BOTH SKILL, AND INSPIRATION!The new school year came into its own. In every school where there is a technical club, these days his head — teacher, physics, mathematics, and sometimes any other object, certainly asks the question: how to make your content work group members on what direction to guide the initiative and creative guys?

This inevitably causes and a range of other issues. For example, more classes to build technique to make the circle useful to the lesson and lesson — mug? How to find the path of optimal combination of lessons, lesson, mandatory, extracurricular, voluntary? And what should be the content and methods of the other forms of work with students?
We note one more important fact: despite the fact that every year the network of after-school children’s agencies, stations, clubs of young technicians, Houses and Palaces of pioneers in our country is growing, school technical group-prezhnemu remains the primary and most widespread unit of creativity. And how fruitfully and purposefully succeed in the new academic year, to conduct a technical Amateur guys directly to the school, will largely depend on the results of the educational process.
A simple answer to all the issues raised above while it is impossible in different conditions such educational and pedagogical task can be solved in different ways. Refer to concrete experiences and practice-proven: look at the secondary school № 11 city of Kuibyshev, where hands-on activities in 4-8 grades lead teacher Konstantin Dmitrievich Cheshuin. He also directs the technical result of the circle, in which children design and build all sorts of samples of vehicles from the simplest circuit model the size of a palm to a quite serious real cars with petrol and electric engines.
Here is a contour essentially schematic model, — says Konstantin Dmitrievich, taking from a shelf a tiny, palm-size, wagon. Is hurtownia easier, that is, does not happen. The whole structure four wooden wheels Yes planochki of plywood.
The model was made by the fourth grade in class work, and all the technology of its production as a whole fits into the curriculum involved working with plywood, sheet metal, wire. All elementary work operations that children should be held consecutively, but separately, blend together, find meaningful and creative application. Present here and in some ways the design: every piece gets a final finish and color depending on the taste of the author.
Hurtownia in Czechoslovakia called the scooter, something like a map without an engine. It is representative of the most non-motorized wheeled devices, which in many countries has long been dubbed the “soapboxes”. They hold competitions on the speed and distance of run at descent from a hill.
Competitions are held and the pupils Cheshuina — right in the workshop. This is made of special (folding) slide with two lanes and a starting device, providing the simultaneous launch of two models (photo 3) — microtrace, “where you can race”, as we are assured it is not without pride the children themselves. And race are in compliance with all sports the rules with the judges.
The competition is held first within classes, which are divided into teams of 4-5 people. Then there is a race between teams, which took first place in each class. The winners will be awarded prizes, made here in the school workshop.
So the students of K. D. Cheshuina make their first steps in the technical work, where an important incentive was the opportunity to compete, to compete where there is already an element of prestige — the desire for superiority. In other words, the Foundation is laid for the kind of creative activity, which is referred to as modeling. The successful development of the first stage causes the guys have a natural tendency to build models more difficult.
Fifth graders, for example, is already making a three-dimensional model cars, while also without a motor, but has a greater similarity to real machine.
Even more difficult are the products of students. The car is like a recurring theme, but design it absorbs quite a wide range of skills guys. Wooden frame kits are now going to the spikes (such compounds are provided by the program of the lessons of work), it has front and rear axles.
In sixth grade study the elements of motion transmission, and the car model is well suited to this theme — says Konstantin Dmitrievich. — A large number of the necessary gears for the gearboxes to find not so easy, but the belt drive can make all the guys without exception. To do this from an ordinary Bicycle inner tube cut into rings (belts). Aluminum pulleys provide seventh graders, which according to the program already working on machine tools…
Three-dimensional model is also “compete” (the principle of competition runs through all classes, which teaches Cheshuin). In these designs the motors are fitted, but the batteries — the subject of very scarce model is not need for testing guys built a circuit Board with the power supply for the motor via the transformer from the grid (photo 2). It is they are pursuing and the competition.
At this stage the members learn and more complex manufacturing operations: case models, for example, has not vyklevyvajutsja, and are extruded of vinyl plastic (photo 4) using the punch and die of its own design (photo 5). In the manufacture of models with a motor, build a table of the circuit students are necessarily resorted to all stipulated program operations. Here and cutting metal and filing and drilling and grinding and even polishing. But all this is done with understanding, with interest, even fascination.
Did we mention the punching of the buildings of the models. Of course, with a similar operation to the sixth-graders to cope difficult. The help they provide students in 8th grade who have a process of stamping and pressing provided curriculum.
In most schools this section is studied only theoretically. Here, in the 11th Kuibyshev school, the guys are hot and practice of materials processing, such processes are visible and tangible. It all began with the same automodelisme, with housings for three-dimensional micromachines. Made a simple fixture and go! Heated sheet of vinyl plastic or plexiglass, put it between the punch and the die clamped in a vise, and the workpiece! Had to mark and cut the window trim and clean the edges — and the case is ready.
And what do you have in the following class, in the seventh! — we ask a question to the teacher.
Some guys still loyal to automodelismo, — says Konstantin Dmitrievich, — and in the seventh grade and until graduation. Enthusiasts of this case design and build a good model, even with the use of the radio control systems, participate with them in competitions. However, in most cases, seventh-graders clearly shows the desire to come up with and try to build something unusual. They have a markedly increased propensity for technical imagination. For example, a vehicle with unprecedented wheels, original engine.
Yes, the car, which is intended guys, really unusual. Especially the rear wheels: they located the rim of the disc-shaped Shoe, is placed on brackets of different lengths, as if in a spiral (this model along with its creators did you see on the 1st photo). According to the authors, this machine should have a high permeability. And, you know, not interested in whether this decision designers of future Rovers to other planets? Yes and the Earth is such a vehicle probably could find a use for.
In the program of career education at the seventh grade provided a broad topic that encourages children to develop any technical devices, — continues K. D. Cheshin. — A technical circle, especially model, devices need always. He potential customers and users of devices that facilitate the work of children or allowing manufacturing the parts which are not in finished form.
Pupils of Konstantin Dmitrievich has designed and made a whole series of such devices (photo 6). Among them a very convenient wrench-gun with nozzles in the form of Allen keys of various sizes, pistol type electric screwdriver and a hammer for clinching rivets (firing pin hardened: in seventh grade, the program runs the theme of “Hardening of metals”). There is also a homemade drill stanochek to the original design (see photo 8 it is in the hands of K. D. Cheshuina). A technical idea of the local boys borrow from the magazine “modelist-Konstruktor”, but when you start to translate them into metal, they also add something of their own.
In seventh grade, according to Konstantin Dmitrievich, it’s time to move from the models to create designs that children could “ride”. Start with uncomplicated, familiar already to us hurtownia, but full-size, steering and brakes (photo 7). On these scooters the best time to race down the hill. With slides of course, also present, near the school. The next step — pedal car — it’s polymodel-polumogina for school rides (photo 9).
With the pupils of the eighth class we do have a real machine with engines, able to carry its creators, says Cheshin. The simplest of them — cards built in the school workshop (photo 11). Behind the wheel of the cart follows the design more complicated than a single electric car (photo 10) with a very attractive exterior.
Build here and double little micro-car with dual controls — it’s more convenient and safer driving instruction for the beginner.
It may seem that this technique, like a go-kart or electric car, thing Araruna is for Teens 13-15 years old. In the construction of these machines, with tubular frame absolutely necessary, for example, welding. But on the program it is not provided, and the welding machine in the school there. Homegrown “combinatorics” here will not help either: the nuts and bolts durable frame will not collect. However, the cards managed to adhere to the curriculum: in the first version of the frame made it wooden, finger jointed and glue.
Front axle had yet to welding. says K. D. Cheshin. — The guys did not exactly come with their glands in the 24th GPTU, which trains welders. Senior master welcomed the members, introduced them with their Pets, and future workers willingly complied with the request of young motorists. When the time came to manufacture the driver’s seat, came to the conclusion that trying to knit it for a long time and not anything else. Best of all would be ready, say, tram. But where can I get it? Do not carry out the same with a city tram?
Decided to go with an official letter to the Komsomol Committee of the tram and trolleybus management: maybe the elders will help the pioneers? Signed collectively the address, went with him to the office, found a Komsomol Secretary. Option worked perfectly: after two days of bright seat already graced the brand new cards.
Do not think, however, that all our deeds and thoughts on the lessons of labour applied only to cars, — says Konstantin Dmitrievich. — Eighth graders with an interest are engaged in the machine tool industry, to make machines. For example, polishing. Its design was not an end in itself, a machine required for the business. At our workshop there are industrial serial burnishing machine, but it simultaneously can work only two people. All is clearly not enough. Here and there u guys need to make for workshop machine with one rotating felt discs. They have designed a polishing machine with five Tanami disks, it can work at the same time five students.
Developed and manufactured this machine the eighth grade. We started with the sketches, layout schemes, components and parts. For sketches followed the working drawings. They were performed mostly on lessons drawing.
Pupils of the 8th classes were created and other interesting devices: for example, the jigsaw of more complex construction, a number of sports simulators. One of them measures the strength of the jump, the other hand strength, the third — force of the punch. Their hams has proposed to equip these devices sound the alarm — by using the capacitor of large capacitance to cause an electrical discharge resembling a shot. If you want to “shoot” with your strength, try!
We often fulfill orders schools do, for example, various household equipment, — says Konstantin Dmitrievich. — Many produced benches for classrooms, scenery for the drama club and other useful things. All of this also products school workshops.
As you can see, the range of applications of infantile efforts in the workshop and the circle of K. D. Cheshuina very wide. It involves different levels of skills and abilities of students and the diversity of their interests. But that is characteristic here of the organized educational process: pupils Cheshuina even in the classroom work, even when the mandatory programs of career education do not make any unnecessary subject, not a single useless detail. Here not taught just grind, grinded, drilled, planed only for the development of the working operations. Here strict rule: all that is done, what is spent material should go in the case, to be useful. Of course, not counting the kind of marriage, when some of the boys just didn’t happen, not enough skill to do it well. But this pet Cheshuina happens infrequently: when issuing assignments, the teacher skillfully sorazmerit the capabilities of each student.
The vast majority of parts are made on the lessons of labor in accordance with the program used in the circles to build structures. They are made the front and in large quantity. This is especially important when models many of the same parts. The pupils of Konstantin Dmitrievich, so no worries where to get a particular item for the model — they mentor all peresmotrel and has reliably provided the whole cycle of works they same planned. The school has its own “factory parts”.
It is clear that the theme of creative works in this school, as indeed in many others, defines the “objective reality” — the presence of certain materials, parts, and engines. And if you have problems, begins combining, attempts something to change, come up with a workaround in the solution of technical tasks and coordinating with the possibilities of desire, to find a way creative idea, consistent effort. The team of young seekers, led by Chesini, is perfectly possible.
In any class, says K. D. Cheshin, I meet students who have a need for knowledge and skills extends far beyond the obligatory program. They primarily constitute the backbone of the design team in the creative tandem “lesson — circle”. These children are taken for the construction of complicated models, and the creation of real machines — karts and electric vehicles. And the young enthusiasts and designers willing to help all the other students, working on machine tools during classroom work, they are based on sketches prepared by members, are made for future machines with different parts. Not even always clear in my mind, what node is this or that detail and how it fits in the car, the boys nevertheless strive to make it as best as possible, confident that their product need to be applied in the case. As for the designers-students who are engaged in the circle, their work at the time of manufacture of such parts takes on the character quite creative, emotionally intense activities.
What is the level of such a school of creativity in the level design work other guys of the city, those engaged in a similar business in institutions — at stations of young technicians, in clubs and Houses of pioneers?
Frankly, it was hard to hide the surprise he saw in the school hallway showcase with many certificates and diplomas obtained in self-similar competition. Competing with experienced athletes, and even seven eighth-graders at this school were among the winners. Their model — racing, radio-controlled, cars of various types — brought to their creators a well-deserved recognition and the second prize at the regional competitions. Pupils Cheshuina about the place then do not dream, I decided to go to the track only in order to try to force.
The debut was a success: it came to sports success. Although he has never been here, the main goal was just a by-product of the process of cognition and creation. Konstantin Dmitrievich constantly pays great attention to the accumulation of children of scientific and technical knowledge, the formation of their theoretical framework for creativity. In the simulation of transport equipment where young designers get from their mentor a lot of interesting and useful information. For example, when designing and building a model car Cheshuin tell them about the features and actions of the real machines of this type. Reports and what is being done in this direction in our country and abroad, and how necessity forces people to work on the problem of improving a motor vehicle with electric traction.
Note and another interesting detail: the specialization for the students of 9-10 grades of the eleventh school of Kuibyshev — English language, but many of its graduates enter technical training institutions, higher and average. I think. this is what happens without the influence of technical schools Cheshuina. And knowledge of a foreign language actively contributes to the training of future commanders of production.
It is noteworthy that Constantine D. on a speciality the teacher of English. But the technique has loved since childhood, and when I was in night school, worked in a factory as a fitter — Adjuster of machine tools. This largely determined the future of the young teacher began with teaching English in this, the 11th school, and became the “Trudovik”. And how: in his classes and in the circle here in full the go English!
In the workshop you can see an extensive display racks with popular scientific and technical literature in Russian and foreign languages.
The teacher must continuously learn, lots to read, lots to know and fully give all the children that concludes with a smile, Konstantin Dmitrievich. — Began his working life with an Adjuster, and now “establish”! Only instead of soulless machines today I live the childish soul, and with them much more difficult… But interesting!
Our first conversation about possible ways of creative unification of technical circles with the lessons came to an end. It seems that with no less success a combination of classroom work with design creativity may occur and on other technical basis, aviation, ship, tractor, industrial and agricultural machines and mechanisms, simulation of rocket-space apparatuses and systems… This work is successfully conducted by teachers, enthusiasts in a number of schools in our country. And it would, in our view, very useful if these comrades shared the magazine with their experience, told about effective forms and methods of training in technical work directly in schools.