THE STOCK DOES NOT PULL HIS POCKET

STORE IS NO SOREParadoxically, but in the early 60-ies of the last century escort fleet the largest sea powers of the world — the United States of America — was in very poor condition. It is based on the old destroyers, massively built during the Second world war. New military units were few and they were all to varying degrees flawed. Fiasco project cheap escort destroyer type “Claude Jones” devoid of almost all need modern combat ship of the qualities that made the heads of the Navy to re-deploy the shipbuilding policy by 180 degrees. Instead of diesel engines — turbines, instead of a primitive “hedgehogs” and release gear — anti-submarine missiles. As a consequence, the displacement and the price escortyou new generation began to grow rapidly.

 
Designers first tried to use the ideas contained in the project “Dili”, fully updated with electronic and anti-submarine weapons. Two frigates (for the then classification — escort destroyer) of the “Bronstein”, founded in 1961, had quite modern hydroacoustic and electronics, as well as the main “highlight” — system PLO “ASROC”. This complex, which included eight containers, combined in a bulky box, weighed 25 tons and was able to turn 360 degrees. Each of the containers was rattached that is able to fly through the air about 15 km, and the time separating the rocket motor from the projectile could be adjusted immediately before launch. As a warhead used a small 305 mm electric torpedo MK-44, equipped with an acoustic homing system. A small mass of the torpedo (total 450 kg) is offset by the fact that she could carry a nuclear warhead capable of hitting a submarine in the radius of 1-2 km.
 
However, to use such terrible weapons needed a powerful sonar station, capable of detecting a boat of the enemy on a very large for the time distance.
 
The ship had to equip the complex with two sonar emitters — podlinnym and towed. Pretty bulky equipment, including a powerful winch and fairing, largely dictating the architecture of the ship aft it carried anti-submarine ships.
 
As for the “appearance”, “Bronstein” in General bears little resemblance to his “ancestor” — “Dili”. Typical for light vehicles in the United States during the Second world war I flush-deck hull with high sheer gave way to a more simple design with the high Board is inclined at an angle of 45 degrees bow and cutout for the towed sonar aft. The mast and the pipe were United in a kind design, decorating little ship, but is able to carry the weight of a bulky antenna of the new radar.
 
Despite the updated appearance, the design of the ship was an old technical solutions and their inherent disadvantages. Chief among them was a single-shaft turbine installation, fully rendered with “Dili”. Meanwhile, the tonnage of frigates increased by more than a third, with the result that even the declared design speed of 26 knots is not always achieved in the service. Well-armed ship could not sometimes catch up with the nuclear submarine, which had about the same speed! Looked unconvincing and artillery weapons reduced in comparison with the prototype on a single trunk, which is associated with the placement of the same towed sonar. It is worth mentioning that the remaining guns were the only protection the ship from air attack. Well, the RC helicopter system “DASH” turned out to be almost useless and only took space on the deck…
 
Thus, the “Bronstein” to satisfy the new requirements only partially. The experts have considered it as a “sighting” of a project before creating a large-scale modern ocean-going escort and anti-submarine ship. The main thing that needed was to eliminate the two major drawbacks, namely: to increase speed to the required 30 knots and set the artillery more respectable caliber. In this case, the new frigates could be a full replacement for the antiquated “Efremovsky” destroyers.
 
It seemed that the first problem could be solved long ago used lightweight high-pressure boiler system, “foster-Wheeler”. Although the stated (just in case!) the design speed was limited to a modest 27 knots on trials of the lead ship of “Garcia” was able to achieve the desired 30. But here, the Americans are clearly premature. Instead of having to equip proven energy points, American shipbuilders have risked a whole lot. The boilers were literally explosive, and from their placement in subsequent projects had to refrain.
 
As the main caliber of the preference given to well-tested the 127-mm gun with a barrel length of 38 caliber. A more advanced remote control had increased laying rates and was controlled by radar, but the gun is already very outdated. Therefore, in parallel with the “artillery” option — type “Garcia” — built ships of the “brook” where the aft gun was replaced by the launcher of anti-aircraft complex “Tartar”. The relatively small size of the frigate allowed to have a total of 16 missiles, which significantly reduces its capabilities in massive air attacks, but the reality of them from the most likely opponent — the USSR in 1970-e years, was recognized as insignificant. But the cost of the ship has increased so much that from further missile program had to be abandoned. One of the frigates, “Glover”, was completed as a pilot: it is the aft guns and the “Tartar” was placed a raised platform for a full anti-submarine helicopter.
 
“Brooke” and his tribe had a visible advantage, namely the vast body of deserted deck. Such “cruising emptiness” has become a hallmark of all series of escort ships U.S., allows easily to carry out the necessary upgrades. So, rashly put into service “DASH” in 1972-1975 gave way to a manned helicopter PLO “LAMPS”, dramatically increase capabilities in anti-submarine warfare. Separate units can be used to test new combat systems. For example, in 1967-1968 on the “Bradley” in addition to the large drawer system “ASROC” there was another, smaller one. There were eight anti-aircraft missiles “sea Sparrow” in the future one of the most common weapons systems of the Western fleets.
 
STORE IS NO SORE
 
66. The frigate “Oliver H. Perry”, USA, 1979.
 
Built by “bath Iron Works”. The no-load displacement of 2,650 tons, 3500 full T. maximum Length 135,7 m, width 14.5 m, draft 4,5 m. Capacity single-shaft gas turbines of 40,000 HP, a speed of 28.5 per node. Armament: one universal rocket PU “Standard”-“Harpoon”, one 76-mm gun mount, six 324-mm ASW torpedo tubes, two helicopters of the system, “LAMPS”. Just 1979-1989 built 55 units.
 
66. The frigate “Bronstein”, USA, 1963.
 
Built by “Avondale”. Displacement no load 1880 t, full 2725 t maximum Length of 113.4 m, width 12,5 m, draught 7 m. the Capacity of a single-shaft steam-turbine plant of 20,000 HP., speed 26 knots. Armament: three 76-mm guns, system PLO “ASROCK” and “DASH”, two 533-mm ASW torpedo tubes. Only 1963 built 2 units: “Mac-Kloi” and “Bronstein”. Both expelled from the Navy in 1990
 
67. The frigate “Brooke”, USA, 1966
 
Built by Lockheed. Displacement without load 2710 t full t 3430 Length overall 126,2 m, width 13.4 m, draught 7.3 m. Power turbine single-shaft installation 35 000 HP, speed 27 knots. Armament: one PU for anti-aircraft missiles “Tartar”, one 127-mm gun mount system PLO “ASROCK” and “DASH”, three-pipe, two 324-mm ASW torpedo tubes. Just 1965-1968 built 6 units.
 
68. The frigate “Knox”, US, 1969
 
Built by “Todd”. Displacement without load 3020, MT, full 4070 T. maximum Length 133,5 m, beam of 14.3 metres and draught of 7.6 m. the Capacity of a single-shaft steam turbine 35 000 HP, speed 27 knots. Armament: one PU for anti-aircraft missiles “sea Sparrow”, one 127-mm gun mount system PLO “ASROCK” and “DASH” (later changed to “LAMPS”), two 533-mm and four 324 mm anti-submarine torpedo tubes. Just 1969-1974 built 46 units.

 
It is the service experience “Glover” and “Bradley” feat of engineers and specialists for increased demands following a series of “ocean escort” type ships “Knox”. As the main objectives included the reduction in the number of personnel. In addition, it was planned to increase the cruising range without increasing size.
 
Really none of the requests failed. A return to conservative boilers with less critical steam parameters while maintaining the same speed demanded extra 600 tons displacement. To reduce personnel on the frigate left with only one weapon. Initially they still had the short-barreled 127-graph paper 30 years ago, but during construction it was replaced by a modern machine with a barrel in 54 caliber, can produce in a minute more shells than the two old guns “Garcia”. The principle of “deck Pro stock” has now been fully. The aft section was a real wilderness, no artillery, no anti-aircraft missiles — only the same unfortunate helicopter “DASH”, which very soon was put ashore… However, an impressive hangar beneath the helicopter, made “in mind”, proved very useful subsequently, when a no-good RC helicopter replaced by efficient “LAMPS”.
 
In 1971-1975 31 unit series to cut the stern came the setting for the launch of anti-aircraft missile defense “sea Sparrow”. The remainder was planned to rearm to the same system of “si Chapparal”, but this is not reached. Sonar equipment was completely on the level: a powerful modelName sonaro SQS-26 on most units added modern towed SQS-35. However, the new system required people for maintenance, and, despite the formal reduction of armament, number of personnel 35 people was higher than that on the artillery “Garcia” and was a missile crew of the “brook”.
 
Increased significantly and the cost of the ship. To save money the Americans had to use a kind of progress, not too frequent in a peaceful environment for “liberal market society.” If the first half of the series were built by three companies— “Todd,” Lockheed” and “Avondale”, to reduce the cost of production of all other units, starting with the 27th, went to “Avondale”.
 
Despite the fact that the displacement of Knox ahead of the biggest destroyers of the world war II period, the ocean escort by American standards, was too “wet”. To ensure the necessary level of comfort had to build up the bulwarks in the nose and install a special spray deflectors.
 
Had to make another step, by implementing all the improvements in the next draft. Then finally, the U.S. Navy was waiting for success. Although the “Oliver Hazard Perry” retains many of the distinctive features of the Knox, starting with appearance and ending all the time criticize the principle of “one screw — one type” (meaning the only main weapons), his fighting qualities have improved significantly. Starting installation of “Standard” could shoot as anti-aircraft, and a formidable anti-ship missiles “Harpoon”. At first glance, suffered anti-submarine weapons: a smaller ship disappeared system recettore “ASROC”. However, two full-scale helicopter in fact represented a far greater danger to the underwater enemy. Towed sonar provided sufficient detection range of submarines. The result is a perfectly balanced anti-submarine ship with good universal characteristics. Moreover, the weapons were controlled advanced multi-channel electronics. Interestingly, the 80-th years of XX century internationalization for naval armaments was reached, and the United States. The only weapon “Perry” — products of the Italian company “OTO-Melara” and its control system — Dutch development. First overseas escort ships appeared armor protection: 16-19 mm aluminum and Kevlar plates were covered by the cellar of ammunition, gas turbines and critical electronics.
 
Frigates of the “Oliver H. Perry” were among the warships, actively used in recent local wars. Those who patrolled the Persian Gulf during “desert Storm”, got a pair of fully automatic machines of 25-mm guns “Bushmaster” to strengthen the air defense and advanced electronic equipment. Of course, the design full load displacement 3,500 tonnes as a result of upgrades increased by another 600 tons, the surprise was a high survivability. The frigate “stark” survived contact with two missiles “Exocet” (remember the British “Sheffield”, went down from one unexploded), and Roberts survived the explosion of a powerful land mines directly under the body.
 
It is not surprising that successful project of the frigate and interested in other countries. Received from Australia, Taiwan and Spain requests have prompted designers to develop an improved variant, which was based on a new-fangled vertical shafts for missile weapons and two-shaft gas turbine. Later withdrawn from US Navy ships have been Oman, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Poland… However, the American Admiral could not bear to watch drying, like shagreen leather, Navy. In 1994, a program to reduce the fleet slowed down, resulting in numerous frigates of the “Oliver H. Perry” continue to serve under the stars and stripes.
 
V. KOFMAN

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