Projects and experienced first instances of jet aircraft with variable geometry wings appeared during the Second world war: in our country the project of this aircraft was developed V. V. Shevchenko and German company “Messerschmitt” even built experimental aircraft Р1101, which went to the Americans as a trophy. On the basis of the firm “bell” has created two pilot cars X-5, taking into account the requirements of the U.S. air force to the aircraft-attack aircraft. The first is constructed from X-5 first took to the air July 20, 1951 two years later, on may 19, 1953, in the United States flew another prototype aircraft with variable wing geometry — Jaguar XF10F-1, proposed by the Grumman American fleet. The tests confirmed a significant improvement in flight performance of the aircraft due to the wing using variable geometry, but the final results of flight tests were negative. And only eleven years later, on December 21, 1964, made the first flight of the aircraft with variable wing geometry XF-111A, designed by the firm “General dynamics”, accepted in 1967, the U.S. air force.
Not paid attention to the advantages of the movable wing and British aircraft designers: in 1950 -1958. firm “Vickers-Armstrong” was developed by the original project supersonic , bomber “, Swalow”. The results of these studies were analyzed by Soviet specialists. In 1961 the Chairman of the State Committee for aviation technology P. V. Dementyev has informed the Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers D. F. Ustinov: “According to Your instructions, I report the conclusion of TSAGI (Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute named after N. E.Zhukovsky) about the supersonic aircraft with in flight variable geometry wings (“, Solo” company “Vickers”)…
Assessment conducted in TSAGI, showed that this arrangement represents a large structural complexity of modern flight speeds… Except the technical difficulties of creating a wing with variable sweep, it has a number of other shortcomings — a significant deterioration of stability and controllability of the aircraft, which will change not only in connection with a shift of the mean aerodynamic chord of the wing due to its rotation. Calculations carried out at TSAGI showed that this deterioration will be 2 — 3 times greater than flying a conventional circuit, leading, respectively, to large losses in lift and as…”
TSAGI not only analyze foreign developments, but led the search for optimal aerodynamic configuration of the wing variable geometry, which would allow to minimize the inherent weaknesses.
Scientists have discovered the effect, allowing you to save the focus position of the wing is virtually unchanged when you change its sweep: it was observed in the wing with a strong influx in the root part and the location of the axis of rotation of the console in a certain place. TSAGI has actively promoted the results of their research aircraft OKB. The suggestion of Professor p. P. krasilschikov was supported by P. O. Sukhoi in may 1965 OKB, jointly with the TSAGI started to develop experimental plane s-22I or su-7ИГ (variable geometry). In the experimental machine was not turned all the console, but only its outer part, located behind the main landing gear. This arrangement of wing improved takeoff and landing characteristics and the increase of aerodynamic quality on subsonic modes of flight. The choice of the su-7B as the prototype for the pilot of the machine was justified: this is the only serial supersonic front-line fighter with swept wings were produced in large quantities and, if successful, the machine appeared second wind: a relatively inexpensive upgrade of the wing turned it into a multi-mode aircraft.
Su-17 from the collection of Monino air force Museum, 2007
Development of the experimental plane s-22I was carried out under the leadership of chief designer Nicholas G. Sirina. The first study of the layout of the new machine was performed by the Deputy chief of the brigade of General A. M. Polyakov. After selecting the basic parameters of the new wing to the detailed design of its construction specialists brigade wing V. Krylov, B. Vakhrushev, B. Rabinovich, and R. Emelin.
Modified console wing is structurally divided into two parts: docked to the fuselage fixed (nchk) and a movable (pchk). Both parts had the same aerodynamic profile that provides unseparated flow around the root, which has a positive impact on the work of the tail. The scope of the modernized wing with a maximum sweep increased by 0.7 m, and covers an area of 0.45 m2. In the landing configuration — with a minimum sweep angle of the wing area increased by 4.5 m2, or 13.2% relative thickness profile pchk — from 7 to 12%. In combination with mounted pchk three-section slats and flaps pivoting and sliding flaps nchk it had significantly improved takeoff and landing characteristics. For improved load-bearing properties of the upgraded wing had to pay a reduction of the capacity of the wing fuel tanks-caissons-for 440 years, the increase in wing weight 400 kg due to the rotation mechanism (hinges, hydromechanical drive, the synchronizing shaft and the elements of the hydraulic system), complexity of the wing structure (introduction of more advanced mechanization and the location of the power elements on the outer surface of the hollow compartments nchk). As a slight increase of the structural mass was achieved by combining the functions of structural elements: outer end edge of the nchk power was kantvilas aerodynamic wall, which obstructed the flow of the stream along the wingspan and worked as a power rib. As a result of modernization, the empty weight pilot cars amounted to 9480 kg.
S-22I was actually gathered from two machines, so the assertion that it modified from the su-7BM, is only partly true. From the su-7BM for a new car used the forward fuselage and chassis, su-7БКЛ — tail and wing made from scratch.
After assembling the s-22I was transferred to the airport in the Flight research Institute (LII), where he began to prepare for flight tests. Methodical Council LII chaired by the famous test-pilot Hero of the Soviet Union M. L. Gallay, having considered the design Bureau materials, gave permission for the first flight. August 1, 1966 during a high speed taxiing with the wing set at a minimum sweep angle, chief pilot of OKB S. V. Ilyushin made the first approach on the experimental aircraft. The next day the weather did not correspond to elevated mood gathered at the airport Shuhovtsev: over the strip hung low clouds and rain drops. Desire to see s-22I in the case outweighed the weather forecast, and Vladimir Sergeevich carried out the first 20-minute flight on a new machine. During the successful execution of a test program on the airfield in Vladimirovka on the new machine were flying “brand” testers E. S. Solov’ev, E. K. Kukushev and military pilots from the air force Institute S. A. Mikoyan, S. A. Devochkin, E. I. Knyazev, V. G. Ivanov, A. A. Manucharov, N. And.Korovushkin and G. A. Bayes. A few flights on a new plane performed by Soviet cosmonaut No. 2 G. S. Titov. Leading engineer of the Sukhoi design Bureau for flight tests of the s-22I (su-7БИ — called experimental aircraft, and so) L. M. Moiseichik worked closely with the head of the testing team, the air force Institute S. Bitko. Use minimum wing sweep reduced the run of the new aircraft compared with the SU-7BM in two times and reduce landing speed 100 km/h.
In the spring of 1967, the plane returned to LEAH and began to prepare for an air parade in honor of the 50th anniversary of Soviet power in Moscow’s Domodedovo airport. On parade 9 Jul 1967 new car effectively demonstrated in flight E. K. Kukushev.
The result of the successful completion of the program test s-22I was the publication on 18 November 1967 the government decree on the development of the fighter-bomber su-17 with a variable geometry wing and start its serial production in the far East machine-building plant in Komsomolsk-on-Amur. A year and a half of his gate Assembly plant rolled out the first prototype, the C-32-1.1 July 1969 test pilot OKB E. K. Kukushev first raised it in the air from the factory airfield. Until the end of the year the plant produced four C-32.
Prototype looked different from experimental machines on a slender 0.8 m fuselage fairing has a constant cross-section from the cabin to the keel, the movable part of the lamp was opened by rotation about a horizontal hinge back up. The plane was completed with new systems: the navigation, giving the pilot the current information — azimuth and range to the beacon, and a landing-zero indicator; they both could work together with the automatic control system SAU-22, which replaced the autopilot AP-28I-2.
Cabin C-32 was equipped with a more advanced ejection seat COP-4-S32 with two stabilizing parachute with an area of 0.1 and 1 m2, placed in the headrest of the chair, and rescue area of 50 m2. Recovery system ensure the safe evacuation of the airplane from takeoff to landing, from 140 to 1200 km/h at all altitudes.
In connection with the growth take-off weight empty plane to 9800 kg on the front rack chassis mounted wheel larger KT 106A—because of this on the wings of the niche appeared the swage line like the su-7БКЛ. The comb antenna fixed wing Radiotechnika SRO-2M (3rd range) has moved from a niche nose landing gear closer to the entrance of the inlet. Dismantled failed to operate the jet system of protection of air intake of engines from dust “blow-off”. For the su-7БКЛ and su-7BM at the C-32 has two specific long fairing on the upper surface of the fuselage for the construction of communications and drag chute container. On the fixed part of the wing placed two additional node suspension arms, bringing their number to six.
1 — fairing; 2 — antenna of the radio compass ark-10; 3 — compartment units of ACS-22; 4—radio compartment; 5—periscope TS-27AMSH; 6—emergency PVD-7; 7—antenna system “Pion”; 8—antenna system SRO-2M; 9—sensor; 10—movable radio-transparent cone; 11—landing light; 12 — doors of the nose landing gear niche; 13—window eject spent cartridges; 14 — fold niches main landing gear; 15—node turning the console; 16—pchk; 17 — cooling air intake of the engine compartment; 18 — all-moving stabilizer; 19 — anti-flatter load; 20—static electricity discharger; 21 —850-liter PTB; 22—NAR C-24; 23 —PU-12-40U; 24 — 1150-lit that PTB; 25—fold antisurge; 26—visor lights; 27—loop antenna, radio compass ark-10; 28—the movable part of the lamp; 29—pylon suspension arms; 30—beam holder BDZ-57 METERS; 31 —aerodynamic comb; 32—bypass air TRDL-7F-1-250; 33—manhole connectors of the hydraulic system; 34—brake; 35 — on-Board air navigation light; 36—manhole covers SARPP; 37—station antenna warning receiver “Sirena-GP”; 38 is radio-transparent Radome of the antenna of the radio station; 39 antenna system MCI-56M; 40—antenna system “Pion”; 41 —tail navigation lamp; 42—fold drag parachute container; 43 cover flap lock flap of a container; 44 hatch cover fitting; 45—wheel КТ69/4U (880×230 mm); 46—the protective strip of stainless steel; 47—rear suspension; 48 — wheel K2-106A (600×200 mm); 49—left panel of the dashboard; 50 — flap indicator wing aircraft and a control panel with slats; 51 —a remote sight for the bombing of kupirovaniya PBK-2; 52—sight ASP-Г1Ф-7; 53 —top visor dashboard emergency Board; 54—right panel of the dashboard with information display; 55—the Central panel of the dashboard; 56 thermostat controller air temperature in the cabin; 57—the pointer of the thermometer exhaust gas turbine starter; 58 — white band; 59 — louver venting the compartment of the cannon, HP-30; 60—cover guns; 61—cover fotokinopulemeta AKS-5-57; 62—antenna IFF systems; 63 — deflecting slat; 64—Aileron; 65 rotary flaps; 66 — the flap in the retracted position; 67 — flaps in the released position; 68—the barrel of the cannon, HP-30; 69—cover front compartment radio equipment; 70,71 —cylinders of the landing gear; 72—strut; 73 incendiary tank 3B-360; 74 — beam holder BDZ-57M
Wing C-32 compared to the su-7БКЛ has become much more difficult not only in design but also in manufacturing technology. Appeared monolithic spars, hinge joint, a supporting rail with a rotation mechanism of the wing, nchk hollow compartment formed by two three-layer laminated aluminum panels with a honeycomb core. Factory specialists in a short time mastered the new to the enterprise the technology of manufacturing honeycomb panels and the necessary modern equipment.
For the C-32 in OKB Sukhoi developed an original device allowing the aircraft to operate in the case of disabling the enemy main runway. Taking off from a dirt runway non-compacted or rolled snow run on ski gear: main landing instead of wheels mounted skis. Unlike legonkov su-7БКЛ who worked together with the main wheels, reducing the specific pressure on the ground, the new skis were more complex in design: to reduce the friction resistance when sliding under the removable titanium sole of the ski was supplied with liquid lubricant; resistance movement during the run-the run was provided by the special keels on the lower surface; holding aircraft at the start, before takeoff, caroliana on Parking and emergency braking was carried out with a special rotary bucket-type brakes with pneumatic drive. While moving from stationary shelters at the start of the replacement of the runway was carried out in tow behind the tractor or its own engine quick taxiway-tow trucks, which are mounted to the consoles of the wing and plugs ski gear. Create ski landing gear for supersonic fighter — the result of years of work conducted by the design Bureau of P. O. Sukhoi since the late fifties. Then OKB in cooperation with the Academy of Sciences of the USSR on the basis of a bomber Il-28 was created by the mobile laboratory, L-28, which investigated different forms of skis and the materials they soles wear resistance, the coefficients of resistance in different soils, we evaluated the influence of liquid injection into the working area to reduce friction. In 1959, testing continued on the C-23, the su — 7 with ski gear. After numerous taxiways, the test pilot V. S. Ilyushin performed on the C-23 a few takeoffs and landings on ski gear. Further fine-tuning of the chassis continued on the laboratory C-23. One of the results of these works has been the adoption in 1965 of the su-7БКЛ with wheel-ski gear.
By the spring of 1970 far Eastern aircraft manufacturers have produced a pilot batch of 12 cars: the first two — With-32-1 and C-32-2 was transferred to the state tests, and the rest in the Center of combat training and retraining of flight personnel in Lipetsk to prepare them to work on the theme “Crystal” — display of new aircraft to heads of state at the airport, the air force Institute Akhtubinsk. The head of the brigade for rosispytaniya C-32 at the air force Institute appointed N. To.Yaroshenko. But scheduled for September of 1970 the show, because of the outbreak in the South of the cholera epidemic, was moved to a different time.
A spectacular demonstration of the capabilities of s-32 the leadership of the country took place in may 1971, and in October of the same year, 523-th IAP of the red banner far Eastern military district first started developing the su-17 — is the official name assigned serial C-32.
By this time, the plant in Komsomolsk-on-Amur, completely changed the production of the su-7БКЛ the su-17, having made 95 su-17, including 30 cars in the 1970’s and 60’s in 1971.
The main task of the fighter-bomber is the prompt destruction of visually detected targets on the battlefield, which needs good visibility from the cockpit. In 1971, the air force research Institute conducted tests of the su-17 with bespereboynik the canopy. Conducted the work of test pilots A. D. Ivanov and N. And.Mikhailov noted in conclusion that visibility has improved slightly, but when flying at low altitudes there was a feeling of psychological discomfort from the possible effects of collision with large birds.
The expansion of the range of means of combat, the su-17 was not only by adopting new models of traditional ammunition. The achievements of the scientific-technical revolution in the mid-1960s and changes in attitudes of military theorists on the role of aviation in support of combat operations of ground forces contributed to the emergence of fundamentally new types of weapons. On the eve of the may holidays in 1965 he published a government resolution on the development of a controlled tactical aircraft missiles X-23. And four years later another decree of the USSR it was planned to equip the missile along with other aircraft and su-17. In the spring of 1970, the Bureau of Kaliningrad engineering plant (KMZ) showed the Kh-23 (product 68) to state flight tests. After two years in these trials involving the su-17. Only the MiG-23 and su-17 on a programme of rearmament did 20 launches, the results of which for rocket scientists because of the revealed defects of designs X-23 was not shiny. The rocket had a radio command guidance system that required the constant participation of the pilot in the process — until the meeting with the aim missiles.
After elimination of defects of a control system of a rocket test pilot NII VVS E. M. Groves performed three launches X-23 with a jeweler’s precision, remembered by the participants. In the explosion of a rocket was not enough, she brought him a truck, and the next two, he destroyed them with a direct hit missiles. Rocket X-23 was adopted by the tactical aviation in the autumn of 1974, and drill the pilots started developing a new type of weapon on the aircraft su-17, and later on su-17M and su-17M2.
In the summer of 1976 were held teaching aviation Baltic fleet. To demonstrate the capabilities of guided missiles on sea targets identified four su-17 and eight missiles. The rocket was prepared at the technical position of the Center of combat application and retraining of naval aviation in the city of Ostrov, Pskov region. There on the complex simulator CT-23 marine pilots have worked skills missile guidance. During the exercise, the su-17 was moved: the blow was delivered from the Chkalovsky airfield in the Kaliningrad region. Two training launches recorded hitting the target. To demonstrate to the commander of the Navy S. G. Gorshkov has produced three aircraft with missiles: two primary and the third redundant. During the demo launch the leading pilot of the rocket entered the water with the undershoot of 30 m and exploded, lifting the large water column, the slave — Lieutenant Tsymbal noted a direct hit.
Su-17 was improved during mass production. Since the end of 1972 to autumn 1973, the su-17 was devouroil guided missiles R-60 class “air — air”. The planes of the first three series had one of the aerodynamic ridge on the end of the nchk, and one main rod LDPE and emergency pressure receiver on the right side of the fuselage. This arrangement of the rods, as revealed in the tests was worse spin characteristics of the aircraft. In addition, the su-17 was part of the corkscrew without the characteristic of su-7 mild shaking when increasing the load to 5 units. Therefore, in the future there are two rod LDPE, installed symmetrically relative to the axis of the fuselage. To improve longitudinal stability at high angles of attack on the fixed part of the wing installed additional aerodynamic ridges: lower — at the rear edge and on the upper surface of — the front edge — in front of each other.
Su-17M — further development of the su-17
In the first series of the su-17 for firing the cannons and launch of NARS at ground and air targets, and when the dive bombing was used sight ASP-PF-B-7, working together with DME SRD-5M located under the radio waves cone intake and served to determine the range to air targets, regardless of visibility. Subsequently, ASP-PF-B-7 was replaced with the same size, but a better sight ASP-PF-7.
After the rearmament aircraft missiles X-23 rangefinder SRD-5M ranging from 23-th plane 89 series, removed by replacing it with the guidance equipment “Delta-H”, which with time was replaced by a modernized semiconductor “Delta-NM”. Two missiles X-23 hung on starting devices APU-68У on external pylons nchk, the same APU was used for rockets S-24. Button missile X-23 — joystick placed on the aircraft control stick instead of the button on autopilot.
Constant refinement of the su-17 has led to the increase of the structural mass production aircraft with the 9950 kg to 10 090 kg, which had a negative impact on lesotekhnicheskij characteristics of the machine. Therefore, in 1970 it was a joint decision of map and the air force to modify the C-32 (su-17), equipping it with more powerful modern and economical single-circuit turbojet engine, developed in OKB A. M. Lyulki for the su-24. In the original documentation the upgraded aircraft were designated C-32M.
Until 1973 in Komsomolsk-on-Amur issued a 225 su-17. The last two years it was made in parallel with the su-17M — name-32M received after adopting.
In 1972, the Arab Republic of Egypt has purchased in the USSR 16 su-17 that was used in the Arab-Israeli war in October 1973, it Trained Egyptian pilots were carried out by Soviet instructors in the training center at the airbase, Belbeis, which was based on the 202-I, 204-I fighter-bomber air brigade, Egyptian air force, armed with su-7БМК and su-7УМК.
After the Soviet invasion in Afghanistan at the air base in Sochi in January 1980 landed the su-17 two squadrons of the 217th regiment of fighter-bombers of the Kyzyl-Arvat. In the spring they took part in the fighting, during which was manifested a number of shortcomings typical for the su-17: the small thrust during takeoff in hot weather, with the high mountain airfield, a limited supply of fuel and narrow set of weapons. Therefore, the command of these machines was soon replaced by the su-17M3, which compared favourably with the characteristics, level of equipment and weapons. In addition, the pilots before being sent to Afghanistan have passed additional training, taking into account the peculiarities of operations in that country. Operation of the su-17 the line regiments of the Soviet air force continued until the mid-1980s.
Characteristics of the fighter-bomber su-17
Wing span, m:
with minimal sweep angle…….Of 13.68
when the maximum angle of sweep…. 10,025
The length of the plane with LDPE, m…………………………..18,097
The length of the plane without LDPE, m…………………………15,87
The height of the parked aircraft, m…………………….4,962
Wing area, m2:
with minimal sweep angle…….38,49
when the maximum angle of sweep……Accounting period by 34.45
Weight of empty aircraft, kg…………………………..9950
Capacity internal fuel tanks, l………3400
Maximum takeoff weight, kg……………….16 270
Maximum payload weight, kg……..2500
at H = 11 km, the number of M……………………………………..2,1
The speed of separation
when the angle of wing sweep 30°,
off. precr. 10°, with vzl. 16 weight 270 kg……..350
The length of the runway 16 weight 270 kg, m…………….1250
Landing speed with the slats and flaps,
rejected at an angle of 30°, km/h……………………..275
The length of the path (with braking parachute), m…..700
without the suspensions the fast and the furious, m………………………..16 350
The practical range
at cruising altitude with the PTB, km……………………193
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