All familiar with the childhood desire to ride, any kid wants to sit in the cockpit of a car and “steer”. Teenagers make the most unbelievable truck on the bearings and the rattling roll downhill on asphalt. And imagine the anxious excitement with which the boy first gets behind the wheel. The car started moving; he feels like a pioneer!..
Not surprisingly, the children willingly go to circles, sections, laboratories karting or autocostruzione.
In our Cute there is such a laboratory is one of the numerous and active. This is no accident. There is a large category of children 14 — 17 years who want to engage not models, and try yourself in something “real”. This need lab design of compact machines. It is possible to manufacture a variety of machines from tractors and cars to snowmobiles and airship.
The organization of the laboratory design of compact machines has its own characteristics. If to create the model enough, say, a piece of sheet, then right away iron, plywood, pipe, angles. If the motor for the model is 2 rubles 50 kopecks, the motor for compact design — 100 — 200 rubles and more.
And the machines need not table, and the room roomier. The work itself is more laborious, more serious safety issues finally, the machine more complicated models.
How to overcome the difficulties? Pipes, corners and other material in excess can be stocked in the fall, during school operations “scrap metal”. In organizations such as social security, police Department, gorzdrav, ORS, you can always find and get written off bikes, mopeds, trucks, scooters, wheelchairs. Availability of ready parts and assemblies greatly facilitates the work of children, accelerates the achievement of practical results, which greatly increases the interest in the lessons.
As methodically correctly to build a lesson on how to captivate a guys technique, as to awaken a strong interest in designing small cars as bare-nourish the adolescent spirit of creativity? How real is this idea in General: with the boys 7-8-9 grades to design a small car? Experience our laboratory gives the answer to these questions.
The typical path novice: one little micro-car all make a circle or even two circles. A group of guys job — goes home; come next. Depersonalization occurs: if something not work, tomorrow someone else will finish. No need to rummage in books and magazines, to observe, to experiment on the model. Kids don’t think, just do the job of the head, and then come up with a question: “what do we do now?”
They grow up to be good performers. This is the best. At worst, the boys gradually lost interest in the lessons: they leave the circle. And the head gains other — and history repeats itself. The car will be in the end ready, and will be at the show, and even get a certificate or diploma. And who is the head of the record constructor? Said, “Guys have built the car”. Right, built guys, but made his head.
We need to give opportunity for the children to choose what they would like to do: let will consider, will represent its future design, will discuss the ways of its manufacture.
We have not encouraged the desire to do things on a ready-made descriptions and drawings. The most interesting way from the “pictures”. There’s some kind of interesting photo, I liked the idea, and “stuffing” help yourself. Here the creativity of the present, fascinating.
But if the society decided to make a thing according to the drawings from magazines? Definitely recommend to any host he had done differently in their own way.
If you look at the diys in the laboratory, the impression is that they duck someone somewhere made, described and known to us, adults. But let’s not forget: in the laboratory, each facility designs and manufactures adolescents. Yes, someone did such a thing, but for a member of the society for the first time. For a teenager his thing in his own Nova. No other way, otherwise may drop his hands: everything is open, everything has already been invented…
The basis of the laboratory’s work is based on the principle of collective creativity, in line with the modern requirements of science and technology, when it is impossible to solve any serious problems. One society, even passionate and creative, will do the design for a long time, and its own level certainly overtake the growth of his craft, and the guy might lose interest in the subject of design.
But it is bad and when one design makes the whole circle. In this case, the division into active and passive guys. The head, of course, unable to pay attention to everyone. More numerous are passive, some guys starts to leave the band. The way out of this situation — the organization of groups of 2 — 3 people.
These groups of guys with a common interest. They are either friends, or neighbors, or classmates, or just want to work on the same thing. Here they are “equal”, can consult and to argue, to compete with each other.
The guys from the very beginning it is necessary to clearly explain the main designers themselves, and the head of the consultant and by difficult technological operations.
Each group has a notebook in which they are working sketches of parts, assemblies, looking for the best options, comprehend and clarify the dimensions. In difficult cases, members may approach the head, and he shows how to perform a sketch that specifies the size, chooses the material. A small tip of the head allows the teenager to move on.
We almost every lesson for 15 — 20 minutes give the necessary theoretical information. Does the safety work on the machine and tool, machining technology, information about metals, required and available guys the simplest calculations details, the explanation of the structure and operation of the engine, adjustment of the individual components of it. Such conversations are a good organizing point: the guys try not to be late, gearing up for a serious job. This is especially important in the first year of classes.
On the second or third year the work becomes more complicated, it becomes more conscious, requires thinking, researching, individual solutions. One wants to speed up the engine, the other to do the electronic ignition, and the third to completely redo the front axle. In the laboratory creates a good creative atmosphere.
One of the most stressful stages of test design. This time is often found that much had to be done differently. A small example. Two of the girls who last year decided to make microntroller on the battery with the motor-wheel. Comfortable: no noise, no exhaust gas, no additional motors are all in the wheel. Looked for a suitable motor — nothing. All the anchor rotates inside the outer part is fixed, but we need the opposite.
Ran into ministarter scooter “Tula 200”. He has a rotating part on the outside, as required: put PA peg the wheel and drove off. However, doubt creeps in: is there enough power, torque? Sufficient. Engine hard though, and scrolls. Someone remembered that once saw a cargo scooter with a dead engine, left the dirt on the starter.
A year has passed. Microntroller did. Began to experience. Half an hour ride, motor too weak. Began to think what to do. Tried reducers, planetary gear — not something bulky and hard. And then one of the designers had an idea: what if the front wheel to provide the same motor? The thrust will increase, and after the dissolution of the second wheel can be off or set to economy mode. Scheme microntroller processed. It was already a real, meaningful development work.
We came to what psychologists say. Teen gets pleasure from the design process. he was pleased to find and implement some solution. And at first, the guys just come with a desire to do something. you then go. While I do my thing, this desire moves on to a new — to design and realize your ideas in metal. The goal of the teacher is reached.
What about the exhibitions? You can endlessly assemble and disassemble your design, each time making it something new. This is a creative work. Bad when over the guys constantly hanging sword of Damocles in the form of an obligation to finish it by a certain date. Albeit hastily, but to get to the exhibition.
Someday you guys will still finish the design, then it is possible for a show to build on the success and receive recognition. And that the laboratory could participate in exhibitions of technical creativity, and other public events regularly, you need to work on a broad front. From a large number of diys is always possible to choose several designs worthy ” to become exhibits.
We deem it expedient to give the opportunity primarily to design, invent, and sharpening, sawing and drilling metal guys let them learn in the process of practical work. You can sometimes give the teenager finished part to save time. And then there is the question of the necessity of the transfer of young technicians charged parts of vehicles. Written off scooters, “quilted” from helicopters, motorized wheelchairs, etc. required. There is no need to ask for all the written off “Volga” or “Moskvich”, but without the parts such as the seats, the front, different buttons, cables, arms. not enough young designers.
We take in the lab since the seventh grade, when children will learn little in school to work with tools and machines. To 10 th grade teen manages to make the circle in 2 — 3 things. Such work will bring more good than if all 3 years he’s going to perform monotonous operations. Where do these diys? Because in five years they will accumulate in the circle so that the place would be nowhere.
Recently, the school teacher avtodelo, looked at our “farm” and said: “And could you do with the boys little cars and provide them to us for practical learning of traffic rules? We have a GAZ-51, educational “Moskvich”, but it would be nice to have small cars”.
He invited a group of guys wanting to do this thing: let the kids during the classroom work come to CUT doing here mikroavtomobili, and estimates for the work he is going to run, coming in CUT himself and watching the guys working on the place. The teacher realized that children will receive knowledge and skills more than the classroom work, and boldly decided to take this step.
This case once again confirmed a very promising idea: the ability to use infantile crafts for the practical needs of schools, different groups — for example, avtodela.
In some places in the country have already started to build the so-called “towns of GAI” — in parks, go-cart where kids learn the wisdom of traffic. On any vacant lot can be laid track, installed signs prohibiting .overtaking, warning of danger. The guys in the helmets, on their homemade go around the track. Broke the rules down, read. Pleasant is combined with useful.
Good for these runs the car “buggy”: sprung chassis, engine, strong brakes. the body, the simplest form of in the form of grazebrook and arcs in the event of a rollover. In our lab guys develop and produce several of these “buggy” with engines of 150 cm3 (“Vyatka-150-M”) and 200 cm3 (“Tula-200M”). They can even arrange crosses, and go-cart construction is not necessary. Any vacant lot, slope — best place for it. So there is what to do with handmade. Such arrangement will certainly contribute to the education of sustainable interest in the technology.
No matter what design in the lab: car, airplane, tractor or a blimp. It is important that this subject engaged, done with interest, creative.
V. TAMBOVTSEV, head of laboratory
design of compact machines
Cute Novosibirsk Akademgorodok