“THE ELUSIVE CLOUD” FROM THE COUNTRY OF THE RISING SUN

Initially, it should be noted that engineered as a carrier-based scout for use with class aircraft carriers Taiho C6N SAIUN ever from the deck did not fly. The first aircraft part, which has received a new machine, became the 121st kokutai formed on 1 October 1943. In service of this regiment were the scouts of the D4Y1-C, converted from a bomber D4Y1. Retraining for new equipment was conducted at a military air base Katori.

 
In February 1944, in anticipation of the next American offensive, 121st kokuta is located on the island of Tinian of the Marianas archipelago. The first three С6N1 flew to the regimental airfield in mid-may 1944, and then the number of new scouts was brought to seven. All of which became part of the 121st kokutai aircraft belonged to experienced a series.
 
The first sorties of reconnaissance aircraft was made in the district of the Marshall Islands on 30 and 31 may. Unfortunately for Japanese pilots, machine prototype series not had external fuel tanks, and flying such a long distance was only possible with intermediate landings, which were carried out at the air base of the Truk Islands Nauru.
 
At dawn on 30 may С6N1 captain 3rd rank Sneezing from Department of Hikotaro headed for the island of Majuro. Two hours later, the plane flew over the us naval base. The crew managed to locate and identify five aircraft carriers, several cruisers and battleships. Patrolling the American carrier-based fighter tried to intercept the scout, but Sneezing, using his speed advantage, easily pulled away from the harassment and successfully landed the plane on Nauru. The next day Sneezing made a reconnaissance RAID on the Atoll of Kwajelein, where it was discovered a large Union of eight destroyers and two dozen transport vessels. And this time the plane was able to successfully return to base.
 
The first prototype of the scout C6N
 
The first prototype of the scout C6N
 
5 Jun distinguished crew of another С6N1. Near Majuro he found a large compound of the American ships. Until 9 June the Japanese reconnaissance aircraft three more times with impunity appeared on the American naval bases. To face the new C6N1 fighter F6F HELLCAT, the maximum speed was 611 km/h, was unable to.
 
Despite the successful reconnaissance RAID, a major naval battle happened in June 1944 in the Philippine sea, the Japanese had lost. June 15, three C6N1 SAIUN division Yokosuka flew to the island of Iwo Jima. The aircraft wanted to use the operation “A”, the purpose of which was to strike at the American carrier connection. But bad weather conditions in the area of Iwo Jima not allowed to operate planes-scouts. On 20 June the weather improved and the air went two C6N1, heading to the Mariana Islands. Along the route of flight crews had to face not only bad weather but also with a large unit of fighters F6F HELLCAT, which did not allow Japanese pilots to complete a reconnaissance mission.
 
Although the operation has ended in failure, the Japanese headquarters continued to believe that the war still can be won in one decisive blow. For his conduct in the summer of 1944 was created special group T-kogeki Butai. Its membership includes the most experienced crews of aircraft of the Imperial Navy, and armed groups showed the best at that time, the bombers MITSUBISHI KI-67 HIRYU from structure 762 th kokutai. The implementation of aerial reconnaissance in the interests of the group was assigned to the 11th hikotai. Commanded a squadron captain of the 3rd rank Takagi. Armed with the 11th hikotai in addition to the D4Y1-C and KI-46 was the aircraft C6N1 SAIUN.
 
The crew of the special air group T-kogeki Butai first clashed during the battle of Formosa, which lasted from 12 to 16 October 1944. On the first day of the battle for the execution of exploration took off three C6N1, two of which were intercepted and shot down.
 
Two days later, another C6N1 successfully completed a reconnaissance flight. In 16 hours 32 minutes his crew found American ships off the island of Ishigaki, and after a 45-minute flight or two of an aircraft carrier. As a result, in the next few days, torpedo bombers from the composition of T-kogeki Butai struck at the discovered ships.
 
In the autumn of 1944, the main battle unfolded in the area of the Philippine Islands. Active participation in these battles, have adopted and C6N1 from the composition of the 12th and 4th hikotai. The first four C6N1 flew to the island of Negros Occidental on 27 October and the next day made a reconnaissance. In conditions of complete air superiority of the US air force 12th and 4th kokotai suffered significant losses and by mid-November, serviceable C6N1 they are almost gone. However, the Japanese command brought intelligence units from the combat zone. Soon their resupply arrived ten C6N1 and several D4Y1-C.
 
But by January 1945, the Philippines was again left out for more than three serviceable C6N1, and in early February, their personnel were transferred to Formosa (Taiwan). The only intelligence unit that remained by this time in the heart of the Philippine archipelago, was the 102nd hikotai, the arms of which were aircraft D4Y1-C and KI-46. But these machines quickly were lost in aerial combat.
 
Speed С6N plane SAIUN
 
Speed С6N plane SAIUN
 
Fast plane SAIUN С6N:
 
1 – 30 mm cannon: 2 – cooler; 3 – pneumatic wheel main landing gear; 4 – dvuhsvetny; 5 – landing gear 6 – node sample main landing gear; 7 – flap landing gear; 8 – tail wheel chassis, 9 – canopy of the cockpit; 10 – sliding part of the cockpit canopy; 11 – fixed cabin Windows Navigator; 12 – sliding part of the canopy of the Navigator, 13 – sliding part of the canopy arrow; 14 – shield niche of cleaning the wheels of the main stand, 15 – the pointer of the released position of the chassis (“soldier”); 16 – rocking chair 17 – link: 18 — cylinder retract landing gear; 19 – preliminarydata pull, 20 – front wheel; 21 – dvuhsvetny, 22 – plate rack chassis, 23 – air hose braking system wheels; 24 – Polovinka; 25 – the axis of the wheel; 26 – ports 13-mm machine guns Тур2; 27 – flap access to the oil tank; 28 – removable engine cowlings; 29 maintenance access doors, 30 – filler cap of fuel tanks; 31 maintenance access doors; 32 – slat in the retracted position, the 33 – wing of ANO; 34 – Aileron; 35 – trimmer Aileron, 36 – stabilizer; 37 – the Elevator, 38 – trimmer of the Elevator; 39 – flap-flap in the released position; 40 – PVD; 41 – slat in a released position, a 42 – hinged handles-footboards in the released position; 43 – removable operating panel; 44 – cooling jacket of the engine; 45 – four-bladed VISH; 46 – the air intake of the turbocharger; 47 – fold air outlet; 48 – tube duct; 49 – turbocharger, 50 – wheel main landing gear, 51 – breaking thrust plate niche cleaning wheels, 52 – porthole sight, 53 – footrest in the retracted position, the 54 – illuminator camera, 55 – porthole of the cabin of the Navigator; 56 – the access hatch to the box units; 57 – a three-bladed propeller; 58 – a niche of cleaning the main landing gear, the 59 – traction release flaps-flaps; 60 – brake landing hook; 61 – the tail wheel, 62 – plate of the front wheel in the retracted position; 63 – external fuel tank; 64 – wing 118-l tank; 65 – 192 wing-l tank; 66 – 162 wing-l tank, 67 – wing 26-l tank; 68 – wing 180-l tank, 69 – inlet carburetor; 70 – engine

 
Starting in June 1944, Japanese cities and industrial areas were subjected to massive bombing of American heavy bombers b-29. Originally in China, these aircraft can only be achieved in some areas of Japan. After capture by the Americans of the Mariana Islands and their equipment of the air base b-29 have been able to reach any point of Japanese territory.
 
The headquarters of the Imperial Navy developed an operation to attack the us airfields with the aim of bringing them down and destroying being there-29. The operation received the designation of Mitate No. 1. Her goal was to kill the maximum number of b-29 at the time of their stay on earth. To complete the task, the Japanese formed unit of twelve pilots 317 th hikotai, which temporarily reassign 252 th kokutai. The task was formulated simply — to put a bomb and machine gun attack on parked aircraft, and having spent all the ammunition, to send their planes.
 
At 8.00 a.m. on 27 November 1944 Reisen twelve bombers took off from the airfield on Iwo Jima’s Chidori. To avoid navigation errors leading the group were two C6N1 of the 12-th hikotai. In addition to navigational support crews C6N1 was tasked with recording the results of the strike After two hours of flight to the target one of the C6N1 was forced to return due to a failure in the engine. The flight continued just another C6N1. At 10.40 he changes course and separated from the order of battle strike group to come to the Mariana Islands from the South, while Reisen strike group came from the North. Before you start monitoring the attack, the crew of the scout photographed military facilities on the Islands of Tinian and Saipan.
 
Attack the us air base began in 13.10. The first approach the Japanese managed to destroy two b-29 and seriously damage a third. Also managed to burn a few fighters P-47. Completing two passes, the surviving pilots Reisen sent its aircraft to the aircraft Parking and ultimately doubled the loss of the Americans. All the Japanese pilots of the strike team killed, and the crew C6N1 in 15.17 returned for Iwo Jima. On 1 December 1944, the commander of the 3rd kantai Vice-Admiral Teraoka presented the pilot C6N1 Hiroshi a letter of commendation for outstanding courage and skill.
 
The Japanese General staff, seeing that the front is gradually approaching the metropolis made desperate attempts to change the position of One such attempt was to be Asuza operation, which included attack the American fleet at Ulithi area. At the end of January 1945, seven C6N1 from the composition of the 3rd hikotai and 752 kokutai flew to the air base at Truk. The operation began on 11 February. Link of the scouts flew to the first and, as it turned out, the last reconnaissance flight. Two planes from-for the arisen technical problems had to return to base, and the third fell into the waters of the Pacific ocean, never reaching the goal To end all troubles of the 3rd hikotai lost their commander, who was killed in a subsequent sorties.
 
Thus, on 12 February in the ranks, only three C6N1. Of these, only one was able to accomplish the combat mission. In this situation, he had to make several reconnaissance flights in a day. In connection with the loss of almost all of the material remnants of the 3rd kokutai was taken to the rear to re-form, replacing it with 102-m kokutai, which operated successfully from February 13 to may 12, performing flights on the exploration of the sea connections and the tracking of the enemy situation on the ground based on In-29.
 
On 13 February, the crew C6N1 found the American ships of the strike group EN route to attack Iwo Jima and the Japanese Islands. In the reconnaissance aircraft was the new commander of the 3rd kokutai Takuma, Miki 14 Mar C6N1 crews made seven flights to the intelligence of the American strike group, EN route to attack Okinawa. One of the crews managed to find and target ships air strike. But in this situation, the operation Asuza had to be postponed and focus on defense of the metropolis. However, C6N1 from the 3rd kokutai 9 and March 11, performed reconnaissance flights to detect compounds in the American Navy.
 
Aircraft С6N, captured by the Americans at the end of the war
 
Aircraft С6N, captured by the Americans at the end of the war
 
As a result of four reconnaissance flights had discovered 23 carriers, 18 battleships, 32 cruisers and many other ships. Two days later the Japanese KUGISHO P1Y1 GINGA bombers attacked the American ships. But only one Japanese pilot managed to break through to the carrier Randolph. To determine the results of the attack aircraft SAIUN completed six reconnaissance flights.
 
In the battle for Okinawa, the crew C6N1 successfully solved a variety of tasks: reconnaissance of the enemy’s troops, marking their advanced units, the definition applied to the enemy, intelligence, weather and passive jamming American radar. The highest activity in the sector of fighting differed 11th hikotai. In the battles participated C6N1 from the structure of 132-, 653 -, and 765-th kokutai. Similar tasks were assigned and C6N1 stationed on the territory of Japan.
 
Great success accompanied the crew Mitsuru Takeda from part of the 4th hikotai of 343-kokutai on March 19, 1945, his crew found a group of American aircraft bound for the Cape of the Priest, which allowed the Japanese to prepare to meet the enemy. Flew to intercept the fighter KAWANISHI N1K2-J SHIDEN-KAI. The Japanese pilots managed to destroy in one battle of the American deck of 52 aircraft, among which were 48 HELLCAT and CORSAIR fighters and four bombers HELLDIVER. The Japanese lost only six of its machines, including one scout C6N1 SAIUN.
 
Cases of combat use of night fighter C6N1-S was observed in the late summer of 1945, the First Godet modified C6N1 SAIUN took off on a combat mission in the night from 1 to 2 August 1945. The crew of the aircraft managed to detect the b-29 bomber and firing of guns on Board. B-29 was damaged, but accurate data about its destruction there.
 
On 24 and 25 July 1945 Japanese fighters in the area the Priest attacked the English carrier-based aircraft from the aircraft carriers from the group ТF-57 Watching British aircraft crew С6N1 SAIUN from the 102nd hikotai was able to determine the location of aircraft carriers, which soon attacked the Japanese bombers ASN В7А1 RYUSEI from the 5th hikotai. The plane of Lieutenant Aichi Fuji managed to overcome air defense system and strike one of the carriers. Re the attack on the aircraft carrier to the connection was applied on 9 and 13 August the aircraft RYUSEI. Results of impact defined a pair of С6N1 SAIUN 102nd hikotai.
 
On the last day of the war, August 15 1945, four С6N1 SAIUN from the 11th hikotai performed the flights on exploration of the connections of enemy ships At 5.40 in the morning one of them was intercepted and destroyed by the senior Lieutenant of the U.S. air force ready — a Japanese scout was the last aircraft shot down in world war II.
 
After the surrender of Japan, the Americans went five aircraft С6N1 SAIUN, which were smuggled into the US for testing. Today there is only one instance С6N1 serial number 4161. He is in the USA. at the National Museum of aviation and cosmonautics of the city of Dayton.
 
The design of the aircraft C6N1 SAIUN
 
Single-engine carrier-based aircraft NAKAJIMA SAIUN С6N1 was issued in versions of the scout (С6N1, С6N2) and basic night fighter (С6N1-S and С6N3-S).
 
The crew salopeta reconnaissance consisted of three people — a pilot, Navigator and radio operator-gunner, night fighter— two: pilot and radio operator-gunner.
 
All-metal aircraft was a monoplane with low wing. The fuselage is semi-monocoque had a relatively small midsection, which greatly reduced drag.
 
In the forward fuselage housed the engine, fuel control units and the oil tank with the oil cooler. In the Central part of the fuselage was fully glazed cabin. The crew members settled down in it according to the scheme “tandem”. The instruments and equipment installed in the cockpit, allowed to carry out the flight in VFR and IFR weather conditions, day and night. Sliding part of the canopy pilot was opened, moving back.
 
Immediately behind the pilot is the Navigator (the Japanese tradition of performing the functions of commander of the crew). In the cockpit mounted navigation equipment and cameras F-8 and K-8. The Windows of the cameras were at the bottom of the fuselage In the embodiment of the bomber-torpedo in the chart cabin mounted advanced sighting equipment. Cab floor was made special window of rectangular shape, on which was located the camera.
 
For co-driver was the gunner In his cabin mounted power station and the defensive 7.92 mm machine gun Тур1.
 
Variant night fighter C6N1-S crew consisted of two people— a pilot and gunner-radio operator and Navigator housed the gun mount.
 
The tail part of the fuselage monocoque structure also bore the keel, stabilizer, brake tail hook and landing gear.
 
 
Wing aircraft of all-metal, two-spar, small elongation and area. The spars of the wing — beam. Wing profile is laminar, PASS, 63. Rib — truss. Installation of the wing of small aspect ratio are allowed to do console rigid. The free volume between the side members held the fuel tanks.
 
To ensure an acceptable landing velocity on the wing had double-slotted flaps-Fowler flaps high aspect ratio, which occupied the entire rear edge of the wing, from the Aileron to the fuselage the deflection Angle of the first section of the flap-flap was 45 degrees, the second section (in relation to the first) deviated by 20 degrees.
 
Ailerons mounted on the trailing edge of the wing and is deflected upwards by 25 degrees, and down to 18 degrees. In landing mode the ailerons were deflected down 15 degrees up and 10 degrees. To reduce the stresses on the control stick, the ailerons were fitted with trim tabs.
 
At the front edge of the wing (at half scale) was located automatic slats. On the upper and lower panels of the wing had a large number of hatches to facilitate maintenance of the aircraft In the lower part of the wing was located and niche cleaning the main chassis. Rod LDPE was established on the left wing.
 
Tail — a classic. Keel — dvuhkonturniy with dural covering, to compensate for the torque from the propeller, he had a small installation angle relative to the axis of the aircraft. Cross set the keel consisted of stamped ribs. The rudder is duralumin with fabric covering. To reduce the stresses on the foot control pedals and balancing on the rudder were installed on the trimmer. In order to meet the limited dimensions of the lift of an aircraft carrier with a deck basing, the rudder in the Parking situation was down the left side of the fuselage and fixed in this position.
 
The stabilizer had a similar two-spar construction. Trim stabilizer — dural. The Elevator also duralumin with fabric covering and trimmer. Management of all the control surfaces hard, the control stick and pedals.
 
Chassis-retractable, tricycle, tailwheel. The main gear retracted into the wing. System cleaning hydraulic. Main wheels were equipped with pneumatic drum brakes. Stand the main chassis had a significant height, which was placed under the fuselage of a large fuel tank. Tail landing gear retracted into the fuselage in flight Before the tail wheel installed brake hook, which was removed in a special niche at the bottom of the fuselage.
 
Propulsion on the prototype C6N1 consisted of 18-cylinder radial air-cooled engine NAKAJIMA NK9A HOMARE 11 (At-45-11) takeoff power 1800 HP with four-bladed metal propeller with a diameter of 3500 mm. In ten wing fuel tanks were located 1366 l of fuel.
 
On production instances of the Model 11 C6N1, C6N1-S and prototypes C6N1-B Model 21 was established 18-cylinder radial air-cooled engine NAKAJIMA NK9A HOMARE 21 (Ha-45-21) takeoff power 1990 HP with all-metal three-bladed variable-pitch propeller (VISH) VDM S6 P10, produced under a German licence on the Capacity of wing fuel tanks — 1340 L.
 
On the prototype Model C6N2 22 and C6N3 KAI 1 set 18-cylinder radial air-cooled engine NAKAJIMA NK9K-L HOMARE 24 (In-45-24) take-off power 2000 HP with four-bladed metal propeller with a diameter of 3500 mm. the Capacity of wing fuel tanks — 1340 L.
 
Planes C6N4 KAI 2, KAI C6N5 3 and 4 C6N6 KAI was planned to install engines of MITSUBISHI МК9А (On-43-11) to the turbocharger HITACHI Model 10 with a power of 2200 HP Characteristic external feature of this modification was the installation of the oil cooler tunnel with a left offset from the axis of the aircraft, thereby making lower part of the fuselage for placement of the fuel tank, torpedo or bombs of larger calibre.
 
In all cases the engines are installed on engine mount from steel tubes mounted on the first power of the frames. The engine hood consisted of quick release panels that provide convenient access to all components in the engine compartment. The flow of cooling air is regulated by valves at the rear of the hood. Between the engine and the firewall was located the oil tank capacity of 56 p, electric starter, generator, fuel and hydraulic pre-supply pumps.
 
The armament of the aircraft C6N1 consisted of defensive 7.92 mm machine gun Тур1 rate of fire 1250 rounds per minute (license German MG15) mounted on the pivot mounting in the cockpit the radio operator. Ammunition amounted to 825 of the cartridges 11 located in the box stores for 75 rounds each. Extra magazines were kept in a special bag on the starboard side of the cabin arrow.
 
The armament of the aircraft C6N1-B course included two 13-mm machine gun Тур2 installed in the upper part of the fuselage in front of cockpit, and one defensive 7.92 mm machine gun Тур1 located in the cab radio operator-gunner with ammunition, 500 rounds per gun. On the ventral node could be suspended from 800-kg bombs or torpedoes of the same weight.
 
The armament of the aircraft C6N1-S and C6N3 Kai1 consisted of two 20-mm cannon installations Тур99 (or one 30 mm gun) mounted in the cockpit of the Navigator and mounted at an angle of 30 degrees to the horizontal construction plane. Defensive machine guns were absent.
 
A. CHECHIN, N. Food reserve was

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