THE VICTORY OF REASON27 August 1957 the world has heard the TASS report about the successful test in the Soviet Union the first ever multi-stage Intercontinental ballistic missile. And on September 17 of that year at the solemn meeting in the House of Unions, devoted to the 100 anniversary from the birthday of the founder of theoretical cosmonautics K. E. Tsiolkovsky, with a large presentation was made by corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences S. P. Korolev. His name then did not say anything to the masses, except that the veterans recalled the newspaper line distant times of rapid development of Soviet gliding.

Particularly struck then the hearers of the word that in the near future in the USSR for scientific purposes will be made the first test launches of artificial Earth satellites that the Soviet scientists are working on many new challenges of rocketry. As priority issues Sergei Pavlovich called the sending unit on the moon and circled her, flying into space, deep space research. Few knew that the means to address some of these issues already established that they is a multistage ballistic missile and the speaker, telling about the importance of creativity of K. E. Tsiolkovsky, her chief designer, and his “fantastic” speech — this is a real program next time.
The missile was in all respects a qualitative leap in the development of rocket technology, the progenitor of its new branch — the space.
And S. P. Korolev not only knew that this missile as the launch vehicle of the satellite is already preparing for the historic launch scheduled for October 4. He believed in the unique potential of this machine, the creation of which was invested in the talent and labor of many thousands of groups from many areas of science, technology and industry, organized and directed by the Communist party to exploit, opening to mankind a completely new inexhaustible field of activity.
Done! The human mind defied the forces of nature and won the greatest victory: in orbit the first artificial Earth satellite!
He appeared above the planet October 4, 1957, on the eve of the 40th anniversary of the October revolution. Amazed world watched him, fascinated I listened to his call sign “beep…beep…beep” and never ceased to wonder at him as a miracle. The wave of enthusiasm was rolling over the planet.
Artificial Earth satellite (AES) started its cosmic journey from the Baikonur cosmodrome, which in those days was not yet known worldwide.
1—fairing (beech, birch), 2 — piston (ebonite), 3 — parachute, 4 — parachute container (paper), 5 — cylinder (paper), 6 — retarder of the second stage engine, a 7 — figure frame (PCB), 8 — microsociety the second stage engine, 9 — the case of the second stage (paper), 10—frame (Linden), 11 — tourniquet rubber (4 pieces), 12 steel axle Ø 0,5, 13— stabilizer bracket (4 pieces — pine) 14 — pen stabilizer (4 PCs organic glass), 15 — piotrowska (paper), 16 — the case of the first stage (paper), 17 — parachute container (2 — paper), 18 — parachute of the first stage (2), 19 — wad (2 — wool), 20 — retarder of the first stage engine, 21 — microsociety engine, 22—cups (paper), 23 — frame (cardboard), 24 — skirt (paper), 25 — stabilizer (4 PCs organic glass), a 26 — gas rudders (4 PCs of black color PCB), 27 — a support (4 PCs — lime), 28 — axis of the gas rudder (4 PCs — STL ), 29 — a connecting node (4 PCs PCB), 30 farm (10 triangles — locking wire Ø 1), 31 — wiring box (3 pieces — Board), 32 antenna (2 — wire Ø 0,5), 33 — emblem of the USSR (from both sides, applique), 34 Luc instrument compartment (paper). The inscription “USSR” and the outlines of the letters of the inscription “COSMOS” red color is applied on both sides.
Fig. 2. The first artificial satellite of the Earth.
Fig. 2. The first artificial Earth satellite.
The Soviet satellites were spherical in shape (Fig. 2). This ensured constancy of the resistance of the atmosphere in any orientation relative to the direction of motion.
The satellite was placed in front of the booster was covered by a protective cone, which prevented him from aerodynamic and thermal effects during the passage of the dense layers of the atmosphere. After the end of the work of engines of the launch vehicle’s protective cone was dropped satellite under the action of a special pusher was separated from the rocket and started an independent flight in orbit.
Sealed enclosure consisted of two thin-walled paleobiologic (joined during Assembly) made of aluminum alloys. Its surface was polished and subjected to special treatment. The diameter of a satellite was equal to 580 mm, weight 83,6 kg. Inside was a radio with power supply. Outside was hinged antenna — two rods with a length of 2.4 m and two 2.9 m.
The satellite was equipped with two radio transmitter continuously radiating signals 20,005 and 40,002 MHz, which was used to monitor the orbital parameters and to study the passage of radio waves in the ionosphere.
Orbit the first artificial satellite was represented by an ellipse. The maximum distance from the surface of the Earth at apogee amounted to 947 km, a minimum at the perigee of 228 km and the orbital Period was equal 96,17 min orbit Plane was inclined to the plane of the equator at an angle of 65.1°.
As a result of observing the movement of the first artificial Earth satellite and check numerous of these measurements was obtained information that scientists of exceptional value. The global results of observation showed good agreement between the calculated and experimental data. Flying sweep, the pioneer of the cosmos with astronomical precision appeared at the specified time on the specified areas of the globe. The lengthy and careful analysis of the orbital flight, gave the opportunity to present the evolution of the orbital parameters of the satellite and to obtain information on the density of the upper atmosphere.
Of great importance was the observation of the passage of radio waves radiated by the transmitters of the satellite. Before the launch of the first artificial satellite in our knowledge of the ionosphere is enriched by the study of radio waves transmitted from Earth and reflected by the ionosphere. Companion, running through the different areas of the upper atmosphere and constantly supplying radio signals of different frequencies, as would doing a report on her condition and properties.
For scientists, this was one of the most interesting stories, which lasted for 92 days. During this time, the space Explorer has made 1400 revolutions around the Earth and flew about 600 million km.
A month after the launch of the first artificial satellite the world got the news about the new achievement of our science and technology — the launch of the second satellites (Fig. 3). On Board were a space traveller — the dog Laika. Sputnik represented the last stage of the carrier rocket. Weight scientific apparatus, power sources, radio and the container with the dog was 508,3 kg. the Second satellite was moving at a more eccentric orbit and the apogee reached a height of 1671 km. at 2370 orbits around the planet and flew over 162 days, until April 14, 1958.
Fig. 3. The scheme of placing the equipment on the second artificial Earth satellite
Fig. 3. The scheme of placing the equipment on the second artificial Earth satellite:
1 — protective cone discharged after the launch of Sputnik into orbit, 2 — instrument to study the ultraviolet and x-ray radiation of the Sun, 3 — a spherical container with equipment and radio transmitters, 4 — power frame mounting hardware, 5 — hermetic cabin with experimental animals.

Fig. 4. Diagram of the scientific equipment of the third artificial Earth satellite
Fig. 4. Diagram of the scientific equipment of the third artificial Earth satellite:
1 — magnetometer, 2 — photomultipliers for the registration of corpuscular solar radiation, 3 — solar panels, 4 — a device for recording photons in cosmic rays, 5 — magnetic and ionization manometers, 6 — ion trap, 7 — electrostatic fluxmetry, 8 — mass spectrina tube, 9 — device for the registration of heavy nuclei in cosmic rays, 10 — device for measuring the intensity of primary cosmic radiation, 11 — sensors for registration of micrometeors.

In 1958, the world has entered in the light of two Soviet stars two of the world’s first artificial celestial bodies shining over our planet. And may 15 in earth orbit was launched the third Soviet satellite (Fig. 4). It was a flying laboratory weighing 1327 kg, with a complex of the scientific equipment. She made his rapid flight along the orbit, very close to the orbit of the second satellite, rising to the climax at the height of 1881 km away. the Third Soviet Sputnik was spinning over our planet for almost two years — for 692 days, making 10 037 revs.
With the first three Soviet satellites, scientists have obtained valuable data on the density, pressure and composition of the upper atmosphere, conducted the first study of the magnetic field of the Earth away from its surface, the radiation belts, meteoric danger. The results of this research have greatly changed the idea of the near-earth space.
The first artificial celestial body, was the beginning of a new era in the study of the Universe. But they just lifted the veil over the whole ocean of scientific secrets stored vast expanses of space. After that it was the satellites of series “Cosmos” and other near-earth explorers, the interplanetary probe sent to the moon, Venus and Mars. In the fourth year of the space age have been in space the first Earthling — the Soviet people, loyal son of our Motherland Yuri Gagarin. Then natmosphere space stormed on the “East”, “Sunrise” and “Unions” of many Soviet cosmonauts. Was the months-long flights on orbital space stations “Salyut”. But for the first time in the space left by a small metal ball…
Today, the space serves firmly to the national economy. Soviet scientists has created a range of companions who work for the benefit of our people. This hour on planet bear watch meteorological satellites “meteor” satellites “Lightning”, “Screen”, “rainbow”, satellites helping to search of minerals and environmental protection.
Over the past twenty years in earth orbit and interplanetary route we took around 1200 spacecraft with scientific equipment. Automatic scouts of the universe infinitely extended the boundaries of human knowledge. Immensely enriched science with new information about our Earth, about space, about planets of the solar system and about distant stellar worlds.
The material was prepared by V. SPARROW, I. MERKULOV

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