacecraft to 6.8 T.
Since the early 70-ies began work on the following modifications of the spacecraft “Soyuz”, which should have been allowed to return to the crew of three. For it took the designation 7K-ST, and later — the name “Soyuz T”. The launch mass of the ship increased to 6.83 so It is requested to continue work on further improvement and harmonization of rockets in the Samara KB “Progress” under the leadership of chief designer D. I. Kozlov, which culminated in the establishment of a unified carrier “Soyuz” (index 11А511У) operated at the present time. The creation of new media will significantly reduce the range of missile units.
In 1972 work began on the implementation of the international space program “Soyuz-Apollo” (Apollo-Soyuz test project). It was developed for the modification of spacecraft “Soyuz”, the designation 7K-M For launch, it was decided to use a LV “Soyuz” with the new saws do. The rescue of the crew from the time of reset do the SAS until you reset TH were provided by the installation under the fairing, four solid propellant motors. Test KK 7K-M with the new media began with a flight to automagically mode on 3 April 1974 and ended in the same year, the flight of spacecraft “Soyuz-16” from 2 to 8 December. And on July 15, 1975 kicked off “of Association-19”, which is July 17 had successfully docked with the American “Apollo”.
Flight-design tests of KK 7K-ST, initiated August 6, 1974, was completed manned flight of the spacecraft “Soyuz T-3” from 27 November to 10 December 1989, the series spacecraft “Soyuz T” was operated within the orbital stations “Salyut-6 “Salyut-7” and “Mir” from March 1981 to July 1986 In this period was 13 manned launches. With the launch of the “Soyuz T” in the September 1983 accident PH 11А511У at the launch complex and SAS ensured the rescue of the crew.
Further modernization of “Soyuz T” led to the creation of another modification of the 7K-STM (“Soyuz TM”), starting weight of which made up 7.07 T. It relates to the improvement of orbital stations and, in particular, with the fact that they provided the possibility of increasing the orbit inclination up to 65 degree. It became necessary to compensate for the loss of 330-350 kg output booster cargo. The task could be solved only in a combined way: first, by increasing the opportunities of PH, and secondly, by reducing the mass of the ship.
In 1984 he finished work on the improvement of LV “Soyuz”. The upgraded rocket was called “the Union-2” (index 11А511У-2). The main difference was the use in the Central unit instead of a synthetic kerosene hydrocarbon fuel “cyclin”. Its use allowed to achieve more complete combustion of the fuel and increase the engine specific impulse is a Central unit for 2-3 s. This, along with some other improvements associated with modernization and reducing the weight of the control equipment, allowed to increase the mass of the payload to the desired value.
The increased thermal effects on the side of the blocks made to increase the size of the thermal protection on them. For spacecraft “Soyuz TM” was created by new do the SAS, which had a reduced diameter, which improved aerodynamic characteristics, OGB SAS and reduced the weight of the balance weight. The outer surface of the upper part of the fairing coated with insulation for protection from the effects of the jet flowing from the nozzle do the SAS. Important change reset time do SAS 160 115-th second of the flight, which increased the payload and to combine areas of her fall with side blocks. Flight tests of the spacecraft “Soyuz TM” unmanned commenced on 21 may 1986, and manned -17 February 1987.
LV “Soyuz-2” consists of a package of missile units 11С59-2 formed by a block 2nd stage and blocks B, C, D and e of the 1st stage; 3rd stage (rocket block AND 11С510) and Assembly-protective unit 11С517АЗ consisting of DU CAC, fairing and the transition compartment. The spacecraft “Soyuz TM” assembled in the transition compartment. On top it closes the Assembly-protective unit. Length of the carrier with the spacecraft “Soyuz TM” — 51,316 m, the magnitude of the aerodynamic rudders — 10,303 m, starting weight 310, etc
Cyclogram excretion as follows: lift-off — 0-I, reset DU SAS-115-I, office blocks 1st degree -118-I, reset dynamic fairing — 166-I, the separation of the Central unit—297-I reset the tail section And RB-305-I, the compartment KK — 541-S. I
Currently LV “Soyuz-2” is not used because synthetic fuel is very expensive, and the task of the conclusion of the spacecraft “Soyuz TM” on orbit with an inclination of 51.5 degrees can be solved by using the carrier “the Union”. It consists of a package 11С59 and upper blocks, a similar “Union-2”. The dimensions of the complex “Soyuz” — spacecraft “Soyuz TM” are the same as the LV “Soyuz-2” and starting weight — 309,7 T.
We are working on further modernization of “Soyuz” program “Rus”. Its task is to increase the energy capabilities of RN to conduct manned flights from the Plesetsk cosmodrome. The program consists of several stages. In the first it is envisaged to replace the outdated analog control system to digital with the onboard computer. This will reduce the weight of the equipment management and increase its reliability.
In the second stage it is planned to modernize the propulsion rocket engine RD-107 and RD-108 of the Central and side rocket units. In particular, in the combustion chamber to replace the head of outdated design with the 650-th centrifugal injectors are new, with the 1000-th ink jet nozzles. This replacement will improve the processes of mixing and combustion of fuel components in the combustion chambers of the engine, which in turn will reduce the pressure pulsation and increase in several units of specific impulse. The name of the upgraded engines, the RD — 107A and RD-108, And modification of PH -“Soyuz FG”.
The third stage involves the creation of an advanced missile unit And while maintaining its geometrical dimensions. The basis of the modification will be a new rocket engine RD-0124 “closed” circuit. Its use and improved the combustion process, achieved by changing the ratio of fuel and oxidizer, will allow to increase the specific impulse of 33 compared to the basic version of the RD-0110. Changing the ratio of components will reduce the volume of the tank of fuel, the lower the bottom of which will be lenticular. The booster with all the planned modifications called the “Soyuz-2”. It will allow you to launch manned spacecraft from the Plesetsk cosmodrome. Flight tests should begin in the near future.
The fourth stage of the program “Russia” implies a deep modification of the Soyuz. This will create a virtually new PH with higher energy resources, a draft of which has already received the name “Aurora”. It is based on the use of the Central unit powerful rocket engine NK-33 with a thrust of 150 tons, was created 30 years ago in the Bureau under the leadership of chief designer N. D.Kuznetsov for the lunar rocket N-1. Its application will require re-allocation of fuel the steps. The diameters of the fuel tanks of the Central unit is expected to increase by 0.61 m while maintaining their length. The side blocks will remain unchanged. This allows with minimal modifications to use the existing launch complex PH on the basis of “seven”. You will create a new design 3-tier, diameter of which will increase to 3.5 m.
A three-stage version of the new media will launch from the Baikonur cosmodrome to output in low orbit a payload with a mass of 10.6 t And the four-stage embodiment, with the upper stage “Corvette”, to launch into geostationary orbit a payload of 1.6 tons last year between Russia and France signed an intergovernmental agreement on the construction of the Kourou (French Guiana) launch site for rockets on the basis of “seven”. There is also a project of construction of a spaceport on Christmas island in the Indian ocean. In the case of implementation of any of the projects of the new RN will be able to output in low orbit a weight of 12 tons, and of the geostationary—2.1 t.
V. MINAKOV,engineer

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