We left the guide of the fleet “mistress of the seas” on the border of the 20-ies and 30-ies of XX century in deep thought about the future of the cruising fleet. Fully replace the old cruiser ultimate 10-tasaciones “Washington”, armed with eight-inch guns, clearly failed. England needed 50, in the worst case — 40 cruisers, while the number built, “County” under construction “truncated” “exetera” did not exceed a dozen. The rest of the Park were “veterans” of the world, armed with six-inch, still quite fit to fight with auxiliary cruisers, but are no longer able to resist the modern “colleagues” probable opponents in a dueling situation. And, worst of all, at least from the point of view of the lords of the Admiralty, they did not come for joint action with the fleet as cruisers, developed in the best years of 29 knots, and now hardly able to permanently exceed 26 — 27, could not lead the attack fleet destroyers. Required urgently find a solution to the problem, traditional to spread out on half of the world Empire: to cover all of their trade routes and to sweep them from enemy raiders. At the same time should not forget about the line Navy, for immediate support which required at least two dozen cruisers. And all this with very limited funds.
The only solution seemed fairly obvious: the need to reduce the size. But here shouldn’t get carried away, as too little new ships could not be better than the old, especially in terms of action in the open ocean. Therefore, the main requirement for a new cruiser, work on which began in 1928, was to ensure good seaworthiness and long range — for work on ocean communications, as well as high agility for the action, together with the destroyers in the composition of the main force. Pure fighting qualities, such as weapons and speed, remained in the background. However, with regard to the protection of the British was clearly inappropriate “rivet” one after the other “naked” cruisers: because the number of stronger opponents multiplied every year. So I decided to provide a new “all-rounders” three-inch side belt. Because vaudoises tion from the very beginning was limited to six thousand tons, in the end, the weapons automatically revert to the tried and usual for this class of six-inch guns. Ultimate “Washington” 203 mm in such a small ship is not placed.
British designers managed to create within the specified limits more than acceptable project. “Linder” and its sistership received eight 152-mm guns in the towers, extensive armor belt in the area of mechanical installations and safe protection of the cellar in the form of traditional “bernaysian”. The case was created on the basis of “small Washingtonians” — “Exeter” and “York” and had a good enough Board that allowed us to maintain a high stroke on the excitement at the action in the ocean. Yes and a top speed of 32.5 site looked quite well for its time. Moreover, in accordance with the new practice was achieved without any forcing turbines: the British finally completely abandoned squeezing extra knots on trials, except that disorienting the enemy, but hardly achievable in the service.
All this would look quite nice if they managed to meet the planned displacement. But in fact the design “shestidesiatniki” “fat” exactly a thousand tons that had an impact on the cost, which reached 600 thousand pounds sterling. So once again the battle over savings has been lost. However, a modest (albeit relatively) universal cruiser liking and sailors and the leadership of the Admiralty. “Linder” could become the new standard of the British Navy: originally intended to order 14 units. But here intervened repeatedly referred to the London naval Treaty of 1930, which limited the total tonnage of all categories of military courts. As a result of England had to save literally every ton of displacement. In the category “In”, which got cruisers with 6-inch guns, she had a reserve of 91 000 tons, which fit only 13 “peaks”. After a long study of “Trishkin coat” the lords of the Admiralty decided to confine nine units. However, the second series of “Leander contains” is supposed to be improved. All performance characteristics have been preserved, but have changed the layout of mechanical installations. Instead of the traditional linear (which is closer to the nose were placed one after the other three boiler rooms of the office, followed by two turbine), the engineers used a echelon, under which the boilers and turbine division alternated. So managed to achieve a higher survivability: now the ship did not lose power after any single hit, even a torpedo — at least theoretically. For the implementation of the ideas had a more powerful boilers, the number of which was now limited to only four (two in each compartment). Visually, the cruiser lost a nice wide pipe, which adorned the top five: it was replaced by two widely spaced narrow. Ironically, all the mortgaged ships of the second series were “younger brothers” — Australians. “Phaeton” was submitted on the slipway (it was commissioned as “Sydney”), and “Apollo” and “Amphion” become Australian “Perth” and “Hobart” after sailed in the Royal Navy two or three years.