MACHINE IN THE GARDENIn the Food program of the USSR much attention is paid to food production in farmlands and suburban areas. A contribution to this important cause made the young Amateurs of RCUT of the Kazakh SSR. They prepared and tested a number of automatic devices that will help to grow agricultural products. The developers sought to create devices that are available for repetition at home. Oki have sufficient accuracy (±5-10%).

When growing seedlings and plants in greenhouses or in heated soil, it is important to maintain the temperature within specified limits. This function successfully executes the automatic temperature controller, made on the basis of electrocontact thermometer with between 0-50°.
The principle of operation is simple. When the temperature drops below the set value triggers the electronic device to the transistor VI (Fig. 1) and the contact system of the relay K1 mku-48 includes heating elements — heating elements with capacity of 0.5—1 kW heaters or with mirrored reflectors.
Relay mku-48 must operate at a voltage of 12 V, so the coil needs rewinding wire PEV 0.18 to fill the frame. With the help of resistor R1 sets the current through the thermometer with the size not more than 15 mA. As V1 you can use any medium power transistor (P4 П213— П215, П217, П601-П605).
Instead of contact thermometer you can use a thermistor (for example, MMT-1). But the electronic part of a second embodiment of a controller more difficult. Thermistor R1 (Fig. 2) included in the shoulder bridge, consisting of resistors R2— R5. R5 potentiometer adjust the operation of the device in the range 15-60°, respectively, graduate scale.
Automatically applied relay RES-10 (RS4 passport.524.314), while establishing it should loosen the spring anchor.
To store seeds and fruits, to grow certain types of plants only at a certain humidity. That’s why in the farm economy or on the country site you need a moisture meter. Version of the device is made on the basis of the device for determining quantities of small containers (3-30 pF), but it is the measured capacitance includes a humidity sensor (Fig. 3). It consists of two copper (preferably silver-plated) plates with an area of 15 cm2 each, fixed at a distance of 6-7 mm from each other on a rigid base with a minimum thickness of 2-3 mm, is made of insulating material (Micarta, fiberglass, plexiglass, plywood). Between these two plates on human hair hanging from the third, made of the same metal (Fig. 4).
The length of the hair is adjusted depending on the type of microammeter: the more sensitive dial gauge, the shorter the hair. For example, for a device with a scale of 25-50 µa hair length is about 40 cm.
The moisture meter will graduate at the identical industrial — maximum deflection corresponds to 100% humidity minimum 10%.
Capacitor C3 is used to check the instrument and has such a value that when the connection (without sensor) the needle of the microammeter is deflected to the maximum.
Modifying the gauge, its easy to turn the machine to maintain the desired humidity. The portion of the circuit indicated by the letter A (see Fig. 3), connect the trigger with the solenoid (Fig. 5). The variable resistor R1 set the trigger level for the automatic devices at a specified moisture percentage.
With increasing humidity the voltage of the rectangular form, supplied through the diode V1, the capacitor C1 charges to a level which opens the transistor V2. The trigger occurs and the contact plate of the relay K1 turns on the fan. When humidity decreases to a predetermined level, V2 is closed and the trigger disables the K1 relay RES-10 (RS4 passport.524.314). At setting it is necessary to weaken the springs.
Fig. 1. Schematic and wiring diagram of the thermostat on the basis of a contact thermometer.
Fig. 2. Schematic and wiring diagram of a controller based on a thermistor.
Fig. 3. Schematic and wiring diagram of the humidity meter.
Fig. 4. Device humidity sensor:
1 — nail 2 — human hair, 3 — fixed plate 4 is a movable plate, 5 — base.
Fig. 5. Schematic and routing diagrams consoles automatic control of humidity level.
Fig. 6. Schematic and wiring diagrams of the first embodiment svetozashitnogo regulator.
Fig. 7. Schematic and wiring diagram of a second embodiment svetozashitnogo regulator.
Fig. 8. Schematic and routing diagrams automatic watering.
Fig. 9. Schematic and wiring diagram of the multivibrator to turn on a vacuum cleaner.
Fig. 10. Schematic diagram of the device for the treatment of bees from varroatosis.
Fig. 11. N fundamental circuit diagrams of the irradiator.
Fig. 12. Schematic diagram of the power supply.

Seedlings and early vegetables that are required for the normal development of a certain light. Ensure it svetoslavsky controller (Fig. 6). With approach of twilight resistance of the photoresistor R2 is increased, and the transistor V1 is gradually closed and V2 is opened. Lamp H1 is illuminated depending on the current flowing through a semiconductor triode V2, Respectively, changes the resistance of the photoresistor R4 in the circuit of the control electrode of SCR V3, thereby adjusting the intensity of illumination. The total power of the lamps H2 depends on the type of triode thyristor.
The device is assembled on two separate circuit boards that are installed next so that the lamp H1 and the photoresistor R4 formed opto-couple, cover them with a lightproof cap.
If we need to set a specific light level, collect automatic device with manual intensity control filament lamps. It is made a variable resistor RZ (Fig. 7). The control voltage is supplied from the divider consisting of a photoresistor R1 and resistors R2, R3, tredny thyristor V5. When R1 darkening its resistance increases, and the voltage drop on it increases. As a result, the SCR V5 open Tilney, lamp H1 is illuminated brighter. Capacitor C1 smooths out the ripple of the rectified voltage. Photoresistor SF-2 can be replaced by any of similar type (for example. FSK-1, FSK-2).
Moisture-loving plants require that the soil was always wet enough, but not excessively. It also helps automatic. Consisting of two transistors V1, V2 (Fig. 8) electronic device — a humidifier of the soil is associated with the stuck in the ground sensor — two plates of stainless steel, of a width of 20-25 mm. their Length depends on the depth of soil moisture, and the distance between the plates are selected experimentally — largely it depends on the type of soil. The splices with the sensor must be covered with waterproof paint.
Trigger level auto set the device variable resistor R1, which by means of the contact plates of the relay K1 includes a solenoid associated with the valve controlling the water flow.
The operation level of the device limit (to prevent waterlogged soil), shunting the sensor is a variable resistor (shown in the diagram by a dotted line).
The device can be applied to the transistors МП139—MP 12 (V1), as V2 will fit any semiconductor triode of medium power (P4, П213—П215, П217, П601 — П605). K1 — relay RSM-2 (passport Ю17.181.02).
Everyone knows that insects, flying and ground, rush to the light source. This “weakness” can be used to control pests of the garden.
The lamp lit at night in the garden, getting connected to the vacuum bell. After a certain period of time, the duration of which is set depending on concentrations of insects in the illuminated area, turn on the vacuum cleaner. The intervals of his work sets the multivibrator transistors V1, V2 (Fig. 9).
The variable resistor R2 pause in between keys and it cleaner adjust for up to 120 min Working electrical device within 20 — closed until the contact plate relay K1 RSM-2 (passport Ю17.181.02). C1, C2 — electrolytic capacitors K50-6.
Day to the same device can connect the tape on which recorded bird-scaring noises, or movable puhala.
Huge damage is caused to beekeeping so-called varroa — bees lose small mites. However, effective methods of combating it are still to be developed.
Basically, they boil down to the fact that the part cut out the affected areas. Positive results are achieved, treating hives drug arrotin or formic acid. This work is very time-consuming, and most importantly, the disease is not eliminated completely.
The beekeeper, a lover of Alma-ATA G. W. Laptev suggested method of dealing with varroa. Its essence is that at the temperature of + 40° mite is killed and the bees survive. Given this fact, in a gated spacious wooden box create a temperature of +42° and then to her place for 3-20 minutes ( depending on intensity of lesions) and two hives with open lids, and through mounted in the lid of the box fan inject parrotia. The result is striking: at the bottom of the hive, a layer vzyavshis mites.
Schematic diagram of the device for treatment of hives — figure 10. Inside the box some distance from material fixed with the help of metal brackets heaters heater (R2, RZ, R5, R6) — two on top and bottom. When the air warms up to 40°, the thermometer contact B1 completes the circuit of the base of the transistor V9. Relay K1 mku-18 and its commuting system de-energizes the heaters. At the same time, if the switch S3 is closed, are stuffed to work a M1 fan, “blowing” into the hive medication. With the button S4 fan include manually in a short period of time, and the switch S2 is part of the heating elements is transferred to the “standby” heating box.
The power supply device is applied the output transformer vertical deflection (TCEs) from old TV’s or any step-down transformer to 12 volt winding of the relay mku-48 should rewind a wire of PEV 0.18 to fill the frame.
Constant resistors — MLT-0,5 VS-0,5, R9 — variable resistor type SP, S1 — electrolytic capacitor K50-3 or 50-6. The switches S1—S3—TB1-1, button — bell. Heater the heater is designed for a capacity of 500 W — 1 kW each. Signal neon lights V1—V4 imposed on the General control panel.
In vegetable stores, suburban buildings, court buildings often infest mold and wood fungi, destroying all wooden: floors, floors, ceilings. They spoil many foods. However, pests can be successfully fought with… of eddy currents. Enough for the perimeter of the Foundation of the rural home to build a closed loop — connected in a ring bus ate metal wire with a thickness of 8-10 mm. as a result of atmospheric phenomena will be induced eddy currents.
Good results are obtained with the instrument operating on the principle of “mine detector”. Periodically they treated canned vegetables and fruits.
The device operates as follows. Performed on the transistors V1, V2 (Fig. 11) DC-DC Converter I AC generates a frequency of 40 kHz in the winding III of the transformer T1 of the pulse voltage of 300 V, which is supplied to a closed loop L1.
Transformer T1 is wound on the core Ш12Х12 (window, 12×26 mm). The winding 1 contains 5×2 turns of wire of PEV of 0,1, II 29X2 turns of PEV is 0.27, and the winding III—2000 turns of wire of PEV of 0,1. Circuit and has a Ø of 200 mm, it is made from copper wire Ø 2,5 mm. If a generation is missing, swap the terminals of winding I or II.
Collected devices on circuit boards the size 120 X 60 mm of foil Micarta or fiberglass (figure given next to each Board with the concept of the appropriate device) and placed in a housing made of Plexiglas with a thickness of 2-3 mm.
Feed automatic devices from car batteries or from remote power supply at 12 V transistor tape recorder or to make an improvised source on the basis of a television transformer TCE (Fig. 12).

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