EUROPE PULLED…

EUROPE IS LIFTED...The postwar hegemony of the United States of America in the World ocean looked unconditional and almost absolute. Their naval forces exceeded the power of the combined fleets of all other countries combined. It is clear that in these realities most of the European powers (with the possible exception of Britain) were agreed with the role of extras “without language”. But even then their marine managers and ship builders have not abandoned able to upgrade your units, equip them newfangled missile weapons. And in some cases in this way even quite succeeded. Often no matter where one or the other power to the camp winners or losers in the great war. Because most Western countries have now become one of the “big military family” -members of the North Atlantic Treaty (NATO). By virtue of this oppression of the winners resorbed very quickly and is relatively painless, and “beaten” were able to join the modern samples overseas weapons.

So, defeated in world war II Italy after the peace had to take fairly strict conditions to regulate the continued existence of its own fleet. She was not allowed to have aircraft carriers and battleships and submarines and the famous torpedo boat – MAB, any variety. That is, in fact, had only cruisers, destroyers and escort ships. Impeded in reality the situation is the fact that before 1950, the year prohibited the laying of any combat units.

However, the descendants of the proud Romans managed to get out of an unpleasant to the humiliation of the situation pretty quickly. The beginning of “cold war” did so well-positioned Mediterranean power in the most advantageous ally. The country joined NATO, and in exchange for providing the us Navy bases on its territory in 1952 was followed by the lifting of the ban on the construction of submarines and torpedo boats. As for the battleships and aircraft carriers, the first and so leave the combat system in all countries, and the second was until the Italians can’t afford it.

But it’s also very useful were the few remaining in the ranks of the cruiser, above all, the most recent and modern “condottieri” – “Garibaldi” and “Abruzzi”. In 1950 – 1953, they were first upgraded, so far only “contractile” mode. The antique 100-mm antiaircraft guns (remember, these guns came the development of the Austrian cannon of the First world war!) was reduced to four. At the same time removed all domestic 37-mm and 20-mm machine guns, replacing them with standard American license 40 mm “bothersome” in the amount of twenty-four trunks. But the most significant “cut” was the elimination of two boilers and one boiler room. The total number of boilers was reduced to six: four big and two small. Bringing the cruiser lost one tube, but their speed dropped to 29 – 30 knots.

However, these unsightly changes were only a prelude to this update, which followed in 1954, after “messing” with NATO have become a fait accompli. While the “Abruzzi” merely equipped with new radar equipment and rebuilt the add-in, keeping the artillery (he was sent into retirement in 1961), “Garibaldi” was prepared for a real second life.

After three years of design and redesign, in 1957, it began a large-scale work. All 152-mm artillery, as indeed all anti-aircraft guns, went ashore. Place the two bow towers took the new 135-mm two-gun unattended installation, allows, however, to develop a much greater volume of fire than artillery not upgraded cruiser at the beginning of his career: their rate of fire was 80 rounds per minute. Additional nyali eight 76 mm anti-aircraft adnetwork own development, is also automatic. It should be noted that many systems have managed to create though and with the help of the us, but in Italy, including such previously inaccessible modern electronics. So, for the new massive mast proudly flaunted domestic radar “Argo-5000” for long-range detection of air targets; the Italian was the new system of artillery fire control for both calibers. However, the most “thin” place, the Americans and even to your brand-new beloved ally did not trust. First of all, this applies to missile weapons and their means of guidance. “Garibaldi” has received overseas “Terrier” in standard launchers (PU) with two guides. The system itself, and cellars with missiles almost completely, povtoryayu first experience the “Boston” and “Canberra”. It is clear that the two settings on a light cruiser, not poosapati, but one managed to squeeze. Standard ammunition of the 72 “Terriers” was placed under the deck vertically, as in “Americans”, and goilala in PU from the bottom up. This method for pretty heavy “fools” in the end recognized is not sufficiently reliable, but the other one is limited to use just was not possible.

However, anti-aircraft missiles weapons “Garibaldi” is not limited. Just at this time (late 1950s), the United States decided to install on the cruiser its European allies neither more nor less as a strategic system of long-range nuclear charge – the famous “Polaris”. Overall, the program quickly faded, as much more stealthy submarines are considered the most convenient means for the “strategy of deterrence”, so that successfully ripened with his modernization of the “Garibaldi” was the only contender. During his stay in the United States in 1962, it was equipped with four silos to launch “polarised”, on the site of the former boiler compartment. The cruiser took on Board the strategic layout of “big clubs” and even made a test shooting. However, these deadly samples of strategic missiles on him never came. The incident in the same year the Cuban missile crisis led to another revision of the views of the leadership of “host NATO’s” nuclear armament, both in General and in particulars. As a result of “Garibaldi” in fact failed to become the only “strategic cruiser” in NATO. That did not prevent him from becoming a useful combat unit. Upgraded the ship was commissioned in 1961 and sailed it for 10 years, then went into the reserve. Finally now rocket the veteran was removed from the list after five years, at the end of 1976.

Others quite unexpectedly useful and progressive European ally in NATO became Holland. “First among the secondary,” the sea power of the second, but not the last plan after the war, initially tried to rebuild the fleet itself. It was decided to purchase of the British light aircraft carrier, which along with two dostraivaniya on the new draft cruisers “De Ruyter” and “De Zeven Provincien” and a dozen perfectly fresh was in the building of destroyers, would-impact connections. However, the entry into the Alliance, although did not cancel these plans, but significantly changed them. Now, with the help of the powerful overseas “uncle” cruisers predpolagalos converted into a missile.

The first was the “De Zeven Provincien”. Alterations have been significant and have changed the appearance of the cruiser, and its “stuffing”. The forecastle was extended far aft, sewing up the side on either side of the superstructure. The main reason for this decision sostojba in the implementation of the same “Terrier” in the familiar standard of “Boston” and “Canberra” – with vertical placement of ammunition. However, on a small boat space for full of ammunition in 72 missiles is not enough even when it is inconvenient from the point of view of supply. In-spose to cut it for almost popolino, up to 40 pieces. But the missiles turned out to be the latest models, with increased range and semi-active guidance system. Needless to say, appatite for their appearance on the ship had all the stern group of artillery. But both the nose turret and six 57 mm guns was saved. The silhouette of the cruiser has changed a lot. Both pipes applied to the high macto-pipe antennas of the radar on them. But the place for the antenna is still not enough, so, as in “Garibaldi” had to erect a third mast behind “natural”, in the form of a massive lattice structure. Along with two “spotlights” the guidance system of anti-aircraft missiles, all assigned to the “hnlms De Zeven Provincien” typical view “half-hearted” modernized cruiser with bow and stern artillery rocket parts. Electronic equipment was a funny mixture of domestic (the Netherlands up to that time had quite probicou aspectwindow industry, already certain traditions) and overseas samples. During the service “filling” changed several times, mostly in parts. In the late 1970s, the equipment was joined by another rocket, this time a very small and specific. The system of “Corvus” is intended for jamming enemy anti-ship assets.

All of this “explosive mixture” of faith and truth served Holandii and the Alliance until the early 1970’s, when finally it was felt that to keep in the ranks of 30-year-old building becomes irrational. “Hnlms de Zeven Provincien” along with never upgraded when the same type of “De Reuter” was supposed to be sent to the smelter. However, intervened an unexpected factor: the distant country of South America, Peru, never aspired to the role of the sea, decided to join the Latin American big three – Brazil, Argentina and Chile. Still very formidable Dutch cruiser became the object of the transaction, after which they went to the Western hemisphere. However, the “De Zeven Provincien” – without its missiles. He had to go to the USA and to take on shore “Terriers” and all associated equipment. “Babyyy brother” does not wish to provide their neighbors to the South anti-aircraft missile weapons, albeit quite outdated by the time, but still quite effective on such easy targets like AEW actively plied at the time the airspace of the Americas.

 

As for the other, more important ally among the winners, France, its relations with NATO in General and the United States in particular was nowhere near as rosy as old Mediterranean rival. The demarche of President De Gaulle led to the exit from a block (which only not long ago have managed to join) and to severe cold in relations with the US. The impact of this program and the missile re fpot. The French had to establish its own system, and I must say, they succeeded. They managed to create their two-stage “antiaircraft gun”, called “Mazurka”. Rocket popchips bulky: its length exceeds 8.5 m, and the weight pribegaya a half tons. Of these, 100 kg ha-depose the explosive charge in the warhead: not bad, if you remember even the largest artillery shells. Curiously, in appearance, layout, and characteristics “of Mazurka” is very much like American “Terrier”. Although the French claim that they developed their “product” completely independently, some doubts remain still.

As the first Challenger for the new weapons chose the cruiser-helicopter carrier “Jeanne d’arc”. On the ship was a vacant sweet spot in the nose, in front of the main superstructure. Initially it was assumed that there will be established a powerful 305-mm four-barrelled mortar, which significantly enhance anti-submarine capabilities of this kind of “hybrid”. When the service received “Mazurka”, the place of honour had to give way to a new kind of weapon. But after a few “rounds” of redevelopment, it became clear that purely engineering problems are more than significant, not to mention the notorious scourge of all missile rework cost. Prespeci option to cancel. “Joan of Arc” protopapa to go with an open platform for weapons until 1974, when the rocket finally took his “semi-legal” place. However, it was not bulky anti-aircraft launcher. The last “squeak” at that time, became anti-ship missiles, where France is already perfectly legal has become a major trendsetter, creating the famous “Actose” (or, as in the literature often write, “Exocet”). Having a great destructive force, it aposkepos directly from the container, so much space, and most importantly – no alterations under the deck – not required. A block of four containers finally turned after the “Jeanne” in the rocket ship. Although, it should be noted, is quite compact containers with “Actose” at that time already actively established not only on cruisers, but on a much smaller destroyers and even missile boats.

And the first real anti-aircraft carrier “Mazurki” was a light cruiser of defense, “Colbert”. We have already talked about this “improved repetition” pre-war “De Grasse” in turn, completely rebuilt. In 1970 proplease for 11 years the ship went on an extensive modernization. It was supposed to completely “clean” it from old artillery, consisting of 127 – 57-millimetrovogo, replacing them with missile Compex and six new 100-mm guns, which allowed to produce up to 90 shells per minute from one stop – the same as was given to “anti-aircraft” destroyer of the Second world war! In conjunction with the “Mazurkas” (for which it was designed, which has already become traditional for such kind of alterations place in the stern) new artillery obespechivaya would be of superior quality defense both near and medium range. However, as usual, intervened financial considerations. In the end, the new 100 graph paper took place only in the nose, in the amount of two pieces and on the sides of otapes, I must say, it is still a decent 57-mm guns. Interestingly, this seems to be a small concession (of course, along with the rejection of some expensive “electronic stuffing”) made it possible to save more than 20% of the cost of modernization.

“Racechange” “Colbert” is not over. During the works, just ripe protivokor-belna “Acsoe”, which in the same as in “Joan of Arc” the number -four pieces – place in front of the wheelhouse on the specially erected for this “pedestals”. The cruiser became one of the most modern combat units of the French fleet: the update affected not only weapons, but also for all electronic systems. And soon after the entry into operation replaced itself “Mazurka”. Model 2, navedyvatsya on the radar beam was replaced 3 model with semi-active guidance, which have provided better range and a slightly higher “rate”. “Colbert” is also equipped with a combat information system, AEMT, also a French production. As a result, he became the first European flagship, able equally to manage connection in battle as with traditional surface nepriyatiya and with the now long-standing and very nasty enemy aircraft. And able not only to manage but also to make a significant contribution to firepower. And, importantly, during all the upgrades, crew – Oh, miracle! is not increased and even declined. It is not surprising that such a useful and unique (for European fleets for sure) the ship almost reached up to the XXI century. It was assumed that on active service it will remain until 1997, however, financial considerations forced to send “Colbert” “retired” in 1991.

Interestingly, in the “missile competition” of the leaders absolutely had the strongest European naval power – Britain. We mentioned her extensive post-war programme of fleet renewal, as numerous as unfulfilled. Continued the strange policy of “rocket”. One of the first projects was cruising WithL/-53. had a displacement of 9850 tons – about the same as the Italian and Dutch “alterations”. The armament of two 114-mm anti-aircraft installations and PU with ammunition of 32 missiles looked compared to them is pretty lame. The reason lay in the specifics of the British anti-aircraft missiles, developed do completely independently. “Sea Slug” was carried out according to the original scheme: second stage from all sides “tied” four boosters. This “broom” had large dimensions in width and require special launchers, representing a very complex and robust grid structure. No less a problem was the supply of ammunition, which had such a low-tech form. In General, the desire of the British to be original this time played a cruel joke with them. A lot of money they spent in General in vain to find a ship for “sea Slug” proved to be extremely difficult.

Finally finished off the first failed missile cruiser of the former “mistress of the seas” speed, which, according to the calculations, even at minimum load barely exceeded 29 knots. More than likely, that it would have been even less 28 project with a full load: piratage-tion remained eternal disease even in modern times, with much more stringent requirements, and “building discipline”.

Attempts to bring your missile cruiser to something more or less similar at least for European (not encroaching on overseas) standard has caused exponential increase in size. The ship now could carry two two-gun turret with a 5-inch “guns” a La “tiger”, but located in the nose, a couple of two-gun of the same 76-millimetrovogo, as many of the latest 40-mm “Bogorov” and finally the launcher on a couple of “si Lagaw” in the stern with a relatively decent ammunition to 48 missiles. Up to standard up now and the speed is 32 knots. But all this at the cost of the hull length is under 200 m and displacement of more than 16 000 t. the Shipbuilding Department of the Admiralty “shot” a series of projects: AL/-85,L/-88,L/-89,L/-90, 91, 93, 95 and so on. Some of them have reached more than 18 thousand tons displacement, with almost 1200 CPE-tries of the crew – a clear sign of the “Imperial burp”! Not surprisingly, the chances of implementation, they do not have time for such ambitious ships to Britain had passed. Did not help even a transatlantic assistance, although his preferred ally, the United States was ready to provide not only “mass consumption” “Terrier,” but far “Talos”. The British rejected the American rocket is one of those considerations that it is too heavy (almost twice heavier than the “sea Slug”), but almost immediately expressed the desire to have the cruisers own design, engineered under the original designation of the “1%”, despite the fact that it will weigh 5 tons instead of 3 tons rejected “Talos”. Although finally the British finally decided to abandon the armor, and returned to a modest speed of 29.5 knots, domestic monsters hadn’t been requested 10 000 t. moreover, the development of super-heavy “flak” soon prekratite.

It is clear that in such conditions the probability of occurrence in the ranks of the British cruiser was reduced to zero. And so it happened. Positive: the destroyers URO with the same “si Lagom” as “rocket punch.” Although they pouchie traditional “cruising” the names of the counties, and was called some time cruisers, but it represented a new generation of modern warships.

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