ATV FOR ALL SEASONS

ALL-TERRAIN VEHICLE FOR ALL SEASONSIs not just our magazine led descriptions for the original designs mikrovisatos built as enterprises and companies and Amateur designers. Permanent interest motonarty — individual transport, especially beloved in Northern latitudes. These light lignocaine machines capable to overcome any obstacles snow which bogged down heavier ATVs. However, their “powers” are most visible in winter. During the off-season need other machines.

 
That’s why in our days is rapidly developing a new class of vehicles with high cross: wheeled and crawler mikrovisata that can be used all year round. Lightweight and manoeuvrable, these machines are gaining popularity. The capability and versatility of them so tempting, and the design is so simple, that many boldly undertake their construction.
 
Microislet is a small two-three cars, are designed primarily for off-road. In order to improve cross they are running on high flotation tires or miniature pneumococci with all driving wheels, sometimes on rubber-metal caterpillars. Equipped with a sealed body of a simple form of plastic or light alloy, such ATVs have the buoyancy and move in water due to the rotation of the wheels or caterpillars. Sometimes to increase the speed afloat using advanced conventional outboard motor.
 
On microindenter installed one – or two-cylinder motorcycle engine type air-cooled capacity of around 25-30 HP, and mechanical or hydromechanical transmission; often used hydrostatic drive system propulsion engine, characterized by compactness and ease of operation.
 
This machine can easily overcome not only the snow or sand, but any terrain and even small rivers and swamps. A truly versatile transport and a car and a motor boat! Mikrovisata thanks to these qualities can be used in geological and oil-producing parties, they can adopt forestry workers, builders lines, postmen and hunters — in short, everything. who by the nature of work in dire need of a fast and light all-terrain transport.
 
 
Fig. 1. Tricycle microvideo.
 
Fig. 2. Four-wheeled all-terrain vehicle “rapster”.
 
Fig. 3. Triaxial microislet “Solo-750”.
 
Fig. 4. Microislet “Giger”.
 
Fig. 5. Maintenance of mikrovisata.

 
Add to this the convenience and amazing ease of maintenance. Many components and assemblies do not need care. The problem of access to parts of the machine is simple: it is sufficient to lift the upper part of the lung with a plastic body, like the hood of a normal car, and all the mechanisms at a glance. The lower part of the ATVs is usually also made of plastic, thus saving the body from corrosion. Due to the high elasticity of the wheel mover suspension is virtually absent. Necessary in the steering mechanism is also there: a turn is a braking of the propulsion of one side of the vehicle and overlapping the other.
 
Not accidentally, many firms have started producing a variety of mikrovisatos — from mild to more severe three-wheeled four-axle.
 
Single light three-wheeled ATVs (Fig. 1) imagine a cross between a car-buggy and motorcycle. They have no body and with only a comfortable seat and splash guards. Behind the seat is installed a single-cylinder engine with a volume of 100 cm3. Drive — the rear drive wheels with wide-profile tyres; the front wheel with an equally wide bus controlled by the handlebars. The average engine power less than 5 HP, but the vehicles speeds on the road to 50 km/h. They are distinguished by high maneuverability due to the extremely low weight and overall compactness. The leading place in the production of such motorcycles ATVs is the Japanese company “Honda”.
 
Next, more solid-looking mikrovisatos — biaxial. This is typically a double car with a simplified open-shaped body without doors, made of plastic and is mounted on a tubular frame. Both axis are leading. A typical representative of this class — the all-terrain vehicle “rapstar” (Fig. 2) the American company “RAPP”, specializing in the production motoart. Stamped inside the body are double seat, steering wheel and controls; rear mounted two-stroke two-cylinder engine with a displacement of 230 cm3 and a power of 10 HP As these cars, microvideo is provided with a transmission, control systems, braking and lighting. Another American car, “Kut” (4X4) used is not rigid, and articulated frame, which significantly increases prohodik ity and maneuverability.
The most popular three-axis mikrovisata with all leading axes. They are fitted with tyres wide profile and low internal pressure. Characteristic in this respect dvuhmestnij German the Rover “Solo-750” (Fig. 3). The sealed light body made of plastic, he can walk on water, and the speed of 3-4 km/h is achieved only at the expense of rotation of wheels. In addition to the two people, the car carrying 250 kg of cargo. Two-cylinder engine producing 25 HP and delivers at full load maximum speed 60 km/h. Thanks to the small dimensions (length 2.1 m and width 1.4 m) and the special design of continuously variable V-belt transmission the Rover can turn on a dime. When the wheels on each side rotate in opposite directions. On the same principle are built most of these machines. Usually their own weight does not exceed 150-180 kg. They are free to overcome the difficult terrain and even slopes of up to 45°.
 
The most interesting design of one of the first twin-engine mikrovisatos “Giger” (6X6) is shown in figure 4. With six pnevmokokkami with the internal pressure of 0,14 kg/cm2. It used two motorcycle engine and an automatic V-belt transmission. Separate the drive from the engine to the wheels of each of the sides allows the machine to turn on a dime. For water on the vehicle in contrast to other similar structures is provided with two propellers, each of which is driven by its own engine. Turn on the water by varying the speed of rotation of a screw. Body “Giger” made of fiberglass; when it goes up you will have the access to all nodes (as in Fig. 5).
 
The largest among mikrovisatos — axle machine with all driving wheels. They are similar to the three axis, but are provided with more powerful engines, higher load capacity and represent a smaller copy of a real multi-vehicles all-terrain vehicles. Some of these models are equipped with removable tracks, which further increases their permeability.
 
Here is one of them — the American four-axle all-terrain vehicle “the kid” (Fig. 6). The body is sealed, the simplified form (without a roof), made of light alloy. The engine and transmission located in the Central part behind the seats, the rear is used for the carriage of passengers or cargo. The Rover can be equipped with 4-cylindrowym a gasoline or diesel engine air cooling capacity of 30 HP and hydromechanical transmission with a separate chain drive to each wheel. All tires of the vehicle “the kid” high flotation, low pressure. Machine develops a decent speed: land 36 km/h with a full load of 500 kg. upon the water of 2.4 km/h (without special propeller). The equipment of the machine includes a tent cabin cargo compartment, passenger cabin, and removable tracks. In the agricultural version provided by the PTO and the hydraulic system of mounting the guns — in this case, it replaces the lighter tractor. The builders get it with the dozer blade at the front or drilling equipment.
 
R and S. 6 all-terrain Vehicle
 
Fig. 6 all-terrain Vehicle “the kid”.
 
Fig. 7. Tracked all-terrain vehicle “bomb” — a General view and diagram of the device.
 
Fig. 8. Tracked articulated all-terrain vehicle “Cam-Trak”.
 
Fig. 9. The process of loading and transportation of mikrovisatos.

 
 
Fig. 10. Microislet “Mechanical mule”.
 
Fig. 11. Microislet “Pony” — communities view and diagram of the device.
 
Fig. 12. All-terrain vehicle “telcar”.
 
Fig. 13. Folding all-terrain “Kraka” and the scheme of folding.

 
Another vehicle from this family “sur trek” (8X8) equipped with a hinged frame. It has a two-stroke engine producing 20 HP and automatic transmission, the body is made of polyester fiberglass. The machine is designed for two people and 200 kg of cargo or four people.
 
From half-track cars will move on to crawler. Figure 7 shows the design principle of lightweight tracked all the “bomb” (Canada), which, despite the prefix “micro”, more solid on their wheeled counterparts. He has a 4-cylinder engine (from a conventional car) working volume of 1,6 l and capacity of 57 HP the torque Transmission to the front drive sprocket is also a car: with a short propeller shaft, main transmission, differential and axle shafts. Track rollers are the usual automotive Pneumatics. Exterior outdoor, double, molded from synthetic material. In the variant with the closed body is installed a heater and windshield heater. All-terrain vehicle equipped with electric winch, spare wheel and a few extra sections of track, the arc of safety. The machine is operated, like all tracked by braking one of the tracks with lightweight aluminum grousers with rubber belts.
 
The experimental problem of turning tracked vehicles on rough terrain and allowed the creation of a two-piece all-terrain vehicles with the so-called semivowels frame, at a bend which changes the direction of motion. An example is the hinge “kamtrak” (Fig. 8). It consists of two sections having a pair of leading crawler trucks. The design of the machine is simplified. On the front section fitted with 3 cylinder diesel engine 52 HP and 4-speed manual transmission; rear section is used for the transport of goods. The drive to the rear of the caterpillar — through a system of cardan shafts. Each sprocket installed inside the caterpillar, as usual, and the top. The lack of reliability here kompensiruet simplicity.
 
Transportation mikrovisatos long distances on the highway — the task is not difficult. The smallest of them are freely placed in the body of a normal “pickup”, stopping Judah alone, as the heavier cars are transported on special trailers towed by a passenger car (Fig. 9). By the way, the platform on which transport microislet, then you can connect with him, and also to carry additional loads.
 
Speaking of microvesicular, it is impossible not to talk about a completely separate class of machines of this type. We are talking about light vehicles with all-wheel drive. One of them was called the “Mechanical mule” (Fig. 10). Its Foundation is a tubular platform, which is installed behind horizontal gasoline engine air cooling working volume 900 cm3 and a power of 25 HP Drivetrain consists of a 3-speed transmission and 2-studencheskogo gear, approach power to all four leading wheels are bevel gearboxes. A feature of the car is that the steering column can be installed in both the front and the back, or even made to the side that allows you to control the car, walking beside her. Speed forward and backward a minimum of 1.3 km/h, max 40 km/h; its own mass of about 40 kg load capacity 450 kg, maximum height of the vehicle without the steering column only 687 mm. a Similar machine, called “Pony” (Fig. 11), built by the Dutch company DAF. Here we have used a horizontal engine with a volume of 500 cm3 and a power of 20 HP, located in the Central part of the tubular machine under the loading platform. In unit with the engine installed V-belt stepless automatic transmission “VARIOMATIC” 2-speed manual transmission that provides automatic speed selection depending on the terrain conditions. The steering wheel can also be mounted front, back or side of the vehicle. All parts of the machine protected from dirt, sand or water. “The mechanical pony” can go Brody a depth of 40 cm, almost completely sinking into the water, to overcome slopes with the steepness up to 30°, can withstand a side tilt of 22°. The length of this machine is 2840 mm, width 1270 mm, height on the loading platform of 750 mm.
 
Larger microislet “Telcar” (Fig. 12) is provided with twelve driving wheels with wide pnevmokokkami. Its height is about 800 mm. It can float to overcome deep ditches and steep slopes to move faster than the crawling human and racing on the highway without compromising the speed of the cars. Interesting and a scheme of folding all-terrain “Kraka” (Fig. 13).
 
In our country light cross-country vehicles are being built mostly by Amateur designers, as well as the clubs and clubs of young technicians ‘ stations. Some of them you will learn from future publications.
 
E. KOCHNEV, engineer

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