This question — wittingly or unwittingly — touched the journal, many authors, enthusiasts, Amateur microelementary. They are often not limited to theoretical reasoning, and embodied his ideas in metal, being able to create interesting designs. This process continues: such are the inexorable laws of technological progress. So the answer to the question: “How to be a self-made little micro-car for city driving”?, let’s say, ten years will differ significantly from what we can say today. Many of attendant factors and circumstances — the emergence of new structural materials, new technologies, new operating conditions, the status of energy resources, the evolution of social conditions and much more everyday to change the demands which the life makes to be vehicles of personal (individual) use.
Now it becomes quite obvious discrepancy “classic” car of personal use to the new conditions. Cars became too much, the actual speed has decreased, traffic control and regulation has become more complicated, having related problems: the organization stands and Parking, fuel, noise and emissions of exhaust gases into the atmosphere, finally, the problem of saving oxygen, which is so ruthlessly greedy Armada of cars with internal combustion engines. We remind readers that in many countries they are already banished from some cities or their appearance there is strictly limited.
One of the ways out of this threatening situation in the application of power plants with a capacity of no more than 20-40 HP with minimal toxicity of emissions and low noise. The success of such car many see primarily in the replacement of traditional internal combustion engine electric units. It can be purely electrical system (batteries+motor) or combined — using the energy of compressed air, recovery (as in electric railroads), by using the inertial-flywheel devices, etc.
A significant role in creating the car of the future should play and the correct choice of the design of the undercarriage. Here, as the air needs innovative solutions. A noticeable trend: reduction of the geometric dimensions of the car (almost double cabin no more than 2500X1400X1220 mm) and weight reduction (500 kg). Some foreign firms and Soviet designers are once again turning to the tricycle scheme of the car. Its important advantages — ease of fabrication, high maneuverability and light weight design. One of its main drawbacks — low permeability — serious matter (when driving in city conditions on a good road surface) has not.
The scheme of micro-car, only “ALPHA”:
1 — the main longitudinal spar of the frame, 2 — hood front, 3 — jet, 4 — way plug front wheel, 5 — absorber, 6 — column turning front wheels, 7 — axis front wheels, 8 — front wheel, 9 — tubular frame, 10 — steering wheel automobile type, 11 — drivers seat, 12 — orthopaedic backrest, 13 — arc the rear, 14 — cross member suspension of a back sprocket. 15 — attenuator, 16 — rear, 17 — box underbody.
In a number of countries in recent years created and produced a variety of three-wheeled vehicles having a sufficiently high technical performance. This BID (England), “GM” and “Highway” (USA) — with internal combustion engines, Polish the electric car “Meleca”, Italian “Michelotti”, French “Citadines” and others.
Widespread tricycle vehicles hampered their instability, particularly on curved road sections (in the case of the arrangement of wheels under the scheme “straight triangle”, that is, with one wheel in front); for this reason, the construction of such cars in the USSR was prohibited. Cars with a rear third wheel (the scheme of the “inverse triangle”) is more sustainable and according to this scheme we have created many interesting homemade products.
However, the stability of three-wheeled vehicle with the front pillar can be increased significantly, if the front wheel managed to become the leading. According to this scheme, in particular, means to produce electric cars one of the French firms.
It should be noted that the cars with the front leading driven and a pillar was built at the dawn of the automotive industry. So, 1907-1928 years were mass-produced tricycle “Promobil” with double and quadruple body. It was equipped with two-cylinder V-engine air-cooling mounted on the fork of the front wheel associated with the chain drive.
The location of the engine above the wheel is very rational, as it contributes to the stability of the vehicle: when the wheel is turning the engine “shifts” inside the curve and thus shifts the center of gravity of the machine to the center of the turn. As a consequence, increases its resistance to rollover.
“Sverhproizvoditelny” car truck mount is extremely simple design: it lacks a steering linkage, differential, driveline, axles. The rejection of these sites in conjunction with the performance of the power unit in one unit can significantly reduce the weight. All this gives reason to believe that such constructive scheme is similar to the requirements of a city car in General, and improvised. Its stability and dynamics can be enhanced if front — lead and managed — support to execute two interlocked wheels. Shown in the picture the car has a frame structure made of pipes of rectangular cross section; on the frame is mounted is made of aluminium reinforced fibreglass single body of open type. To the rear of the frame for longitudinal swinging arms are mounted the rear wheels. The front pillar of the vehicle consists of a fixed frame by angular contact bearing swivel carrier rack. To it bracket mounted power unit, oscillating on a horizontal pivot pendulum fork front suspension. On the axis of the fork located two wheels. Elastic elements of the front and rear suspensions serve as cylindrical springs with hydraulic shock absorbers of a motorcycle type.
The design feature of the front support of the installation of wheels with the axis of the turntable stand. This ensures the need for the sustainable movement of the car positive removal of the wheels relative to the axis of rotation of the rack. Marked design feature also allows, without compromising the working conditions of the support, positioning the power unit in front of the wheels and thus further lower the center of gravity of the machine.
The lack of a differential does not impair the operation of the wheels, as when you turn one of them off the ground.
The power unit of the proposed “pseudocritical” consists of a two-cylinder motorcycle engine with a capacity of 20-22 HP with the parallel arrangement of the cylinders. Good cooling counter flow of air provided by the front engine and the appropriate form of vents in the hood.
If a limited length of the vehicle and changing its altitude to find a form of bodywork that provides both comfortable accommodation and low aerodynamic drag, is quite a difficult task. In addition, the body must meet the modern aesthetic requirements. The most acceptable appears to be wedge-shaped in profile plane and in the plan. The rear wall it is advisable to run with a slight slope in the direction opposite to the motion shown in the diagram. In combination with the contours of the side walls that accentuate the dynamism of the machine and also allow you to place an arc of safety, thereby increasing the reliability of the design.
For the convenience of the passengers in the back have of the frame a relatively high threshold, the side door of the vehicle, each combined with the corresponding half of the windshield. They open forward on hinges mounted on the centre column of this glass. It is not excluded the possibility of using sliding doors; this is justified since the presence of protruding side rails reduces the risk of jamming the door in case of accidents.
It is possible to perform vehicle and open-topped, but in this case it is mandatory to arc security: U-shaped tube design, combined with decorative side walls and the roof. The protection of driver and passenger safety, and serve a wide uneven bars, performing both the role of the footrests.
Along with the direct destination “pseudocritical” as a city, it can also be used as a sports or tourist. If necessary, you can provide him the buoyancy of the inflatable floats under the side bars. But in General it is intermediate between single-track transport and conventional car, combining simplicity and relatively low cost first amenities second. By the way, and consumer demand, as you know, is great for inexpensive, simple and at the same time comfortable means of vehicles.
I think that this car in some way can also serve as a prototype transportation of tomorrow. Because with the increase in the total number of vehicles in the foreseeable future it will limit the saturation of their streets and roads. In this case, the inevitable will be the automation of public transport. An acceptable solution may be a trunk line, consisting of following each other in close proximity to sidewalks two-four capsules, ready to transport passengers. The inclusion of such booths in the overall flow, and the exit from it, a selection of the necessary passengers and route traffic to the destination will be carried out automatically using a computer.
E. RUDYK, candidate of technical Sciences