How to start a designer? In Latin the word “design” (constructio) means the preparation, construction. In technical language it includes concepts such as diagram of the device and operation of a machine, structure or site. Designs also referred to as the machines, structures or individual components and their details. In addition, the concept of “design” leads to and provides a very specific arrangement of parts and elements of the machine, method of connection, forms of interaction and, of course, the material from which the individual parts (elements) of the structure needs to be manufactured.
The designer is the Creator. Designer high rank of “General” or “chief”, a crewman sitting behind the Board the drawing Board in one of the many KB, and a budding, young designer-an Amateur, self-building my first model, and are United by one common characteristic — the creation. In large and small work of any designer is aimed ultimately at achieving a creative result — the birth of Nora machines, apparatus, devices or maybe just individual components.
3 the design business, like any other form of creativity, a person often have to take an unpaved path. And in this way it is very important to master the ways, means and methods of design creativity, developed by its predecessors. The designer, armed with this “tool”, as knowledge and practice, faster and with lower cost SIP to attain the aim you will be able to get done, the quality of his creative work will be higher, because the farther he will move in his work from the extremely time-consuming and inefficient “way of trial and error”.
It is especially important to understand the basics of the design of the case of the young equipment. It is intended for and primarily this new section of the magazine. However, we hope that you will find in it useful information and technical heads of children’s circles, young innovators and just Amateur designers of all ages.
New section “Introduction to design” introduces readers to the common design principles of technical devices. This is done so as to set out here consistently in a particular system design principles can be applied in any kind of technical creativity in accordance with the interests and inclinations of readers.
Scheme 1. The main stages in the development and manufacture of technical devices.
Scheme 2. The main stages of design of technical devices.
Familiarity with the design basics will be held at the design sample in the magazine is quite specific technical devices. This process will cover all the most significant stages of development: from the desire to “do something” to create the design of technical specifications for manufacturing specific products. The magazine introduces readers to the basic techniques of design, will offer a series of visual AIDS design for technical groups, charts, figures, tables.
For the section “Introduction to design”, a special, yet indicative programme for the academic year — from September through may. When compiling the program take into account that the main content of technical creativity of schoolchildren is the construction of various devices, and its main method — solution of engineering problems as engineering and technology. For each subject program, the reader will be offered technical tasks, creative tasks of designing, task of design ingenuity for ingenuity.
A common method of construction shown on the example of solving a specific technical problem is the development of a device for the movement of goods a certain distance at a given speed.
This mechanism or machine will be considered in three variants: for indoor use (e.g. school workshops); open space (say, for complementary experimental plot); for use when traveling on the surface of another planet.
The main stages of solving this problem will be addressed in the process of designing and constructing working models of these devices. We show how the transition from the idea of a shared problematic situation to the formulation of technical specifications, analysis of possible solutions to generalizations, conclusions, etc. 8 the development of technical specifications used special literature, reference books. You will be prompted to create tables, make sketches, technical drawings, diagrams and to perform basic technical calculations and prepare the necessary technical documentation. The most interesting original solutions proposed by the readers, will be published in the magazine.
The main focus of the lessons our readers who are interested in the proposed program will be training to a certain algorithm of solving technical problems to design. A summary of the main stages of solving them will be as close as possible to the General structure of the development of technical devices adopted in modern design bureaus and production (scheme 1).
The main focus of the program on the stage “Design”, the structure of which is shown in diagram 2.
The main units of the technical device, which determines its functionality, efficiency and other technical and operational parameters presented in General form in scheme 3. General questions of the theory of mechanisms are given by I. I. Artobolevsky.
In the design process it is advisable to constantly resort to the collective search for possible solutions to technical problems. The most interesting and simple solutions to technical tasks can be performed visually “in the article” using set Design, semi-finished products, devices, automatic devices.
Experience the famous Soviet innovators and inventors will help you to choose the most appropriate form of organization of the creative process — diagram 4 (a, b, C) is given by materials R. Bush.
Scheme 3. The General structure of a technical device.
Scheme 4. Organizational structure of a collective work in the design of technical devices:
a — star b — “circle” — “network”.
When working on the Star schema, each group member solves the same task and reports the results to the overall “coordinating center” (in the circle — leader, consultant).
When working on a “Round” one issue is the early development of the second question, etc.
The scheme “Network” acceptable with collective creativity. At such organization of work is increasingly getting the original decision. This form requires maximum activity, mutual assistance, and coordination of all team members.
Content of creative tasks and exercises, the group leader prepares and develops itself. He must at each step solve the technical problem to know optimal for specific conditions solution, to be able to guide a novice designer at this way, without reducing the intensity of the creative, initiative and independence of students.
In the preparation of creative tasks, you should always consider first and foremost the specific needs of classrooms, workshops, student production teams, technical groups. You want to prepare in advance all the necessary materials, kits, finished models of components and mechanisms, technical toys, reference books, visual AIDS, and to think through the organization of classes. The program material provides for creative use of knowledge that young engineers get on the lessons of physics, chemistry, mathematics, in school workshops.
8 depending on specific conditions the operator is able to determine the time required to study each topic of the program. It will depend on possibilities of application of separate forms of work, such as optional or group lessons, workshop design, etc.
Lead classes for aspiring constructors are candidates of pedagogical Sciences V. Gorskaya, Yu. Stolyarov, candidate of physico-mathematical Sciences V. Shevtsov.