“YAUZA” – PASSENGER CAR FOR CITY

“I intend to build a car for wide use. It will be large enough so that it will fit the whole family, but small enough that one person could operate it. It is made of best material and designed in the simplest methods possible in modern technology. Despite this, its price will be so low that every person receiving decent content will be able to buy a car to enjoy with your family, relax in the open fresh air.”
These words do not belong to me, and one of the most famous automakers — Henry Ford. They were written about 70 years ago, but the basic principles of design, whether industrial or Amateur, there are all the same.
 
Simplicity, minimal weight, minimal size with optimal facilities; most are available for purchase materials, components and assemblies; the simplified (without compromising quality) manufacturing technology — all this became the basis in the design of my car, which was later called “Yauza-035”.
 
Lightweight and rigid body it became possible to build cheap and durable material is hardboard; frame from readily available steel pipe; power plant — on the basis of a two-cylinder motorcycle engine IZH-Ю4 working volume of 350 cm3 (hence the index 035 in the name of the machine) with a capacity of 27 HP However, is probably more to acquaint readers with its unique design, this miniature city car.
Fig. 1. Subcompact urban vehicle type
Fig. 1. Subcompact urban vehicle type “2+2” “Yauza-035” (two-door, with timber-framed bodywork and orgalitovoj lining, with steel tubular frame and engine class 350 cm3).
 
Frame minicar — flat, tubular, welded. Its basis is the power “triangle”, welded pipes Ø 42X3 mm, which is fixed to the rocking of the suspension front and rear wheels. Joints of the elements of the frame is strengthened steel gussets to a thickness of 3 mm.
 
Fig. 2. The frame of the car
Fig. 2. The frame of the car “Yauza-035” (complete):
1 — engine type “IZH-Ю4” with a capacity of 27 HP, 2 — sub frame (cut from the old frame of the motorcycle IZH), 3 — frame (steel pipe Ø 42X3 mm), 4 — tensioning sprocket, 5 — bearing rear shock (pipe ø 42X3 mm 30X2 mm), 6 — rear shock (from a motorbike), 7 — front shock absorber (motorcycle IZH), 8 — bearing front shock absorbers (pipe diameter 36X3 mm), 9 rocking chair front suspension, 10 rocking of the rear suspension, 11 — Central intermediate sprocket chain transmission, 12 — double overrunning clutch, 13 — rear wheel (sidecar FDD), 14 rear connecting bearing body 15 side of the intermediate sprocket of the chain transmission, 16 — rear support sub-frame (steel strip with a thickness of 5 mm), 17 — front support sub-frame (steel strip with a thickness of 5 mm), 18 — connecting the front support body and the frame (steel strip with a thickness of 5 mm), 19 — wheel bearing housing (steel channel No. 12, and steel strip thickness of 5 mm) 20 — front wheel (sidecar FDD), 21 — rubber pillow.
 
Rear axle machines designed for bestofferenabled scheme using a roller overrunning clutches, connected in a single unit. It should be noted that the mounting of the rear axle requires great precision; you must make sure that the axis of the rocking chairs were located strictly on one line. For this pre-prepared brackets must be mounted on a flat steel rod or pipe and primatyvajutsja to the transverse element of the frame welding 3-4 points each. If after the oven mitts will not be observed any significant distortions (that is the technological core quite easily removed from the holes in the brackets], the joints are welded completely. If welding will cause the leash knot, fixing it is only possible by straightening.
 
Each of the longitudinally oscillating levers of the rear suspension welded tubular blanks, as shown in the drawings. Previously in the Central tube is made a groove under the bearing 204 and bearing slide, which is suspended from the rocking chair. The bearings represent speed bronze bushing, fasten the brackets with M6 bolts and nuts.
 
Rear wheel drive — using a two-stage chain transmission. Two intermediate sprocket onto intermediate shaft (lock — splines), which rotate inside the Central pipe of the rocking bearing No. 204. A third intermediate sprocket is welded to the body of the freewheel.
 
The double overrunning clutch includes a tubular housing; each of the end sides of it pressed on the step bushing, machined from a material with high surface hardness (for example, 45 steel — tempered), and fixed in the tube using the so-called “plug lap joint”. This method of fixation consists in cutting in the tube two or three holes Ø 8…10 mm and brewing them with welding. Welding should be carried promptly, to avoid break away the hardened bushing.
 
Mate one way clutch — also from a material with high surface hardness. Fixing them on the intermediate shafts is by means of electric welding. As the rollers are used pieces of wire-the”silverfish” (material — 50KHFA) Ø 6 mm (hardened). Of course, it is better to select rollers of appropriate diameter from the bearing, but in the period of manufacturing overrunning clutches, I didn’t have at hand such details. However, homemade videos fared well.
 
Each of the rollers is pressed by the spring — if it can’t find a ready (with external diameter of 5.5 mm, wire Ø 0.5 mm), it is possible navit independently on a suitable terminal using a simple fixture, consisting of two plates between which is clamped in the grip of this rod.
 
Note that the work of the overrunning clutch is substantially dependent on the thoroughness of its manufacture. Its main element is a body with rollers and springs — should be absolutely symmetrical. It is advisable to mill it using a dividing head, turning each time the workpiece is strictly 90°. An indispensable condition for the satisfactory operation of the coupling is, as already mentioned, strict alignment of intermediate shafts. Quality made and assembled overrunning clutch provides almost instant seizure of the driven shaft when the driving and it as instant disconnection of the housing and the axle in advance of the rotation of the latter. I also note that there are many designs of the overrunning clutches and the choice of any of them is the question of the technological capabilities of an Amateur constructor. For reviews of homebrew, it gives good results use “ratchet”, designed after a similar device and legkomotornyh sports bikes.
 
The front axle of the micro-car, only improvised; it is a device with independent suspension on semi-trailing arm and shock absorbers rear wheel of the motorbike. Each of the levers is collected using the welding of tubes with Ø 34 mm and Ø 40 mm. Welding of the workpiece best on the simplest slipway, which must be clearly fixed to the bearing housing arm and rocking the steering knuckle. Note that the latter is set so as to ensure the collapse of 3…4° (at a horizontal position of axis of arm) and the tilt axis of the king pin knuckle 5°. While the front wheels are aperpendicular the road plane, and inclined at an angle of 3…4° to the vertical. This reduces the torque necessary to rotate the axle around the kingpin. The tilt of the king pin knuckle Assembly provides a significant increase in stability after the cessation of the impact on the steering wheel of the last “alone” returns to its original (neutral) position.
 
The housing of the swinging arm and fist are equipped with sliding bearings — speed bronze bushing.
 
The knuckles represent the segments of the steel channel No. 12 (height 120 mm, width — 52 mm, thickness of vertical wall is 4.8 mm, the average thickness of the horizontal flange 7.8 mm), which are welded chiseled axle of the front wheels. To do this, the knuckle is cut hole Ø 30 mm, and the axle runs in a stepped roller with a bore diameter of 30 mm. welding the axles and knuckle is made by two circular welds on both sides of the channel. The rotary levers of a steering trapeze cut from steel sheet of thickness 5 mm and are welded to the lower platforms of the steering knuckle.
Fig. 3. The control arm of the front wheel.
Fig. 3. Suspension arm front wheel:
1 — diagonal cross bar (steel pipe 34X3 mm Ø), 2 — cross bar (steel pipe Ø 34X3 mm), 3 — bearing knuckle (bronze sleeve), 4 — bearing housing steering knuckle (steel tube Ø 40X3 mm), 5 — bolt M14 with nut and washer; (connection is fixed with a cotter pin), 6 — his ear-piece, 7 — bracket of the control arm (steel strip with a thickness of 5 mm), 8 — side of the vehicle frame (steel tube Ø 42X3 mm) 9 — bearing housing of the lever-rocking, 10 — bearing arm (bronze bushing).
 
Fig. 4. The rear suspension of the car.
Fig. 4. The rear suspension of the car:
1 — nut of fastening of an asterisk (fixed pin), 2 — gusset plate (steel strip with a thickness of 3 mm), 3 — bracket control arm (steel sheet thickness 5 mm), 4 — the bearing of the lever (bronze sleeve), 5 — ball bearing No. 204, 6 — spacer (steel tube with an inner diameter of 20 mm), 7 — cross frame (steel tube Ø 42X3 mm), 8 — intermediate shaft chain transmission, 9 — sleeve freewheel (fixed in the housing by plug lap joint), 10 — roller and clutch spring, 11 — driven part of the overrunning clutch, 12 — overrunning clutch housing (tube Ø 60 mm), 13 — sprocket freewheel (welded to body), 14 — bearing housing of the lever-rocking (steel tube Ø 60 mm), 15 — longitudinal elements of a lever (steel pipe Ø 38Х3 mm), 16 — the case of the axle shaft (steel tube Ø 40X3 mm), 17 — fork mount rear shock (steel strip 4 mm thick), 18 — axis (fixed by plug lap joint).
 
The engine is a miniature of the car — type IL-Ю4. This is a two-cylinder two-stroke engine with a capacity of about 27 HP, equipped, like all two-stroke motorcycle powertrain, clutch, four-speed gearbox (sorry, no reverse) and the alternator. In addition, for the operation of the engine, you need the power of a rectifier-regulator motorcycle 12-volt battery.
 
The engine is mounted on a special subframe composed of a frame part of the old “Jupiter”, welded to two steel channels with a height of about 70 mm. To the sub-frame the engine is attached using standard fasteners, and the subframe to the vehicle frame through rubber cushions, as shown on the drawings. For mounting the subframe to the frame provides a reference platform, cut from steel sheet 4 mm thick and welded to the tubes of the frame.
 
Drive wheels, as already mentioned, two — stage chain drive and idler sprockets are arranged on intermediate shafts and on the housing double overrunning clutch. This design of the rear axle provides independent suspension without the use of labor-intensive and low-tech in terms of a handicraft workshop differential with cardan transmission (with a record low weight of the coupling).
 
Chain wheels — homemade, they are cut from steel sheet blanks with a thickness of 5 mm. their Manufacture was made by a well-known technique using a drill press, hacksaw and files. In the intermediate sprocket cut a hole the diameter of the housing freewheel, and then the sprocket was welded to it. The other two, side, sprocket welded were fixed to a steel sleeve having an internal keyway. A corresponding groove milled and intermediate shafts. Sprocket rear wheel of the motorcycle IZH.
 
Steering — motorized FDD. Lateral pull split, using steering lever — “triangle” the type of the car “Duet” Vologda designer Alexander Krylov (incidentally, much of “Yauza” is borrowed in the development of this constructor — the cars of small “Camel” (“M-K” No. 6 for 1987) and “Duet” (“M-K” № 8, 1990).
 
The body of the car “Yauza-035” — with a wooden frame and a covering of hardboard. Work on the production of the body starts with a drawing on a sheet of plywood Plaza in 1:1 scale. Further along the Plaza cut blanks for frames and stringers. Note that the Central frame is glued of five wooden bars and is reinforced inside with plywood gussets.
 
The door frame is also wood. Glazing doors and rear side and rear Windows of plexiglass. The glass doors tight and are not able to fall, however, the glass slotted round window, closed by a lid made of the same Plexiglas.
 
The surface of the body formed by the bar (single-curvature) surfaces, however, due to the rather spectacular form the corpus of “Yauza-035” does not seem simplistic, primitive. The fact that the roof, side and bonnet consists of several sheets of hardboard, attached to the frame so that the impression of a single surface with the punch to increase the rigidity. Each of the shell elements is a ruled surface, but the whole lining has the form of a shell with double curvature.
 
Fig. 5. The body of the car
Fig. 5. The body of the car “Yauza-035”:
1 — the elements of the frame of the wheel housing (plywood 20 mm thick), 2, 13 and 14 elements of the front frame (wooden slats with a thickness of 25 mm), 3 — a bridge (rail section 25X40 mm), 4 — bar base body (section 40X40 mm), 5, 11 — elements of the rear bulkhead (wooden slats with a thickness of 25 mm), 6 — longitudinal set of a body (the wooden slats with a thickness of 26 mm), 7 longitudinal side roof elements (Reiki 25X40 mm) 8 — stringers of the roof (slats with 25 mm thick), 9 — roof (strips of hardboard with a thickness of 4…5 mm), 10 — crossmember rear (3 PCs., strips with a thickness of 25 mm), 12 — Central frame (wikiepedia of slats 30X40 mm and plywood), 15, 16 and 17 covering the wheel housing and matousek (plywood thickness 6…8 mm), 18 — trim sides and rear of the body (hardboard thickness 4…5 mm).
 
As it is, easy to understand, for example, forming the roof. To start, cut two strips of hardboard and they are stuck as shown in the figure, zone B. Further cut the workpiece to the plating zone G and carefully fitted to the frame. Especially pay attention to the fit of the joints with strips of hardboard. The bracket cover small screws and epoxy glue. Also adjusted the strip of hardboard to the Central area of the roof (area B). After mounting the strips of covering in the places of their connections using the epoxy putty is the fillet — the fillet.
 
Similarly, sheathed the sides and hood. Note that before covering sidewalls of the door is temporarily fixed in the apertures by means of clamps or screws and are integral with the sidewalls. After curing of the resin sheathing between the frame of door the “box” is cut from the inside with a hacksaw, fine teeth. Together with body is sheathed with hardboard and frame of the folding hood of the alligator type, and then in the same way as doors, cut off from the body.
 
Lined with hardboard, body vysalivaniya, vyshkurivaetsya and glued by one layer of fiberglass in epoxy resin. Then its surface is sanded, primed and painted synthetic (e.g., alkyd) enamels three to four passes with intermediate podsalivanii and Vykurovanie.
 
Inside the body is glued with strips of packing or construction foam, significantly reducing the noise level in the cabin. Then the foam is aligned to the height of the stringers and glued artificial skin. The inner surface of the door is also filled with foam, then stitched laminate and glued artificial skin.
 
As the instrument panel it is best to use the power of the motorcycle “IZH-Ю4” containing the ignition switch, speedometer, and warning lamps “neutral” transmission, turn signal, ignition and headlight. Installation this unit is easy to produce in a convenient for the driver area on the panel.
 
Seat drivers, passenger, and rear (children) sofa — homemade. They are all lightweight tubular frames (from dural pipes Ø 22 mm), covered with nylon cord. Over the cord glued to the foam and then trimmed seat upholstery fabrics.
 
A few words about the car controls. As you know, a motorcycle engine (including the “IZH-Ю4”) is equipped with a foot kick-starter foot switch gear box, and also has the control cables throttle of the carburettor and fuel corrector and linkage mechanism. All this had to be converted into inherent cars combination of pedals and levers.
 
Clutch left cable, however, connects it with the pedal, located under the left foot of the driver. Under the right foot pedal is the throttle actuator carburetor (the accelerator), connected by a cable in budenovskoy shell with a carburetor. On the right side of the driver’s seat — gear lever, the connecting rod with a cropped regular pedal shifter engine. Manual lever transmission gear can only move forward and back. Thus from neutral forward turns on the first transmission; the consequent movement of lever back include second, third and fourth gear.
The engine shall be started kick-starter, however, instead of the regular starting pedal shaft is fixed a steel pulley, around which is spanned by two round nylon cord. One of the ends of the cord secured to the pulley, and the second launched under the dashboard and secured to a convenient textolite handle. Motor starting is a dramatic breakthrough for her, after that she is keen on a return spring trigger device under the dashboard.
 
Interior floor is made of plywood 12 mm thick, impregnated with hot linseed oil (by the way, the same is processed from the inside, all wood and ergalieva of the body), and then — Movil. Between the seats the driver and passenger constructed of trapezoidal cross-section of a box, inside of which passes the drive chain.
 
And the last one. Engine cooling inputs to directly affect is exactly the same as on the motorcycle, the counter flow of air, especially hot are the cylinders directly behind the intake grille. Indeed, motion does not occur overheating of the motor, however, in the absence of airflow (for example, the long stops at traffic lights, in traffic jams, with a strong tail wind) the temperature increases rapidly, there is a risk of jamming of the pistons in the cylinders. To avoid this, in the engine compartment is the blower motor — dural impeller fixed on the shaft of the motor from wiper motorized FDD. His power is enough in critical situations to provide cooling.
 

Technical characteristics of the car “Yauza-035″

 

Dimensions (mm):
 
length……2520
 
width…..1320
 
height……1430
 
Base (mm): 1800
 
Track (mm): 1100
 
Ground clearance (mm): 170
 
Lots of little micro-car (kg):
 
dry……400
 
full……620
 
Maximum speed (km/h): 80
 
Engine: IZH-Ю4
 
Engine power (HP): 27
 
The transmission from the engine: chain, two-stage
 
Front suspension — independent, semi-trailing arm with shock absorbers “IZH-Ю4”
 
Rear suspension — independent, longitudinally swinging control arms with shock absorbers “IZH-Ю4”
 
Fuel tank capacity (l): 18

 
YAROSHEVICH M., engineer, Minsk

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