Northerners – Societe Nationale de Constructions Aeronautiques du Nord Aviation (Nord Aviation) the aircraft developed 1402A “Zherfo”. He was the most easy and to transition the sound barrier it was enough thrust accelerated “Atara” 101С (with a thrust of 2820 kg). 3 Aug 1954 “Zherfo” for the first time in Europe exceeded the speed of sound in level flight.
The company “Dassault” (Avions Marcel Dassault), the project of the fighter-interceptor under the designation MD.550-01 “Mr. Delta”. This aircraft was a tailless triangular in plan with a wing span of 7.3 m and a 27 m2. Its power plant consisted of two TRD MD.30 “Weiler” the same company with the thrust of 745 kg each. To increase rate of climb the aircraft was carrying additional SEPR rocket engine with a thrust of 1500 kg, working on foreline and nitric acid.
The first flight of the MD.550-01 “Mr. Delta” was held on 25 July 1955. Test pilot are positive about the flying qualities of the machine, but at maximum speed, it lagged behind competitors. And at the end of January, the fighter returned to the factory for modification. It established the keel of a large area, increased the wing span by 0.2 m, had replaced the engines on the MD.30R with afterburners and put a rocket booster. The modified aircraft was given the name “the Mirage” I. Flight tests resumed on 25 June 1956, but in an improved form the aircraft could only reach the speed corresponding to the number M=1.6 at the altitude of 12 000 Competitors from SNCASO exceeded this speed six months ago, and successfully moved to the 2nd speed of sound.
For the company “Dassault” situation was not the best way – everything was going to the loss in the contest. Moreover, the technical Department of the air force suddenly changed the requirements for the new aircraft. Now the military wanted to fighter, equipped with radar, to provide a self-locating aerial targets. This resulted in serious alterations of the bow and the increased take-off weight of the machine. Engineers all went to work, and the result was a new project – MD.550-02 Mirage II with two turbojets “Gabito”, the thrust of which was up to 1540 kg. But calculations showed that even with these engines the milestone of M=2 will not be taken. Work on the project was stopped.
Flies fighter Mirage IIIA – seventh prototype
1 – drogue parachute; 2 – upper wing brake flap; 3 – wheel main landing gear; 4 – the main landing gear; 5 – cannon DEFA 5-52; 6 – lower brake plate; 7 – fold niche cleaning stand basic wheel; 8 – drag chute container; 9 – rudder; 10 – fin tip; 11 – radio compartment; 12 – rod receiver air pressure; 13 – adjustable palukanos air intake; 14 – air navigation fire; 15 – washed down to improve stability; 16 – cone of the control arms of elevons; 17 – elevon; 18 – cowl control arms of elevon; 19 – steering wheel height; 20 – wheel main landing gear; 21 – brake wheel; 22 – wheel axle; 23 – front wheel; 24 – strut strut; 25 – cylinder retract landing gear; 26 – visor canopy; 27 – ejection seat; 28 – hinged part of the lamp in open position; 29 rocking of the rudder; 30 – fold adjustable jet nozzle; 31 – fuel tank; 32 – pole; 33 – fender wheel wells of the main stand; a 34 – fold compartment nose wheel; 35 – wheel nose gear; a 36 – cylinder retract nose wheel; a 37 – bow front; 38 – an additional wing to the nose gear, the 39 – receiver static pressure; 40 – radiotransparent Radome radar antenna
Mirage IIIS Swiss air force armed with missiles “air-air” AIM-26 “Falcon”
Mirage IIICJ of the 119 squadron of the Israeli air force
Here, the firm drew attention to the high-speed aircraft of the British and the Americans, who have already solved the problem of achieving great speeds without the use of heavy duty motors or rocket engines, but only due to the newly opened “rules”. After examining their work, in particular, the plane FD.2 by “FAE”, “Dassault”, began designing a new fighter -MD.550-03 Mirage III.
For it was selected turbojet SNECMA Atar G. I with a thrust of 4000 kg (with afterburner). From the rocket booster could not refuse (his presence demanded the military), but the designers have provided the ability to install in its place an extra fuel tank.
Fighter fuselage had a length of 12.8 m, designed by “area rule”. In many ways, the Mirage III was a new design, albeit similar to previous projects. Its takeoff weight is 6900 kg was almost 30% more than the “Mirage” I. the aircraft had a simple unregulated air intakes with the drainage system of the boundary layer, making it difficult to increase top speed, but saved precious development time. The designers initially planned to fly around the car, and only then to modify its air tract.
17 November 1956 flew the first instance – the Mirage III-001. 30 Jan 1957 in the tenth flight the plane is on the decline has reached the speed corresponding to the number M=1.6 at an altitude of 11 000 m with full afterburner. A little later, the Mirage III included rocket engine SEPR exceeded M=1,8. A further increase in speed with unregulated intakes was impossible. The plane returned to the plant where it has installed movable poleconomy to create a system of shock waves. The air intakes were moved forward, and poleconomy could move on rails, setting in three fixed positions.
In April 1958, it began flight tests of the aircraft, equipped with adjustable inlets. They increased the engine thrust by 20%. The number M of the flight immediately increased from 1.52 to 1.65.
Serial prototype – “Mirage” SHA-001 first flew on 12 may 1958. 24 Oct 1958 they had reached the speed corresponding to the number M=2, without the inclusion of the SEPR 84 rocket engine! Thus, the Mirage became the first European aircraft, flying at M=2 in horizontal flight only on TRD.
Initial and the most famous serial modification was a light interceptor Mirage S. Its first flight took place on 9 October 1960. The aircraft was mounted turbojet Atar 9ВЗ static thrust in afterburner 6000 kg. as additional power plant was used SEPR 844 rocket engine produces thrust 1680 kg at a height of 16 000 m. a rocket engine could be installed instead of an extra fuel tank in the fuselage. Tank capacity 410 l non aggressive feralina (TX2) was replaced by a removable module in front of the fuselage with two 30-mm guns “Def”; a tank with an oxidizing agent (nitric acid) located inside the container with the rocket engine. The duration of the flight “Mirage” S in the variant of the interceptor with rocket engine was 30 min.
“Mirage” S equally could perform as a function of all-weather interceptor and attack aircraft to attack ground targets. On the car establish the various types of weapons. In the first production aircraft was one underfuselage pylon and two underwing, then on all the machines added two external underwing pylons for guided missiles “air-air” of small range.
The fire control system “Cyrano” was intended for the guidance of missiles “air-air” with semi-active radar homing or played the role of a range finder for missiles with infrared guidance system.
The typical armament of the aircraft to execute the intercept consisted of missiles Matra R. 511 or R. 530, suspended under the fuselage, and two SD “Sidewinder” – under the wing.
For attacks on ground targets under the wing on pylons hung: two bombs caliber 453 kg or two containers with unguided rockets JL-50 for up to 36 NUR caliber 37 mm; or two containers L–100, containing 16 NUR caliber 37 mm and 600 l of fuel; or two containers L–200, containing 36 NUR and 900 l of fuel. To engage point targets under the fuselage attached SD-class “air-land” AS.20, and under the wing of two drop tank capacity 622 L.
Normal internal fuel in the aircraft was 2200 L. ferry option under the wing was suspended two fuel tanks with a capacity of 1300 or 1700 L.
Aircraft variant S under the designation Mirage IIIS were purchased by the Swiss air force. They were equipped with turbojet Atar 09СЗ. Originally in Switzerland, was supposed to be built is 80 aircraft, but due to the increase in the cost of the program did only 60. Radar “Cyrano” and missiles “air-air” R. 511 replaced the American fire control system of the firm “Hughes” TARAN-1S and missiles of class “air-air” AIM-26 “Falcon”, a license production of the Swedish company SAAB. In addition, it was built 17 aircraft reconnaissance modification IIIRS. The first instance of reconnaissance made at the company “Dassault”.
Double training version of the Mirage IIIB, developed in parallel with the option S, took to the air on 21 October 1959 and the first production aircraft – July 19, 1960. Built more than 60 aircraft the Mirage IIIV. Training aircraft Mirage IIIV was long by 60 cm the bow, to position the seat the second crew member, and with the Sparky removed the radar. The exported versions of the plane IIIB: two of the air force of Lebanon (under the designation IIIBL), three in Switzerland (IIIBS), three – South Africa (IIIBZ), two to Peru, six to Spain, one to Brazil and ten Australia (AU). Three Sparky “Mirage” IIIDP sold to the Pakistan air force.
One aircraft the Mirage IIIV was modified as a “flying laboratory” for research “Concord”. In-cab mounted controls from the airliner “Concord” and special machines playback control efforts and loads. The plane was used for acquisition of civilian test pilots flying skills at supersonic speeds.
16 Mirage jets ordered IIICZ South African air force for use as a strike low-altitude aircraft armed with missiles “air – land” AS.20 with radio command guidance system.
After reviewing the merits of the new French fighter, the Israeli air force ordered 24 “Mirage” S under the designation IIICJ no rocket engine, but with an additional fuel tank. In 1961, the order was increased to 72 cars. The first “Mirage” arrived in Israel on 7 April 1962, where he received the new name “Shahak” (Shahak Hebrew for heaven). These aircraft have become the main enemy for the Soviet aircraft in numerous armed conflicts in the middle East.
“MIRAGE” IN BATTLE
Baptism of fire “Mirage” IIICJ was held on 19 August 1963 during the so-called “War for water”. This two day patrol “Mirage” faced eight Syrian MiG-17 and managed from the on-Board cannon to shoot down one of them.
In November 1964, Israel began a ground operation against Syrian forces on the Golan heights.
14 November, two “Mirage” intercepted a Syrian MiG-21. For the first time in the history of the middle East wars jets released each other missiles “air-air”, but they passed, and unharmed opponents returned to their airfields.
Another air battle occurred in July 1966. July 14 “mirages” flew to cover the storm troopers. Found four of the MiG-21, the Israelis rushed to intercept. Captain Yoram of Agmon shot down one enemy aircraft with cannon fire. It was the first in the world, a victory by the pilots on the aircraft “Mirage” and also the first combat loss for the Arab MiGs.
11 November 1966, the commander of the 119th squadron was shot down Jordanian fighter jet, “hunter”.
29th Nov airspace, Israel was invaded by two Egyptian MiG-19. One of them was the victim of a “Mirage” that issued the R. 530 missile. This victory is considered the first “rocket” a victory in the Israeli air force.
7 April 1967 Syrian forces launched artillery attacks on Israeli settlements and border posts. At noon that day, five squadrons of the Israeli air force took to the air for boostermedia retaliatory strikes against Syrian positions. In the combat formations of flying “Mirage” of the 101st and 117th squadrons. On the approach to targets in the air there was the “MiG-21” and Israeli strike aircraft turned back, and part of the cover band, “Mirage” of 101 squadron, entered the fray. One MiG was shot down. At the same time, fighters from the 117 squadron noticed a large group of MiG-21 over the sea, and went to intercept. According to the statements of the Israelis, the Syrian planes had evaded the fight. After lunch, the shelling of Israeli settlements resumed, and “mirages” made a second sortie, in which they managed to shoot down a MiG-21. About an hour after that the six Israeli fighter jets patrolling over the Northern border of Israel, discovered four MiG-21. Pilots managed to shoot down three MiG. Thus, one day the Syrians lost six aircraft, and the Israelis.
The most famous Israeli “Mirage” brought “operation Moked” (Moked – center), which was a pre-emptive strike on the air forces of the Arab States. The number of combat aircraft Israel was more than three times, so the Israelis decided to launch a surprise assault strikes on enemy airfields all available aircraft. To cover strategic sites, the Israelis left in reserve is only 12 “Mirage.” The first time the attacker had to drop bombs on the runway and the taxiway, thus preventing the takeoff of fighters and the second is to strike at the aircraft Parking.
5 June 1967, 7 hours and 45 minutes, when the Egyptian pilots went to canteen for Breakfast, strike group aircraft of the Israeli left on purpose. In the first fight destroyed more than 180 aircraft parked and damaged the runway of almost all airfields in the Sinai. The Israelis have lost 9 cars. The second RAID, the Egyptians had lost 94 aircraft. In the third flight the aircraft of Israel struck Jordan and Syria, killing 53 of the aircraft. RAID on Iraqi air base didn’t go as smoothly. The Iraqis were able to knock down a few “votenow” and “Mirage.” The total losses of the Arab States for the first day of the war amounted to 375 planes, and over the next five days of fighting – another 76 units. Israel has lost a total of 40 machines.
On account of “Mirage” were a few of the latest supersonic fighter-bombers su-7. The first su-7 was shot down by Israeli, Giora Epstein. The attack was made from the rear hemisphere at low altitude. The pilot of su-7 of his opponent not seen, and Giora quietly having approached for a short distally, fired a long burst of 30-mm guns of its Mirage IIICJ. Egyptian plane exploded in the air.
8 July “Mirage” of the 119 squadron shot down an Egyptian spy the MiG-21 R. the next morning on mount Sinai there was a couple of su-7 that flew at high speed and low altitude. The Israelites failed to intercept it. Another reconnaissance flight was followed by lunch. This time the air was on duty the link “Mirage”, and one su-7 were shot down.
15 Jul pilot of “Mirage” for the first time achieved a victory with the help of the guided missile “Safer”.
Egypt reorganized his force and gradually regained strength through the supply of aircraft from the USSR. Another escalation of the war began on 8 September 1968 with attacks on Israeli positions.
8 March 1969, a group of Egyptian aircraft took off to strike at Israeli positions in the Sinai, but was intercepted by “mirages”. As a result of air combat, “mirages” shot down two MiG-21.
In July passed a few air battles, which shot down 9 MiG-21 and one MiG-17. The Israelis lost one “Mirage”.
30 July 1970 the pilot of “Mirage” managed to shoot down three MiG-21 aircraft without loss to themselves.
In General, the result of the fights that took place between 1968 and 1970, Israel has lost 25 “Mirage”, but they managed to knock down 53 enemy aircraft.
Scored “Mirage” and during the so-called “Yom Kippur War” (1973). The air battles were fought with great ferocity and casualties on both sides were large. From maneuverable air combat with the use of guns by the Israelis, did not shy away, knowing about the benefits of “Mirage” on the MiG-21 in the radius of the bend. The most successful Israeli pilot who flew the “mirages” were mentioned by Giora Epstein, unichtojiti 17 enemy aircraft, and 12 of them he hit in just one week of fighting, from 18 to 24 October. For the whole period of the 1973 war Israel lost in the air battles only 12 “Mirage.”
The fighters “Mirage” continued to be used in the Israeli air force until 1982 and even was prepared to participate in “operation Peace for Galilee,” but in battle they are no longer sent. The last airworthy Mirage IIICJ with the hull number 59 is in the Museum of the Israeli air force.
Flight performance of aircraft Mirage IIIC
Wing span, m……………………………….8.20
Wing area, m2…………………………..34.1
Empty weight, kg……………………………….5600
Take-off weight, kg……………………………..7980
Maximum takeoff weight, kg…..12 600
at an altitude of 12,000 m, km/h…………………..2100
at sea level, km/h……………………….1100
the rate of climb, m/s………………………120
Practical ceiling, m……………..18 000
N. Food Reserve Was, A. Chechin